Misunderstanding of war 5: President Hitler’s birth 1


 

< Hitler >

This time, we look at the background in which Hitler comes into power. And we can understand  that a Democracy society even becomes a dictatorship in a short period of time.

In Germany, would Hitler’s only speech make dictatorship possible?  Or would the people desire a dictator?

From the 19th to 20th century, and the big stream was boiling society. European powers manipulated the satellite country into fighting for the self-determination of peoples in the colony, and Russia similarly did in the Balkan Peninsula. Furthermore, the communism bloomed and the Communist Party revolution occurred in Russia. Europe was afraid of this dictatorship. 

At this time, military alliance, war, communism, and ethnic movement swept across Europe.

  

 

今回はヒトラーが政権を握る経緯を追い、民主制社会が如何に短期間で独裁制に以降するかを見ます。

ドイツにおいて、ヒトラーの弁舌が独裁を可能にしたのでしょうか。それとも民衆が独裁者を望んだのでしょうか。

19~20世紀にかけて、大きな潮流が社会を沸騰させていた。欧州の列強は植民地で、ロシアはバルカン半島で、民族独立を餌に味方に引き入れ戦わせた。さらに共産主義が開花し、ロシアでは共産党革命が起きた。欧州はこの独裁政体を恐怖した。この時代のヨーロッパは軍事同盟と戦争、共産主義、民族運動が沸騰していた。

 

< World War I >

England, France and Russia formed an alliance against Germany that did growing military power, and there were in stressful situations. World War I occurred in Europe and Russia from 1914 to 1918 years.

While the war, Germany fought on both sides of France and Russia, and was just all-out war. The industrial production fell to the half before a start, and the dead amounted to 1,800,000 people. The revolution occurred during the war, the fire was ceased and the imperial government collapsed. The Weimar Republic by a socialist political party was born in 1919.

German economy became a bottom by healing the wounds of the war, and the industrial stagnation. Furthermore, Germany was imposed on the immense compensation. Moreover, Germany was ceded a part of mineral lands and the heavy industry area of the east-and-west border and was occupied. Austria was also separated. By the error of the financial policy, the inflation rate increased 300 billion times and the unemployment rate became 30%.

The German economy became the worst again when the Great Depression from the U.S. happened in 1929. It was in following year when a Nazi party held full powers. The republic government had lost support completely from people, as the central player who caused economic stagnancy and a humiliating capitulation.

 

軍事大国化するドイツ(プロシア)に対し、英仏露が同盟し、緊張状態になっていた。1914~1918年、ヨーロッパとロシアを巻き込む第一次世界大戦が起きました。

大戦中、ドイツはフランスとロシアの両側で闘い、まさに総力戦でした。工業生産は開始前の半分に落ち、死者は180万人に達した。戦争中、革命が起き、停戦し帝政は崩壊し、1919年に社会主義政党によるワイマール共和国が誕生した。

経済は戦後処理と産業停滞でどん底になった。さらに莫大な賠償金が課せられた。また東西国境の鉱山地帯や重工業地帯を一部占領と割譲させられた。オーストリアも分離した。金融政策の誤りにより、インフレ率は3000億倍になり、失業率は30%になった。

1929年に米国発の世界恐慌が起こると、ドイツ経済はまた最悪となった。ナチ党が全権掌握したのは次ぎの年であった。共和国政府は経済低迷と屈辱的な降伏を招いた当事者として、国民から完全に支持を失っていった。

 

< The map before and behind World War I >

The people have bore strongly anticommunism, rehabilitation to former glorious empire, and the hatred to the victorious nation. Therefore, the military authorities, a monopolist capitalist, and a feudal-lord aristocrat (Junker) who can oppose the external pressure were preserved. 

The above-mentioned conservative forces, communist forces, and the socialist forces that took charge of political power were violently opposed to each other. A coup d’etat, terrorism, assassination, and an armed clash had broken out in various places. Various sorts of volunteer army were born and the total numbers were over 100,000.

Bloody violence was overflowing in the city or the village. 

Next time, I will treat from the emergence of Hitler to Nazis autocracy.

政治の混迷も深まっていた。国民は反共産主義、栄光ある帝国への復権、戦勝国への憎悪を強く抱いた。ゆえに外圧に対抗できる軍部、独占資本家、領主貴族は温存されていた。

上記の保守勢力と共産主義勢力、政権を担当した社会主義勢力が激しく対立した。各地でクーデター、テロ、暗殺、武力衝突が起きていた。総計何十万と言う義勇軍が生まれていた。都市や村落で血生臭い暴力が溢れていた。

次回は、ヒトラーの登場からナチス独裁までを扱います。

 

Categories: history+evolution, <english language, <japanese language, Series: misunderstanding of war | Tags: , , , | 2 Comments

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2 thoughts on “Misunderstanding of war 5: President Hitler’s birth 1

  1. This is a very important set of messages, and I look forward to the next post.

  2. thank you for comment.

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