原始美術7の誕生:氷河期美術後


a rock art in the Levant, a mother and a child、Minateda, Spain、

< a rock art in the Levant, a mother and a child、Minateda, Spain、>

Eventually, the glacial epoch fine arts that emitted luster had declined.

This decline caused stagnation and new deployment.

We look at this big change easily.

 

光彩を放った氷河期美術にやがて衰退が訪れます。

この衰退は、停滞と新たな展開を招きました。

この大きな変化を少し辿って見ます。

 

Azilian culture, painted stones and bone tools

< Azilian culture, painted stones and bone tools >

At 10000 years ago, the colorful cave paintings and movable fine arts that felt vital force no longer were made.

On the other hand, new movements happened at some places a little distant from France, Germany, Czechoslovakia, and northern Spain.

One is the painted stone at 11000 years ago. Figures like characters were drawn with several red lines on the stones.

Although bone tools are also found simultaneously, the ornamented things are not found at all.

Azilian that made these on the south of the Pyrenees (Spain) disappeared within 1000 years.

 

1万年前を境にして、彩色豊かな洞窟壁画や生命観溢れる動産美術は突如として作られなくなりました。

一方、それまでのフランス、ドイツ、チェコ、スペイン北部から少し外れた所で新しい動きが生まれました。

一つは、11000年前頃の彩礫で、数本の赤色線による文字のような図が描かれた石です。

同時に骨角器も見つかるのですが、装飾された物はまったく見つかっていません。

この作り手のアジール文化(ピレネー山脈の南側、スペイン)は千年ほどで消えてしまいます。

 

rock arts in the Levant

< rock arts in the Levant >

From 11000 years ago to 5000 years ago, many rock arts appeared in the Spain southeast part.

These are the small paintings of animal and person that are drawn on lee of rock in ravines only by red. 

Although animals is drawn realistically, persons are deformed and formalized, and are also humorous.

The themes are hunting, war, a dance, Sherman, etc.  It has composition that has motion with many persons and animals.

The drawn animals are game animals and domesticated dogs, then insects such as spider and fly, etc.

The figure subjects are more male than the woman. The male take a bow and put on bracelet, a hat, etc. The woman put on a skirt and ribbon.

 

約11000~5000年前にかけてスペイン東南部に岩壁画が多数出現します。

これは河谷の石灰岩の岩陰に、ほとんど赤だけで描かれた動物と小さな人物の図です。

動物は写実的に描かれ、人物はデフォルメされ形式化されているが、ユーモラスでもある。

テーマは狩猟、戦争、踊り、仮面を被ったシャーマンなどで、複数の人物や動物で動きのある構図になっている。

描かれている動物は狩猟動物、家畜化された犬から蜘蛛、ハエなどの虫にまで及んでいる。

人物像は女性よりも男性の方が多く、弓を持ち、時にはズボンや腕輪、羽根製の帽子などを着け、女性はスカートやリボン、腕輪を着けている。

 

Arctic art、Rock Drawings of Alta 

< Arctic art、Rock Drawings of Alta >

A little late, from 6000 to 2000 years ago, many petroglyphs appeared on rocks near the Northern European (especially Norway) sea and rivers.

Many of petroglyphs are carved with a line or flat surface, and they are applied with red. A large thing is a whale 8 m in length.

Many of the themes are game hunting and fishing scenes and the everyday sight are drawn in the style of a tale on it.

The drawn things are reindeer, deer, seal, whale, salmon and sled, boat.

 

What of the fine arts changed?

Simplify

The cave painting was lost and turned into rock-art

Human and life scene were thought as important.

 

少し遅れて、6000~2000年前、北欧の海や河の近くの岩盤に岩壁画が出現する。

絵の多くは、1本線か面で彫られ、赤く塗られている。大きいものは長さ8mの鯨がある.

テーマは狩猟と漁労場面が多く、日常的な情景を物語風に描かれている。

動物はトナカイ、鹿、アザラシ、鯨、鮭などが描かれ、ソリや船も描かれている。

 

美術の何が変わったのか?

単純化した

洞窟壁画は無くなり、岩壁画になった

人や生活場面が重視された

 

air temperature change during the past 160,000 years 

< air temperature change during the past 160,000 years >

What brought about this change?

The glacial epoch finished. :  Air temperature rose abruptly from 15000-year ago, and 10,000 years ago, it became the same as the present. By this, the glacier and the reindeer went away to the north and Europe became a forest and the world of small animals from the ground of snow and ice.

Their life changed suddenly :  They repeated movement in quest of the small animals which do not make a group. It dispersed the previous big group. Preservation of meat became impossibility.  When they took all games, they moved to next place. This was the same as the hunter-gatherers of the forest before civilization.

The agricultural had diffused from the Balkan Peninsula, and spread throughout Europe at the time 5000 years ago.

At last, the brightness of fine arts in Europe had been lost until the Bronze Age comes.

Culture and art were greatly influenced by change of natural environment and a social aggregation.

 

ext time, we look at prehistory fine arts other than Europe.

 

何がこの変化をもたらしたのか?

氷河期が終わった : 15000年前より気温が急上昇し、1万年前には現在と同じになった。このことにより、氷河とトナカイは北に遠のき、ヨーロッパは氷雪の大地から森林と小動物の世界になった。

生活が激変 : 群れを作らない小動物を求めて移動を繰り返し、分散する社会になった。肉の保存は出来ず、獲物を取り尽くせば移動した。これは文明化以前の森林の狩猟採集民と同じだった。

農耕がバルカン半島から伝播し、ヨーロッパ全域に広まるのは5000年前頃になる。青銅器時代になるまで、ついにヨーロッパ美術の輝きは失われてしまった。

文化と芸術は、自然環境と社会集団の変化に大きく左右されたのだ。

 

次回は、ヨーロッパ以外の先史美術を見ます。

 

 

 

 

Categories: culture+society, history+evolution, <english language, <japanese language, Series: Birth of primitive art | Tags: , , , ,

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5 thoughts on “原始美術7の誕生:氷河期美術後

  1. I’m used to the rock art of the southwest U.S., very similar in many ways. Nice representations.

  2. As you say! There are many rock arts in US. I read your report interestingly,“Isotopic data show farming arrived in Europe with migrants”.

  3. A few years ago I was able to go on privately owned land on Maui, Hawaii and saw some petroglyphs.
    Our Ancient peoples kept alive their memory the only way they could.
    Thank you for sharing this.

  4. thanks for visiting my blog dear…I always wanted to visit Japan…I hope I get to see Japan may be this year…nice post you have here..Keep blogging

  5. Thanks for commenting. I want to help you when you visit Japan. I know Osaka, Kobe and Kyoto for sightseeing. I have not to interpret regrettably.

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