Birth of primitive art 2: Opening of glacial epoch fine arts


 ビーナス,A female head, France, Venus of Brassempouy

< A female head, France, 25000 years before, ivory, 4 cm height >

Movable property fine arts appeared suddenly in frigid Europe.

 We see about the typical Venus statue.

極寒のヨーロッパに突如として動産美術が作られ始めた。

 代表的なビーナス像について見る。

  

< A valley of the Chauvet Cave >

氷河期地図,The ruins map, glacial epoch, Europe, 10,000 ~40,000 years ago   

< The ruins map of glacial epoch Europe, 10,000 ~40,000 years ago >

 Many of the cave paintings were painted inside of the limestone cave that sunlight doesn’t reach.

 Many of the caves were in the ravine.

 They were near by the way that the reindeer carries out seasonal migration.

 Many animals drank water at the nearby place.

 People hunted these animals, fished or collected, and lived on the entrance of a cave and a rock shadow.

 From 3 million years ago, the glacial epoch began and it was most cool from 120000 years ago to 40000 years ago.

 Northern Europe and the Alps were covered with the glacier at this time.

 Since a sea surface lowered, there was no sea between England and Scandinavian Peninsula.

 The areas other than the prairie zone in the Mediterranean and the glacier were covered with ice and snow (step, tundra), and the mammoth was walking there in winter.

 

 

洞窟絵画の多くはカルスト地形の鍾乳洞内で、光りが届かない奥深くに描かれた。

 その多くは河谷沿いの山肌の横穴で、季節移動するトナカイの通り道や動物の水飲み場に近かった。

人々はそれら動物の狩猟と漁労採集を行い、洞窟の入り口や岩陰で暮らしていた。

300万年前から氷河期が進行し、4万年前から1万2千年前にかけて最も寒冷化した。

この時、ヨーロッパ北部とアルプスは氷河に覆われており、海面が下がりイングランドやスカンジナビア半島の間には海はなかった。

地中海側の草原地帯と氷河以外の地域は氷雪(ステップとツンドラ)に覆われ、冬にはマンモスが闊歩していた。

 

ビ-ナス,Venus, Dolní Věstonice 、Willendorf、nebra

< Venus statue >

Fig.1: Czechoslovakia, 29000 years ago, a calcination clay, 11 cm height

Fig.2: Germany, 25000 years ago, a limestone, 11 cm height  

Fig.3: Germany, 15000 years ago, a horn, 6~10 cm height  

 

First, Movable property fine arts appeared first and a group of the Venus statue of them is impressive.

 The statues of about 60 were excavated in the large area from France in the west to eastern Russia in the east.

 The oldest thing is the female statue group made from ivory about 35000 years ago.

 It has the common feature with a big breast and abdomen, and its height is from 6 to 15 cm.

 Fig. 1, the Venus statue has a special meaning. From these ruins, many calcination clay images some animal and ball is also found.

 A remarkable point is that they are the products made from clay calcinated at low temperature, therefore it hints at the forerunner of making earthenware.

 This probably shows that the life changed from continuation of movement to seasonal stay.

 Fig. 2, the Venus statue emphasizes a buttock, an abdomen, and a breast with a typical spindle type, and although the face is omitted, it displays the private parts.

 This is associated with a hand ax of stone tool and the symmetrical design is beauty.

They emphasized the generative functions. This reason probably was that they associated the childbirth with the fertility.

 This became a forerunner of many symbols on the world.

 The female head image made from ivory was found in a cave about 25000 years ago (the first Fig.).

 Although the mouth is omitted, its eyes and the nose are clarity, and it is covered with the hair or a hood.

 

 

図1: チェコ、29000年前、焼成粘土、高さ11cm。

図2: ドイツ、25000年前、石灰岩、高さ11cm。

図3: ドイツ、15000年前、角、高さ6~10cm。

 

最初に現れたのは動産美術で、印象深いのはビーナス像の一群です。

西はフランスから東はロシア東部に至る広い地域で約60点出土している。

最古層は35000年前頃に作られた象牙製の女性像群で、高さは6~15cmで、大きな乳房と腹部を持つ共通の特徴がある。

図1、ビーナス像には特別の意味があり、この遺跡からは多くの動物像や焼成粘土の球も見つかっている。

注目点はビーナス像が低温で焼成された粘土製であり、土器作りの先駆けを匂わす。

これはそれまでの移動中心から長期の季間滞在に移行した可能性を示している。

図2、ビーナス像は、典型的な紡錘型で臀部、腹部、乳房を強調し、顔は省略されているが陰部を表示する特徴がある。

これはハンドアックス(握斧)を連想させ、左右対称の美が感じられる。

これら生殖機能を強調したのは、出産から連想される豊穣祈願と考えられ、後に出現する地球上の多くのシンボルの先駆けとなった。

25000年前の洞窟から象牙製の女性頭部像が見つかった(最初の図)。

口は省略されているが目鼻が克明で、頭には頭髪か頭巾で覆われている。

 

ビーナスの浮き彫り,Venus, Laussel, France, Relief

< Relief of Venus, France,25000 years ago, a limestone wall, 44 cm height >

 The same time as this, the relief of Venus was discovered in a rock shadow of the valley near famous Lascaux Cave.

 It had a horn of a bison in one hand.

 The red ground (Ocher) is applied to that surface.

 There are 13 ruled lines in the horn, and I think that it is a calendar or some days.

 Fig. 3, a female statue made from the reindeer horn at 15000 years ago in northeast Germany.

 This statue became last female image and they weren’t made again.

 This emphasizes a buttock and is a simple design with the cylindrical upper half of the body.

 I seems that this was the pendant or putting in the bag.

 In this way the female statues of origin fine arts came into the world。

 Through the time of 20,000 years, it became simple carrying arts from the precious thing that emphasizes fertility.

 

Probably, they had the value as accessories or fetish.

 

 

 

これと同じ時期、ラスコー洞窟近くの河谷の岩陰にビーナス(上記図)が彫られ、バイソンの角を片手に持っている。

表面には赤い土(オーカー)が塗られて、この角には13本の刻線があり、何か暦か日数を示している。

そして最後を飾るのが、東北ドイツで見つかった15000年前のトナカイ角製の図3、女性像です。

これは臀部を強調し上半身が棒状のシンプルなデザインで、ペンダントか袋に入れて用いられたようだ。

このようにして原初美術の女性像は花開き、やがて2万年の時を経て、豊穣を強調する貴重なものから簡易な携行品となった。

 

それらは装飾品か呪物としての価値を持っていたのだろう

 

 

 

 

Categories: culture+society, history+evolution, <english language, <japanese language, opinion, Series: Birth of primitive art | Tags: , , , | Leave a comment

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