History of sickness and medical art 11 : Ancient Egypt 1


Surgical instrument of ancient Egypt

< Surgical instrument of ancient Egypt >

 

I introduce sickness and medical art of ancient Egypt.    

 

数回かけて、病と医術を見ます。

 

Imhotep

< Imhotep >

He was a higher flamen, the first-ever pyramid designer, and a superior physician. He was deified behind. 

 

イムホテプは高級神官、史上初のピラミッド設計者、優れた内科医で、後に神格化された。

 

 

Step Pyramid in Sakkara, Cairo 

< Step Pyramid in Sakkara, Cairo >

King Djoser’s Step Pyramid which he designed in the middle of the 27th century BC. 

 

彼が設計した紀元前27世紀中頃のジェセル王の階段ピラミッド。

 

Preface

The medical art of Egypt developed highly by the religious dynasty that continued for 3000 years.

The mural painting of the sepulcher, the papyrus, and tens of thousands of mummies clarify a situation of those days.

The oldest papyrus document of medical art was of the 20th century BC.

In the order from the old thing, they were written about obstetrics and gynecology, animal medicine, surgery, the prescription collection, and the magic.

The documents had included description that will go back to 4000 years BC.

The documents had included strong things of magical factor and religious factor, but there was the thing which was not so.

 

Herodotus had written about Egypt of the 5th century BC.

” Medicine is subdivided very much and the doctor treats only the illness of one kind, respectively. Many doctors are everywhere. There is the doctor of the eyes, the head, the belly, or the tooth, and there also is specialized doctor in case patient can’t tell a wrong part. …”

 

 

 

はじめに

エジプトの医術は3千年続いた王朝と強固な国家宗教によって高度に発展した。

墓室の壁画とパピルス、数万体のミイラが当時の様子を明らかにしてくれる。

医術の最古のパピルス文書は、前20世紀のもので、古いものから産婦人科、獣医学、外科、処方集、呪法が書かれていた。

その文書には紀元前4000年に遡る記述もある。

医術は、呪術的や宗教的な色彩の強いものもあるが、そうでないものもあった。

ヘロドトスが前5世紀のエジプトについて書いている。

「医術は非常に細分化されており、医師はそれぞれ一種類ずつの病気しか治療しない。いたるところに大勢の医師がいる。目の医師もいれば、頭の医師、歯の医師、腹の医師、どこが悪いかわからない場合の医師もいる。・・・」

 

Doctor

The doctor was employed by the nation.

There were the doctor belonging to the flamen, the ordinary doctor, the doctor chief, the doctor’s management supervisor, the Minister of Health, and the doctor of many levels of king’s palace.

The doctor was specialized highly, and was divided into the general, the ophthalmology, the digestive organ, the anus, the illness of uncertain cause, the dentistry, the medical test, and the occupational disease.

The medical care was free for campaigner and journeyer, but at times the doctor had gotten many rewards.

The doctor studied in the house of the life that attached to some shrines, and heard the experience of the aged, and learned the old documentaries of library.

The knowledge of dissection was based on livestock and the old literature, but was not based on making mummy.

In the medical examination, the doctor investigated carefully a patient’s appearance, the body odor, the conscious, etc., and recorded them.

Furthermore, the doctor measured bodily temperature and heart race, and performed percussion, and observed urine, defecation, phlegm.

Finally, the doctor evaluated the possibility of medical treatment to three steps, and notified of it in writing.

 

 

 

 

医 師

医師は国家に雇われていた。

神官に属する医師、普通の医師、医師長、医師の監督官、厚生大臣、さらに王宮の医師にも階層があった。

医師は高度に専門化され、一般、眼科、消化器、肛門、原因不明の病気、歯科、医学検査、職業病に分かれた。

医療は、従軍や旅行などで無料だが、医者がたっぷり報酬を貰えることもあった。

医者はいくつかの神殿に付属した生命の家で修行し、老人の経験談を聞き、また図書館の古文書から学んだ。

解剖の知識は、ミイラ作りからではなく家畜と古文献に基づいていた。

医師は診察に当たって、患者の外見、意識、体臭などを克明に調べて記録した。

さらに体温と脈拍を測り、打診を行い、尿、排便、痰の状態を観察した。

最後に治療の可能性を三段階に評価し書面で告知した。

 

A old papyrus document

< A old papyrus document >

A description of bronchial asthma in the 17th century BC 

 

紀元前17世紀の気管支喘息の記述。

 

When treating according to the sacred medicine document, the doctor was not penalized even if he failed, but when acting contrary to the prescription, he was condemned to the death penalty.

There were the surgery assistant, the masseur, and the male nurse helping the doctor.

 

Next time, I write about treatment and drug.

 

 

医師は神聖な医術書に従って治療を行っておれば、失敗しても咎められず、もし定めに反した処方で失敗すれば死刑に処せられた。

医師を手伝う男性の看護人、外科助手、マッサージ師、俗人の臨床医がいた。

 

次回は、治療、薬剤について書きます。

 

Categories: culture+society, history+evolution, <english language, <japanese language, science, Series: History of sickness and medical art | Tags: , , , , | Leave a comment

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