Misunderstanding of war 2 : the First Sino-Japanese War 2


 

 the Ganghwa Island incident , the First Sino-Japanese War,江華島事件

< the Ganghwa Island incident was a trigger of the First Sino-Japanese War, Wikipedia >

This time, I look at the beginning of the Sino-Japanese War from the Korean Peninsula side.

 

Many Japanese will regard that the First Sino-Japanese War and the Russo-Japanese War have slightly involved with the Korean Peninsula.

However, they were receiving interference and domination from Japan government for 70 years.

The beginning of this war is the Ganghwa Island incident in 1875.

This exchange of gunfire began with the provocative action to require opening of Korean ports.

Thereby, the defeated Korea is made to conclude an unequal treaty with Japan and European and American etc., respectively.

Those days, the Korean dynasty continued no less than 480 years. Some problems of the dynasty were social stagnation, internal dispute, and correspondence to great powers.

The coups d’etat of the nobility or the peasantry had occurred frequently. 

Japan and Qing came to stay on according to the request of Korea and ceased to return.

The peasantry ‘s coup d’etat happened in the spring of 1994.It knows as the Donghak Peasant Revolution.

The Korean government, which couldn’t repress the coup d’etat, requested sending troops to Qing.

Soon Japan also sent troops.

Although the Korean government asked both countries for withdrawal, it was refused.

Then, Japan occupied the king’s palace on July, and made a puppet government that is a pro-Japanese and a civilization group.

In this way, the First Sino-Japanese War started and was the end of the war in next year April.

The peasantry returned each region, and the new government advanced some reforms.

However, when interference of Japan became intense, the peasantry took action on “anti-Japan, anti- civilization” again.

 

今回、私は日清戦争の始まりを朝鮮半島側から見ます。

 

多くの日本人は日清戦争と日露戦争だけが朝鮮半島と少し関わったと思っている。しかし彼らは日本から70年間、干渉と支配を受けたのです 

ことの始まりは1875年(明治8年)の江華島事件です。これは日本が開港を迫るための挑発行為から始まった砲撃戦でした。これにより敗れた朝鮮は日本、欧米等と不平等条約を締結させられることになりました。

当時、朝鮮王朝は480年も続いていた。問題は社会停滞、朝廷内部抗争、迫る列強対応であった。両班や農民のクーデターは頻発していました。

日清両国が朝鮮側の要請に応じて派兵し居座るようになりました。

94年春、官吏の腐敗と農民への重税に反発した農民蜂起が起こりました( 甲午農民戦争=東学党の乱)。

鎮圧に手を焼いた朝鮮政府は清国に派遣を要請した。すると日本も軍隊を送り込んで来た。

韓国政府は両国に撤退を求めたが拒否された。

そこで日本は、7月、王宮を占領して親日で開化派の傀儡政権を樹立させた。こうして日清戦争は始まり、翌年4月終戦となる。

農民は地方に返り、いくらか新しい政府による改革も進んだ。しかし日本の干渉が激しくなると再度農民は「反日反開化」に立ち上がった。

 

 

東学党の乱,the Donghak Peasant Revolution

< the Donghak Peasant Revolution >

The allied forces of Japan and a puppet government swept this action away.

The sacrifice of this farmer army is called tens of thousands.

Also one year afterward, the Korean public and the farmer’s coup d’etat occurred, and were suppressed.

In the meantime, Japan promoted Korean modernization forcibly. 

On the other hand, interference in domestic affairs was legalized and the rights of the railroad and the telegraph line were acquired.

Korea was made to consent to make the utmost effort for food reservation of a Japanese army. 

Russia and great powers interfere with Japan, and the Russo-Japanese War (1904~1905) soon started. 

After the Russo-Japanese War, Japan made Korea the protectorate of Japan. And Korea afresh was merged into Japan in 1910.

The Korean governor-general’s office was established, and the full-scale colonial policy started.

 

 

これを日本と傀儡政権の連合軍が掃討した。この農民軍の犠牲は数万と言われている。

1年後にも韓国の大衆と農民の義兵闘争が起き、また制圧された。

この間に日本は朝鮮の近代化を強引に推進した。一方で内政干渉を合法化し、鉄道及び電信線の利権を獲得した。日本軍の糧食確保のために最大限の努力をすることを了承させた。

ロシアと列強は日本に干渉し、やがて日露戦争(1904~1905年)につながっていくことになる。

日露戦争後、日本は朝鮮を保護国とし、さらに1910年には併合し、朝鮮総督府が設置され、本格的な植民地政策が始まった。

 

,植民地の鉄道網 ,The network of railroads of colonial days

< The network of railroads of colonial days http://www.cinema-indies.co.jp/ecchan/harubin.html >

In 1919, Japan acquired the Manchuria Railway from Russia. And a military unit that guards the railway became independent.

In 1932, this staff officer schemed without permission and made Manchukuo of puppet government here.  In this way, the expansion of the occupation was repeated. 

In 1937, near Beijing, beginning with a trifling firefight, the Sino-Japanese War happened.

In this way, over 70 years, Japan advanced from landing Korean Peninsula to Sino-Japanese War and the Pacific War. 

In the meantime, Korea continued being a base of munitions of war, food supply, and soldier’s supply.

 

Speaking in the extreme, it seem that the military began this war and the government followed from after that.

  

 

1919年にロシアから獲得した満州鉄道を守備する部隊が独立した。1932年に、この参謀らが独走し、傀儡の満州国を成立させた。こうして占領の拡大は繰り返された。

1937年、北京近くで、またも些細な銃撃戦が発端となって中国との戦争が始まった。70年かけて, 日本は朝鮮半島上陸から太平洋戦争へと進んだ。この間、朝鮮は軍需物資、食料調達、人員確保の要地であり続けたのです。

 

極端に言えば、この戦争は軍部が始め、その後から政府がついて行ったように思える。

 

 

 

 

 

 

Categories: history+evolution, <english language, <japanese language, opinion, politics, Series: misunderstanding of war | Tags: , , , , | 4 Comments

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4 thoughts on “Misunderstanding of war 2 : the First Sino-Japanese War 2

  1. おはようございます。改めて勉強になりました、Facebookの友人にも、知って欲しいのでシェアさせていただきます。

  2. いつもありがとうございます。

  3. Very interesting, i thoroughly enjoyed the history shared!

  4. Thank you for having interest in my article. I looked at your blog. Your poetry that praises “God” and “living” is wonderful.

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