Birth of primitive art 13 : People who made first fine arts 2


left side is modern human, right side is Neanderthal

< left side is modern human, right side is Neanderthal、by Wikipedia >

 Last time, we looked at the situation in which human beings had gone into Europe.

 Why did the Cro-Magnon begin first fine arts?

 The reason is explored together with readers.

 

前回は現世人類がヨーロッパに進出した状況を見ました。

なぜクロマニヨン人が原初美術を始めたのだろうか?

 その理由を読者と一緒に探ります。

 

Tools of Neanderthal and Cro-Magnon in Europe is compared

<  Tools of Neanderthal and Cro-Magnon in Europe is compared. >

 Fig. A shows the stone tool that Neanderthal made from 70000 to 50000 years ago. Figs. B and C show what the Cro-Magnon man made.

The stone tools were made from 20000 to 12000, and a harpoon was made of bone from 17000 to 11000 years ago.

The bone or horn implement rapidly developed since Cro-Magnon has appeared.

 Stone tools of Cro-Magnon became sharp edged tool. These and spear thrower enabled them to do efficient hunting. Moreover, they made the extreme clothes that matched their body with sharp cutlery and thin needle. These enabled the lives of extreme cold.

 

図Aはネアンデルタール人が70~50千年前に作った石器です。図BとCはクロマニヨン人が作ったもので、石器は20~12千年前、骨角器の銛は17~11千年前のものです。骨角器はクロマニヨン人になってから急速に発達した。

クロマニヨン人の石器は精緻で鋭い刃物になっている。これらと槍投器が効率の良い狩猟を可能にした。また鋭い刃物と細い針で体に合う極寒服を作った。これらが極寒の生活を可能にした。

 

On the other hand, the reindeer and horse of the large animal traveled in large herds in this cold. They were waiting for them in a ravine etc. and they hunted them in a group.  Furthermore, extreme cold enabled preservation of a lot of meat. In this way, they became to settle down on ideal place one season in a group.

 

Which route does group of animals pass through?  Can a few mammoths be discovered?  

This was their big anxiety. Probably, when they were not able to predict, they wanted to depend on the prayer or the curse like indigenous people.

 

In this way, they worshipped the skull of game animal, and the mural painting of the animal.

A statue of lion man and several figure of magician suggest later idol worship.

 

一方、この寒さの中、大型のトナカイや馬が大群で移動していた。彼らは渓谷などでそれらを待ち伏せ, 集団で狩りをした。さらに極寒は大量の肉の保存を可能にした。こうして彼らは好適地に、集団で1シーズン定住を行うようになった。

 

動物の群れはどのルートを通るのか、数少ないマンモスを発見することが出来るのか、これは彼らの大きな懸念であった。彼らは予測出来ない時は、先住民と同様に祈りや呪いに託したのだろう。

 

こうして狩猟動物の頭骨や自ら描いた動物の壁画を拝んだのだろう。

ライオンマンの像や魔術師の図は、後の偶像崇拝を想わせる。

 

Comparison of the dwelling 

< Comparison of the dwelling >

 Neanderthal made Fig. A, and Cro-Magnon made Figs. B and C.

 Fig. A is an imaginary picture of a shelter at a ruin in France, is about 15 m in length, and was made about 400,000 years ago.

It was built standing trees to holes and fixing these with stones.

Although it is the first construction dwelling in Europe, the oldest dwelling at 1.8 million years ago is found in Africa, and was very small.

 

Fig. B shows the restoration of a dwelling at the ruins in Ukraine, is about 6 m in diameter, and about 18,000 years ago.

It was built assembling trees, covering with furs, using bones of the mammoth as a weight for these.

 

Fig. C is an imaginary picture of dwelling at Gonnersdorf ruin in Germany, is about 6 m in diameter, and was made about 15,000 years ago.

It was built assembling trees, and stretching furs of horse on its frame.

In it, there were a cooking device that made with bones of the mammoth, and a cooking hole.

They lived on several dwellings like this during winter months in a group.

Probably, except this period, they went in quest of game animal, and lived life on the move.

 

 

図Aはネアンデルタール人が、図B,Cはクロマニヨン人が作った。

図Aはフランスの遺跡にある避難所の想像図で、長さ約15m、約40万年前のものです。これは穴に木を立て石で固定し建てられた。これはヨーロッパで最初の築造住居跡ですが、アフリカでは180万年前の最古の小さな住居跡が見つかっている。

 

図Bはウクライナのメジリチ遺跡の復元で、直径約6m、約18千年前のものです。木で枠組みし、毛皮で覆い、マンモスの骨を重しにした。

 

図Cはドイツのゲナスドルフ遺跡の復元図で、直系約6m、約15千年前のものです。木で枠組みし、馬の皮を張って作られた。その中にはマンモスの骨を組んだ調理器と調理穴がある。この数棟に冬の数ヶ月間、集団で生活していた。この時期以外は狩猟動物を求めて移動生活をしていたのだろう。

 

Although the existence of a furnace was common in them, Figs. B and C were firm and adapted to extreme cold.

Originally, since hunter-gatherers move frequently, they carry neither a tool nor materials.

Therefore, a shelter becomes very simple as shown in Fig. A.

 

People that drew cave mural paintings lived in the entrance of cave and on rock shadow.

There, wind was interrupted, low tree have grown, and the water place was near.

 

炉の存在は共通するが、図B,Cは強固で極寒に適応している。元来、狩猟採集民は頻繁に移動するので、道具や資材を持ち運ばない。したがって図Aのように避難所は非常に簡便となる。

 

洞窟壁画を描いた人々は深い河谷にある洞窟の入口や岩陰  で暮らした。そこは風が遮られ、低木も茂り、水場も近かった。

 

This settlement of a glacial epoch brought about fundamental changes to people.

They were able to been having Venus statues that were sculptured and made of clay near themselves.

The settlement by large group also became to enable the allocation of tasks, and entrust mural painting to skillful person.

These led to development of fine arts and technology.

 Since they repeatedly have grouped together and have broken up, it promoted the exchange of knowledge and goods.

 The acquisition range of stone tool spread from a few kilometers to a few hundred kilometers.

 In this way, Cro-Magnon created the primitive fine arts in the extreme cold.

 

Next time, we will look at the important impact that the settlement caused further.

 

この氷河期の定住は、人々に変化をもたらした。

彼らは素焼きや彫刻のビーナス像を作って、身近に持つことを可能にした。集住は作業分担を可能にし、壁画を巧みな者に任すことにもなった。これらが美術や技術の発展につながった。繰り返す離散と集住は、知識や情報、物資の交換を促進した。石器材料の入手範囲は、それまでの数十kmから数百kmに広がった。

こうしてクロマニヨン人が氷雪の極寒の中、原初美術を生むことになった。

 

次回は、さらに定住が引き起こした重要なインパクトを探ります。

 

 

 

 

Categories: culture+society, history+evolution, <english language, <japanese language, Series: Birth of primitive art | Tags: , , , , , , | 2 Comments

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2 thoughts on “Birth of primitive art 13 : People who made first fine arts 2

  1. aquacompassさん今日は、投稿のコメントでは無く今朝の地震で心配してます!被害に遭われていませんか?此方は揺れただけでさほど激しいもでは有りませんでした。

    • ありがとうございます。
      揺れはかなりありましたが、私の家に被害はありませんでした。
      ただ周辺や島内では被害が出ているようです。
      もう地震は無いものと思っていましたので、びっくりしました。
      お便り感謝します。

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