原始美術6の誕生:氷河期美術の視点


a bison looking back

< a bison looking back: Madeleine, 20000 years ago >

We have seen until now the glacial epoch fine arts that happened in Europe.

This time, we consider the meaning of the glacial arts.

今まで、ヨーロッパで起こった氷河期美術を見てきました。

今回は、氷河期美術の意味を考えます。

 

 transition of Venus statue

< transition of Venus statue: left side, Czech, about30000 years ago. right side, Germany, 15000 years ago. >

The feature of glacial epoch fine arts

1.       What was drawn and sculpted

Although horse, bison and deer were drawn plenty, fish and reindeer that could be caught easily were not drawn little. A natural scene also was not drawn. The mammoth that could be caught rarely, the pregnant female, and the animal of one pair of male and female animals are conspicuous in there. Although the scene where peoples hunted animals were not drawn, an animal in which bow and spear were stuck, and something like trap or cage were drawn.

Male design was simple thing of two points by the circle and another was symbolization of genitals. As for female design, shape of a body was emphasized, and relief in cave and sculpture was only female images. Other sculptures of whole body were half beast and half man or personalized thing.

Else, There are hand paintings that lacked any fingers and simple and various figures. It seems that the numbers were recorded by the condition of lacked finger in hand paintings, and engraved lines recorded the calendar too. Some simple figures were broadly common.

 

氷河期美術の特徴

 1.       描かれ造形されたもの

馬、バイソン、鹿が多く描かれたが、容易に捕れる魚とトナカイなどは少しか描かれなかった。自然景観も描かれなかった。希にしか捕獲出来ないマンモスや身重の雌、雌雄一対の動物が目立つ。人が狩りをする場面が描かれることは無かったが、弓や槍が刺さった動物、罠や檻らしいものが描かれていた。

男性は円に二点の単純なものと、生殖器の記号化だけだが、女性は体型が強調され、浮き彫りや丸彫りは女性像のみである。他の全身像は、半人間半動物や仮装されている。

他に指の欠けた手形やシンプルで多様な図形がある。手形の指の欠け具合や刻みで数や暦を記録したと思われる。シンプルな図形の中には共通性のあるものもある。

 

transition of cave pictures

<  transition of cave pictures: lift side, hyena, France,32000 years ago. right side, bison, Spain,14500 years ago >

2.Technique of drawing and sculpting

The pictorial expression began from the monochromatic outline of a line, and progressed to the line drawing with inflection.

Subsequently, the details like hair were drawn additionally, the contrasting density was expressed in connection with widely painting, and then it progressed to polychromatic drawing from 2-color drawing.

Although most animal images were drawn by the side view, only the hoof was drawn by the front view. This will be because the hoof that shows health condition was thought as important. This brings my mind back to the mural painting of ancient Egypt.

Paints were devised very much and obtained the multiple colors that mixes various minerals with oil and fats, and is liquid. In Altamira, the charcoal that obtains black was selected carefully by the wooden kind. In Lascaux, the bone of the animal was burned at 400 degrees, and calcite was mixed with it, and also it became hot at 1000 times, and used it.

 

2.     描画や造形の手法

 絵画表現は、一筆描きの単色の輪郭線から始まり、抑揚のある線画に進み、毛並みなど細部を書き添え、平塗りに伴って濃淡を表現し2色画から多彩色画へと進んだ。

動物像はほとんど側面観で描くが、蹄だけは正面を向いていることが多くなった。これは健康状態を示す蹄を重視した為だろう。これは古代エジプトの壁画を連想させる。

顔料は非常に工夫され、油脂に様々な鉱物を混ぜ流動性のある多色を得た。アルタミラでは黒を得る木炭を木の種類で厳選し、ラスコーでは、動物の骨を4百度で焼き、それに方解石を混ぜ、さらに千度で熱し使用した。

 

 3.     Others

There is many cave painting in the inner part of the caves that not get any sunlight. There is it in the entrance used as the place of the life. Moreover, the mural painting is drawn also on the cave in which it does not live. The animal of the cave paintings was almost painted-over picture, and probably, the peoples in those days didn’t put importance on good-looking picture.

In 20,000 years, although cave painting came to have a rich expression, Venus statue of end-stage half became a simple design. Although this Venus statue image had a commonality by the side view, it reflected the diversity of the region.

