History of sickness and medical art 3:  Start of the cure 2


An elephant and a buffalo

Following last article, I search for the oldest cure.

 

Method to exclude the epidermal parasites alone.

An elephant and a buffalo, etc. exclude the epidermal parasites by covered of sand, and rolling.

 

The chimpanzee changes a place on a tree every day and makes new nest.

If the chimpanzee sleeps in the same place, he spread out new sprig on the nest.

This is to control the growth of the crab louse that causes the skin disease.

The human race evolved in the direction that loses hair in taking measure for crab louse about 1,200,000 years ago.

 

 

前回に続いて、最古の治療を探ります。

 

表皮の寄生虫を自分で除く方法

象やバッファローなどは砂を被ったり、転がったりして寄生虫を除去しています。

 

チンパンジーは木の上に毎日場所を変えて巣を作るのですが、同じ場所に寝る場合は新しい小枝を敷き直します。

これは皮膚病を招くケジラミの発生を抑制する為と考えられます。

人類は、約120万年前、このシラミ対策で毛を無くす方向に進化した。

 

A nest of chimpanzee

<  A nest of chimpanzee >

The oldest type among the care of health to others.

In that context, isn’t a symbiosis of cleaning fishes in a tropical coral reef the oldest type?

A little cleaning fish enter a large fish’s mouth, and can get bait while the fish was protected.

Interestingly, the both of them became familiarity mutually and have obtained profits mutually.

 

他者への養生で最も古いタイプ

熱帯の珊瑚礁で、掃除魚の共生が最も古いタイプではないでしょうか。

小柄な掃除魚が大魚の口の中に入り、身を守ってもらいながら餌にありつけるのです。

大魚は口内を清掃してもらい、移動したくなれば口を少し閉じ、掃除魚は口から出ていきます。

おもしろいことに、互いに馴染みになり相互に利益を得ているのです。

 

A symbiosis of cleaning fishes

<  A symbiosis of cleaning fishes >

Does the animal understand other pains?

The university in Canada and the United States confirmed the mouse reacted to other pains by the experiment.

When a mouse that was putted in a glass vessel is given the pain by a medicine or an electroshock, other mouse that has seen the pain becomes sensitive and shows a similar pain reaction (expansion of the body etc.).

When a mouse noticed that the cause of giving the pain is in his operation, treading on a pedal was conditioned in advance by an experiment, the mouse comes to stop the operation.

If the mouse that receives a pain is unfamiliar one, in the case of a male, the sensitivity becomes low unlike a female.

 

動物は他者の痛みがわかるのだろうか?

カナダやアメリカの大学でマウスが他者の痛みに反応することを実験で確認した。

ガラス容器に入れられたマウスが薬や電気ショックにより痛みを与えられると、それを見たマウスも痛みに敏感になり、また同様の痛み反応(体の伸張など)を示す。

痛みを与える原因が自分の動作(実験で条件付けらえたペダル踏みなど)にある場合は、相手の痛みの反応を見て止めるようになる。

雄の場合、雌と違って、その痛みを受ける者が、知らない者であればその感受性は鈍る。

いつも愛情深いのは女性のようです。

 

mouse

Summary

      It is universal in varying degrees that the animal gives the prevention and cure of sickness by oneself.

      The chimpanzee is adequately selecting and practicing a cure that they get out the parasitic insect of intestines. It is a kind of food culture.

      Caring for the others and recuperating oneself deepened with development of intelligence. Development of reciprocal altruistic behavior.

      Development of ability to sympathize with other pains. A mirror neuron that produces sympathy exists in brain.

 

Conclusion

By cerebral evolution, the animal performed better exactly the sick prevention and the cure.

And the caring for others has been developed by the development of sympathy.

Though the behavior in the first stage had been ruled by the inheritance, after that, the acquired thing became important.

 

まとめ

動物が自ら病の予防や治療を行うことは、程度の差はあれ普遍的。

チンパンジーは、腸内の病源を除く治療を的確に選択実行している。食文化の一種。

他者を介護し養生することは知能の発達と共に深まった。互恵的利他行動。

他者の痛みに共感する能力の発達。共感を生むミラーニューロンが脳に存在。

結論

脳の進化により、動物は病の予防と治療をより的確に行い、感情や共感の発展により他者の介護を発展させた。初期は遺伝に支配されていたが、後に後天的なものが重要になっていった。

 

 

 

Categories: culture+society, history+evolution, <english language, <japanese language, science, Series: History of sickness and medical art | Tags: , , , , , , , | Leave a comment

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