despair6の選挙:非常に悪い政治文化4


国会議事堂,The parliament house of each country 

< The parliament house of each country >

Last time, we looked at situation that people quickly abandoned the Cabinet that had been selected by the election.

It was much different from Japan that the situations of European and American advanced nations and a neighboring nation.

In this time and next time, I will explain the cause comparing with overseas situations.

 

Conspicuous election situations in Japan   (legislative elections)  

  •      Dissipated political parties likely fog:  After the war, the political parties that exceed 50  was born and disappeared, and 14 political parties have seats now. These many will also disappear soon in several years.
  •      The seats of political parties are reversed on each elections:  2009 years and 2012 years in the Lower House election, it was greatly reversed the standings between the ruling and opposition parties. 
  •     Declining turnout of voters:  in the Lower House election, the turnout is 92% in 1917, 75% in 1955, and 59% in 2012. This shows decreasing trend.
  •     Increasing independents of voters:  they are increasing from 10% in 1960s to 50% in 2012 years.

These weaken political power and become a serious obstacle for reorganizing the stagnant society and economy of Japan. 

Has this problem arises in European and American advanced nations.

 

What are as the difference between Japan and the West, or its background factor?

 

 

前回は、選挙で選んだ内閣に対して国民が短期間で興ざめする状況を見ました。

それは欧米先進国や隣国とかなり異なるものでした。

今回と次回で、その原因を海外と比較しながら探ります。

 

日本の目立つ選挙状況 (国会選挙)

  • 降って湧く政党 :戦後、生まれて消えていった政党は50を越え、現在14の政党が議席を持つ。これらの多くもやがて数年で消えるだろう.
  • 選挙毎に大きく逆転する議席 : 衆院選2009年、2012年で大きく与野党が逆転した。
  • 低迷続ける投票率 : 衆院選1917年92%、1955年75%、2012年59%となり低下傾向。
  • 増加する無党派層 : 1960年代10%から2012年50%へと増加傾向。

これらは政治力を弱くし、沈滞した日本の社会経済を立て直すには大きくマイナスとなる。

この問題は欧米先進国に起こっているのだろうか?

日本と欧米との違いやその背景には何があるのだろうか?

 

英国政党得票率,UK general election vote share and resultant governments

< UK general election vote share and resultant governments(1950-2010), blue=conservative, red=labour, yellow=liberal, gray=others >

 Party support increasingly has dispersed widely during the past 20 years. When they did not unite in 2010, the handling of the government by them became impossible.

 In past days, the ruling and opposition parties have changed as the two-party system in each about ten years.

 Differing from Japan, the third party is growing throughout several decades.

 

ここ20年ほどで政党支持が分散する傾向に拍車がかかり、2010年には連合しないと政権運営が出来なくなった。

以前は二大政党制で大凡10年毎に与野党が交代して政権を担っていた。

それでも日本と異なるのは、第三政党が数十年をかけて育っていることです。

 

ドイツ政党議席数,Historic seat distribution in the German Bundestag

< Historic seat distribution in the German Bundestag(1949-2009), black=CDU/CSU, red=SPD, yellow=FDP、green=Green、gray=others >

In 1983 years, the Green Party made an advance into parliament. Since then it became 4 party system. And the left-wing party was added in 2005. Since then it became 5 party system.

Germany adopts a proportional representation and combines first past the post system with it.

From a bitter experience with the presence of small political parties that became a hotbed on which Nazis gain power, if new party did not exceed 5 percent of the votes, cannot acquire the seat for Parliament. 

But the presence of small political parties is becoming remarkable also here.

 

1983年、緑の党が議会進出し4党制となり、2005年には左翼党が加わり5党体制となった。

ドイツは比例代表制(小選挙区併用)だが、ナチス台頭の温床になった小政党乱立の苦い経験から得票率が5%を越えないと国会に議席を得られないようにしている。

しかし、ここでも小政党氾濫が顕著になりつつある。

ギリシャ政党得票数,in Greece, voter support for parties and annual change in GDP

< in Greece, voter support for parties and annual change in GDP >

 We look at Greek politics that is confused at a breath, depending on falling into the economic crisis.

 The beginning was the change of power in October 2009, and budget deficit that was hidden by the old government was revealed.

 It developed into the big issue that involved in EU from the middle of 2010.

 13 political parties fought in the election in April 2012.

 The radical leftist alliance that was small political parties became the second party that has 52 seats in the parliament.

 ND (New Democratic) was a dominant party of 108 seats. The seats of the party are distributed much more to a higher rank of obtained votes.

 There were formerly in a two-party system of ND and Pasok (The Panhellenic Socialist Movement).

 

As a graph shows, the GDP falls rapidly, and the approval rating for two main political parties fall at a breath, and caused the presence of small political parties.

 

 

ここで経済危機に陥り、一気に政治が混迷したギリシャを見る。

発端は2009年10月の政権交代で、旧政府による財政赤字隠しが発覚し、2010年中頃よりEUを巻き込む大問題へと発展した。

2012年4月の選挙において13政党がしのぎを削り、少数政党だった急進派左派連合が52議席の第二党に躍り出た。ND(新民主主義党)が108議席の第一党。議席数は得票上位により多く配分されるシステムになっている。

従来はNDとPasok(全ギリシャ社会主義運動)の二大政党制だった。

グラフが示すように、GDPが急激に落ち込み、二大政党への支持率が一気に低下し、多党制を招くことになった。

 

ギリシャ人の信頼度,trust of Greeks, May 2011

< trust of Greeks, May 2011. blue=trust、red=do not trust, top bar=fellow citizens,7th=governments, 8th=political parties >

The government was not most trusted, and trust in fellow citizens also was small.

Rapid economic deterioration, subvention reduction and pension reduction by the tight budget, and the distrust of the government that caused it exploded at a breath.

This is a dangerous sign, but the election system of Greece that prevents presence of many small parties is useful barely.

Next time, we will analyze the background of this situation occurred in the world.

 

 

一番、信頼されていないのは政府であり、地域社会に対してさえ低下している。

急激な経済悪化、緊縮財政による補助金や年金の減少、それを招いた政府への不信感が一気に爆発した。

これは危険な兆候だと言えるが、小党乱立を防ぐギリシャの選挙システムがかろうじて役立っている。

次回は、世界で起きているこの選挙状況の背景を分析します。

 

 

 

 

 

 

Categories: culture+society, <english language, <japanese language, politics | Tags: , , , , , , ,

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