History of sickness and medical art 14: It originated in ancient Egypt


A boy hold a mandragora in his hand

< A boy hold a mandragora in his hand. >

 

This time, I pursue three mysterious things: mandragora, a circumcision, and pork evasion.

 

Mandragoramandrake

This is a nightshade that was used as a painkiller in Egypt.

On the movie “Harry Potter”, a mandragora was grown as a miracle drug that break the magic spell.

In “Romeo and Juliet”, it appeared as a medicine that brought suspended animation.

Since this plant had high virulence, it brought about hallucination, and the rhizome resembled a human form, from ancient times, diverse legends was born.

 

 

今回は、三つの不思議なもの、マンドラゴラ、割礼、豚肉忌避の起源を追います。

 

 

マンドラゴラ(マンドレイク)

これはエジプトで鎮痛剤として使われていたナス科の植物です。

映画「ハリ・ポッター」では、マンドラゴラは魔法を解く妙薬として栽培されていた。

「ロミオとジュリエット」では仮死をもたらす薬として登場した。

この植物は強毒性を持ち、幻覚症状をもたらし、さらにその根茎が人型に似ることもあり、古来より様々な伝説を生んでいた。

A art work in the 15 century: a mandragora is visible to the upper left

< A art work in the 15 century: a mandragora is visible to the upper left >

 

Mandragora was regarded as the precious material of a magic medicine, a tonic, and an elixir of life.

But, since it was thought that the harvest was dangerous, they made a dog draw out it, as shown in the picture.

 

 “The mandrakes give forth fragrance. At our doors are all kinds of precious fruits, new and old, which I have stored up for you, my beloved.” the Song of Solomon7-14

It is written as the plant that has the effect of fertilizing in the Old Testament.

 

マンドラゴラは魔法薬、精力剤、不老不死薬の貴重な材料とされていたが、収穫には危険が伴うと考えられ、図のように犬に引き抜かせた。

「恋なすは、かおりを放ち、もろもろの良きくだものは、新しいのも古いのも共にわたしたちの戸の上にある。わが愛する者よ、わたしはこれをあなたのためにたくわえました。」旧約雅歌7章14節

旧約では受胎効果のある植物として書かれている。

 

A circumcision of Christ in a picture of the 17th century 

< A circumcision of Christ in a picture of the 17th century >

 

Circumcision

The circumcision was required for Judaist.

However, the history was old and it has been already drawn on an Egyptian mural in 2300 years B.C.

 

 

割礼

割礼はユダヤ教徒にとって必須だった。

しかしその歴史は古く、紀元前2300年のエジプトの壁画に既に描かれていた。

 

Three flamens are doing two boys a ceremony of a circumcision. 

< Three flamens are doing two boys a ceremony of a circumcision. >

 

In many parts of the world from time immemorial, the circumcision was carried out as a rite of passage to a young man, and it doubled as hygiene.

In Egypt, it was common for the lower class from old times, after 1 millennium B.C., the flamens were obliged to carry out it.

In Judaism, this was caught strictly, and it was preached in Genesis that boys have to perform it on the eighth day after being born.

Although this was taken over to Islam, St. Paul exempted the pagan from it, and Christianity became a better position to spread.

 

古くから世界各地で、衛生も兼ねて青年への通過儀礼として割礼は行われていた。

エジプトでは古くから下層階級でも一般的で、紀元前1千年紀以降、神官には義務付けられた。

ユダヤ教では、これを厳格に捉え、創世記において男子は産まれてから8日目に行うことが説かれた。

これはイスラム教に引き継がれたが、パウロがこれを免除し、キリスト教は異教徒に広まった。

 

Set: the head was expressed in a pig or jackals.

< Set: the head was expressed in a pig or jackals. >

 Evasion of pork

Although pig began to be bred all over the world from old times, since it was not suitable for pasturage, it was restricted to the settlement farmland.

In Egypt, it was often eaten in Nile Delta which agriculture was prosperous in, but was rare in the upstream of Nile.

Some King dedicated several thousand pigs to a shrine.

After Egypt was unified by a King of the upstream, Osiris of its guardian deity gradually became an important God.

Set that was expressed with the head of a pig opposed Osiris.

 

 豚肉の忌避

豚は世界中で古くから飼養され始めたが、放牧に適さなかったので、定住農耕地帯に限られた。

エジプトでも、農耕が盛んなナイル・デルタではよく食べられていたが、上流では希であった。

王が神殿に数千頭の豚を奉納することもあった。

上流の王によってエジプトが統一されると、その守護神オシリスが徐々に重要な神になっていく。

豚の頭で表現されるセト神はオシリスと敵対していた。

 

Set: the head was expressed in a pig or jackals.

< Horus in Horus shrine defeats the enemy of father on Set that was expressed with a pig. >

 

After one millennium B.C., the flamens were prohibited from eating pork, and the nobles begun to evade it.

On the other hand, Israel was also hostile to Ball that was a God of agriculture in Phoenicia.

It led to edible prohibition of pork in Leviticus of the Old Testament

The reason for the prohibition was that the appearance was ugly, gives off a bad smell, was dirty, an animal for meat, and a sacrifice beast of paganism.

This commandment was taken over to Islam of nomadic herders.

 

やがて紀元前1千年紀以降、神官は豚肉を禁じられ、貴族達も忌避し始めた。

一方、イスラエルも、フェニキアの農耕神バアルを敵視していた。

それが旧約レビ記において、豚肉の食用禁止につながった。

禁止の理由は、外観が醜悪、悪臭を放ち、不潔で、食肉用動物、異教の犠牲獣だったからです。

この戒律が遊牧民のイスラム教に取り入れらることになった。

 

 

 

 

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Categories: culture+society, history+evolution, <english language, <japanese language, Series: History of sickness and medical art | Tags: , , , , | 2 Comments

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2 thoughts on “History of sickness and medical art 14: It originated in ancient Egypt

  1. こんにちは(*^_^*)
    マンドラゴラって不思議な植物ですね。
    「恋なす」とも聞くと興味津々です。
    現在は残って何かに利用されているのでしょうか?

    • 現在は、毒性が強いので使われていいないようです。効能がある成分がいくつか分かっているので、それぞれは合成なので使用されているのでしょうね。一つ一つに秘められた文化の跡は面白いです。

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