History of sickness and medical art 13: Ancient Egypt 3


A spice store in Egypt: The drug knowledge from the ancient times is helpful 

< A spice store in Egypt: The drug knowledge from the ancient times is helpful >

 

 A beer production in Ancient Egypt  

< A beer production in Ancient Egypt  >

 

Drug

At first, the pharmacist of Ancient Egypt was of lower status compared with other ancient civilization and the cleric and the doctor concurrently served as the pharmacist.

But they afterward acquired the special status.

Oil and fats, water, milk, wine, and beer were used as the base for making the ointment.

The raw materials of drug were variously a plant, an animal, the mineral (iron, lead, antimony) etc.

The spice of Crete, China, and Arabia of the distant place were used actively.

Although there were about 900 kinds of medicines, the efficacy of most things is accepted like Senna, Castor oil, Thyme, and Celandine.

Because an efficacy of it was strong, mandragora of painkiller and henbane of anesthetic were dangerous.

The yeast fungus of the beer was used for an enteric disease, or an ulcer of the leg.

Similarly, the mold fungus of the bread was used as an antibiotic.

There were castor oil of laxative, enema of bile of ox, eyewash, and fumigant, too.

However, there were also doubtful curative things, such as fresh dew, mud of Nile, and dirt of a patient’s nail.

Probably, the mental curative effect was better than actual efficacy.

     

 

薬 剤

初期、古代エジプトの薬剤師は他の古代文明に比べ低くみられ、聖職者と医師がそれを兼ねていたが、後には専門的な地位を得た。

軟膏をつくるベースに油脂、水、牛乳、ワイン、ビールが使用された。

薬剤の原料は、植物、動物、鉱物(鉄、鉛、アンチモン)など、さまざまだった。

遠方のクレタ、中国、アラビアの香料なども盛んに利用されていた。

900種類ほどの薬剤があったが、センナ、ヒマシ油、タイム、クサノオウなどのように、多くは効能が認められる。

効能が強力な為、催眠と鎮痛用のマンドラゴラ、麻酔剤のヒヨスは危険であった。

ビールの酵母菌は腸疾患や足の潰瘍などに、黴のはえたパンは抗生物質として使用された。

ヒマシ油を下剤、牡牛の胆汁や油で浣腸も行われ、目薬、燻蒸剤もあった。

しかし新鮮な露、ナイルの泥、患者の爪の垢など怪しげな治療薬もあった。

実効よりも、精神的な治療効果が勝ったのだろう。

 

a dwelling site of the construction worker of a royal tomb: in Deir el-Medina, about the 13th century B.C. 

< a dwelling site of the construction worker of a royal tomb: in Deir el-Medina, about the 13th century B.C. >

 

Hygiene

Handling of excrement and garbage of common people was unsanitary, but there were a restroom and a bathroom in rich house.

As religious precepts, even petty people had the custom of tooth-brushing every day.

Moreover, people were forbidden from eating pork and head of animal, and daily regimen, such as a meal and a nap, was defined.

 

 

衛 生

庶民の排泄物やゴミの扱いは非衛生なものだったが、裕福な家にはトイレや浴室があった。

下層民すら宗教的な戒律として、毎日、歯磨きの習慣があった。

また豚肉と動物の頭部を食べることが禁止され、食事と昼寝など、日々の養生法が定められていた。

 

Hesy-ra:he was a doctor of dentistry and internal medicine, and also an important vassal in the 27th century BC. 

< Hesy-ra:he was a doctor of dentistry and internal medicine, and also an important vassal in the 27th century BC. >

 

Recognition

The heart was a place in which a soul, and a rational mind and an emotion dwelt, and was considered to be a place where the will of God was transmitted.

It was believed that one “pipe” that went around the whole body from heart carried blood, air and all body fluid.

But the circulation was not known.

It was thought that the sickness was because the “pipe” clogged, or a bad food entered the body from the “pipe.”

The method of urging defecation was one of the medical treatments, in order to remove “the polluted body fluid.”

The word “brain” was used first and they understood that paralysis vary according to bruised parts of the head.

About the damage that was looked from outside like an injury or a fracture, many of the causes of it were clear.

However, about the internal disease, the doctor was often at a loss, and irrational existence was considered to be a cause of it.

Usually, it was thought a diabolic act having hostility, or an epidemic disease that God sent as the wrath for the evildoing.

And it also was thought that it happened by the result of the wicked eyes of a jealous neighbor.

 

 

認 識

心臓は魂と理性、感情の宿る場所であり、神の意志が伝達される所と考えられていた。

心臓から体中にいきわたった一つの「管」が血液や空気、すべての体液を運ぶと信じていた(循環は知らなかった)。

病気は「管」が詰まって蓄積したり、悪い食物が「管」から進入したりした為だと考えられた。

「汚染した体液」を除去する為に、排便を促すことも治療の一つだった。

「脳」という言葉が最初に使われ、頭部打撲の箇所により麻痺が異なることを理解していた。

怪我や骨折のように外から見える損傷については、その原因の多くは明白であった。

しかし内的疾患については、医師も途方にくれることが多く、不合理な存在が原因とされた。

普通、それは敵意を持った悪神の仕業か、または神が悪行に対する天罰として疫病を送り込んだと考えられた。

またそれは嫉妬深い隣人の邪悪な目のせいでも起こるとされた。

 

The Dwarf Seneb And His Family: his wife's love will be felt. about the 26th century BC.

< The Dwarf Seneb And His Family: his wife’s love will be felt. about the 26th century BC. >

 

Conclusion

Making full use of medicine and magic, medical treatment was performed broadly.

The surgery was highly progressing compared with other ancient civilization.

It may be said that the total medicine was rational and empirical, however, it declined remarkably after Rome imperial government.

It was fortunate that ancient Greece medicine was able to start from ancient Egyptian medicine.

Of course, adjacent Israel benefited.

 

 

まとめ

医術と呪術を駆使して幅広く治療が行われていた。

外科は他の古代文明とは比較にならないぐらい進歩していた。

医学全体としては合理的であり経験的であったと言える、しかしローマ帝政期以降は著しく衰退した。

紀元後のローマやギリシャ、シリア、イスラエル、ペルシアの薬学はエジプトに由来するものが多い。

古代ギリシャの医学は、エジプト医学から出発出来たことが幸いであった。

当然、隣接していたイスラエルも恩恵に浴した。

 

 

 

Categories: history+evolution, <english language, <japanese language, Series: History of sickness and medical art | Tags: , , | Leave a comment

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