 

 3.     その他

洞窟壁画は生活の場とした入口付近にはなく日の差さない奥所に多い。また住まわれたことのない洞窟にも壁画が描かれている。壁画の動物は重ね描きされており見映えを重視していない。

壁画は2万年の間に豊かな表現を持つようになっていったが、後期のビナース像はシンプルなデザインへと変化した。このビナース像は側面観で共通していたが、地域毎に特色あるデザインへと分化した。

 

hand painting in cave、Flute

< hand painting in cave: France ,32000 years ago. Flute: made of bone, German, about 35000 years ago. >

What changed?

  1. have magical thinking : They expressed things that they wished and accept a value through paintings and statue, and people present their wishes to it.
  2. manipulated number and technology :  They began to record a notation or a calendar by combining. Technology was developed similarly.
  3. created and place importance on formality : Although fine arts change with the times and  reflect the diversity of the region, have a commonality.
  4. cherished these with groups : They taught pictures technique, left cave painting to the specific person, and occasionally performed the festival.
  5. moved broadly and trafficked with the long distance : We can guess from a stone tool, the similarity of design with fine arts, and stone tool material.

何が変わったのか

1.   呪術思考 : 希望するものや価値あるものを表現し、それに願いを託した。

2. 数字や技術を操った : 組合せることにより数や暦などの記録を始めた。

3.   創作し、かつ形式を尊んだ : 描画は発展し対象もやや変化し、共通性を保ちながら地域性も有した。

4.     集団でこれらを育んだ : 絵画技法を伝授し、特定者に壁画を任せ、時には祭儀を行った。

 5.    広範囲に移動し、さらに遠くとも交易した : 石器やデザインの共通性、石器材料から推測出来る。

 

People lived by rock shadow at 30,000 years ago 

< People lived by rock shadow at 30,000 years ago >

What happened to human beings?

 Cro-Magnon man began half-settled life with the group more than a family in arctic cold, in and around cave.

 Two reasons made it possible was that they had to hunt much reindeer that do seasonal migration by group, and coldness enabled preservation of a lot of meat.

 If it is hot, meat will rot. If it is cold, a reindeer will disappear and their heavy winter clothing becomes useless.

 They were able to make the dress that matches their body by the needle made from a bone.

 The intercommunion with a family, a group, and other groups influenced each other, and greatly developed language, child-rearing, and technology. Furthermore, culture and a sense of values (religion, art) were produced.

 

Next time, we will look at decline period of glacial epoch fine arts.

  

 人類に何が起きたのか

 新人類(クロマニヨン人)は極寒の中、洞窟周辺で、家族以上の集団による半定住生活を始めた。

それを可能したのが、季節移動するトナカイの集団による狩猟とその大量の肉の保存を可能にする寒さであった。

温すぎれば肉は腐敗し、寒すぎればトナカイも消え、彼らの防寒具が役に立たなくなる。

彼らは骨の針で体に密着する服を作ることが出来るようになっていた。

この生活スタイルによる家族、集団、他集団との交流が相互に影響し合って、言語、育児、技術を大いに発展させ、さらには文化と価値観(原初の宗教、芸術)を生みだした。

  

次回は、氷河期美術の衰退期を見ます。

 

 

 

 

 

Categories: culture+society, history+evolution, <english language, Series: Birth of primitive art | Tags: , , , , , , ,

Post navigation

One thought on “原始美術6の誕生:氷河期美術の視点

  1. Reblogged this on biopolymerx and commented:
    the most famous artist, are remembered long after their empires fall

Blog at WordPress.com.

Crafting Zone

Untuk bisa bertahan di dunia yang penuh dengan persaingan, menjadi kreatif adalah salah satu pilihan. So be creative yourself

ベルリンスタイル

ベルリン在住21年の筆者が、育児や仕事についてあれこれ書いています。

cocinaitaly

comida italiana

wanderlustplusone

Blog about the fun of travelling with children to weird and wonderful places across the world.

Musings of PuppyDoc

Poetry Behind a White Coat

Aotea Media

Photography | Promotion | Social Media | Creative Concepts | Graphic Design | Marketing | Video production | Video Marketing

Cradle of Joy

Food, Reviews and much more

Azzalea Arsyidna

Jika Kau Sedih Tersenyumlah dan Jika Kau Bahagia Tertawalah "AISHI-B217AN"

太郎

政治 風景 映画 芸能 有名人 ニュース 健康 医療 文化 放射能 中高年

Life in Minutes

Living in the moment

Indian e Tourist Visa

e tourist visa for India, ETV India, Urgent Tourist Visa for India, Visa online, e-Tourist Visa process

%d bloggers like this: