Misunderstanding of war 10: Uncivilized war


 アフリカの牛牧畜民,cattle herder of Africa

< cattle herder of Africa、They are not the people of this article. >

We have so far seen a large-scale war.

There, soldiers’ face cannot be seen, and complicated social circumstances twined around the war

We are hard to see the actual condition of war.

This time, we look at small-scale war and some uncivilized wars. Feeling and a desire have come out plainly there.

 

これまでに大規模な戦争の流れを見てきました。

そこでは兵士達の顔が見えず、複雑な社会状況が絡まり、戦争の実態が見にくい。

今回は、小規模で未開社会の戦いを見ます。そこでは感情や欲望が露骨に出ています

We look at some Wars of people of a preliterate society who live in the savanna in Africa and the jungle in New Guinea or South America.

The cattle herders of African savanna sometimes cause war of cow pillage.

If serious dryness come every about 20 years, there were that the number of cow in a village will decrease sharply.

Then, the villager asks an attacked village to a shaman and according to the fortune-telling, tens of adult men sortie with a spear.

The village is attacked, all cows in the village are pillaged, and almost all village people are massacred.

アフリカのサバンナ、ニューギニアや南米のジャングルに暮らす無文字社会の人々の戦争を見る。

アフリカ・サバンナのある牛牧畜民は牛略奪の戦争を起こすことがある。

約20年毎に深刻な乾燥が訪れると、村の牛の頭数が激減する。

すると皆は呪術者に襲うべき村を尋ね、その占いに従って数十人の成人男子は槍を持って出撃する。

その村は襲われ、総べての牛が略奪され、村民はほとんど皆殺しにされた。

 

ニューギニア先住民、indigenous people in New Guinea

< indigenous people in New Guinea, They are not the people of this article. >

We look at the War of the Marine people who perform slash-and-burn and breeding of a pig in the New Guinea highland. The scale of a village is hundreds.

Poaching, theft of crops, and a woman’s kidnapping happen between villages, and if the dissatisfaction accumulates, it becomes war soon. 

At first, the men have a pavis and a bow and arrows and gather.

They line up side by side and confront each village’s member within gunshot distance, and the arrow of each other is shot. This is repeated during several weeks.

When they have not a settlement yet, they construct a row with a spear or an ax, and do a duel with one-on-one from the front, and one by one each goes a back of the row.

This may continue several months. And an armistice may be concluded for field labor. 

The stage bring more deaths is an attack. A village is attacked, fire is released and a villager is slaughtered indiscriminately.

The surviving villager flees. The house and field of the village are destroyed thoroughly and a cemetery is soiled.

ニューギニア高地の焼畑農耕と豚の飼養を行うマリン族の戦争を見る。村の規模は数百名である。

集団の間で密猟、作物の窃盗、女性の誘拐が起こり,不満が溜まると戦争を行う。

最初は、約束の場所に大盾と弓矢を持って集まり、射程内に横一列で対峙し、お互い矢を射る。これを数週間繰り返すことになる。

これで解決しない時、投げ槍や斧を持ち縦列を組み、前列から一対一の決闘を行い、順次後方と交代する。

これは数ヶ月続くことがある。畑仕事の為に休戦することもある。

もっとも死者が多い段階は襲撃で、村を襲い、火を放ち、村人を無差別に殺戮する。

生き残った村人は遁走する。その村の家屋と畑を徹底的に破壊し、墓地を汚す。

 

ヤノマミ族,Yanomami people

< Yanomami people >

They live in the jungle with slash-and-burn and hunting and gathering in Brazil.

The village was usually connected with trade.

Occasionally, a banquet is performed and the village in alliance is invited.

A trouble may happen by the dissatisfaction of food or a present, etc., and it may develop into “a duel of striking each breast.”

In front of everybody, each men go an open space from both sides, a man hold both arms behind one’s back, and projected his breast.

A man knocks a rival breast by his fist at full power. This is performed until either falls down. There are not the dead.

Subsequently, there is “battle of a heavy stick.”

Two men alternately knock each head with a heavy stick about 3 m length.

Since one side carries out bloodshed and falls down, both sides start to battle. If there is the death, it will develop into “an attack. 

If it is a case of other villages, about ten persons’ party will waylay on outskirts of the village at midnight. The raiding party kills one person, and withdraws quickly.

War of the last stage is ” a deceptive attack”.  They fake out the enemy and invite them to a banquet.

These indigenous people’s war is old and is not in present time.

彼らはブラジルのジャングルで、焼畑農耕と狩猟採集で暮らしている。村は平時において交易で結ばれている。

時折、饗宴が行われ、同盟関係にある村が招待される。

食物や贈り物への不満などでいざこざが起こり、「胸叩きの決闘」に発展することがある。

皆の前で、双方から男が一人づつ、広場に進み出て、両手を後ろに組んで胸を突き出す。

片方が、拳骨で全力を込めて胸を殴る、これをどちらかが倒れるまで行う。死者が出ることはない。

次いで「棍棒の戦い」がある。順番に、二人が長さ3mほどの棍棒で脳天をなぐりあう。

一方が流血して倒れると、双方を支持する集団どおしの闘いになり、死者が出ると、「襲撃」に発展する。

他村の場合であれば、十数人の襲撃隊が深夜村はずれで待ち伏せする。だれか一人を殺して、すばやく撤退する。

最終戦争は前述の「だまし討ち」で、敵をいつわり饗宴に招き、多数を撲殺し、敵の女性は戦利品として分配する。

これら先住民の戦争は古いもので、現在の話ではありません。

In this way, when we look at war of a primitive society, there are some common features.

  • The beginning war is formalized, and there are little casualties and damage.
  • However, when casualties come out, it may escalate.
  • If it escalates, a brake will not be effective against slaughter or pillage.
  • The men become violent in the society where the battle is becoming commonplace.  

 

Human beings have accumulated the culture that reduces theft, homicide and revenge, etc. leading to a conflict.

We experienced both the great wars in the 20th century, and did we study the devices for reducing the war?

こうして未開社会の戦争を見ると、いくつかの共通点がある。 

  • 初期の戦闘は形式化されており、死傷者や被害が少ないようになっている。
  • しかし、死傷者が出るとエスカレートしてしまうことがある。
  • エスカレートしてしまうと、殺戮や略奪に歯止めが効かない。
  • 戦闘が常態化している社会では、男は暴力的である。

 

人類は、紛争原因になる窃盗、殺人、復讐などを減らす文化を蓄積して来た。 

同様に20世紀の両大戦を踏まえ、戦争を減らす工夫を施している。

 

Categories: culture+society, history+evolution, <english language, <japanese language, opinion, Series: misunderstanding of war | Tags: , , , , | Leave a comment

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