Go around the world of Buddha statues 5: Buddha statue of Southeast Asia


 

 Buddha seated statue of Borobudur 

< Buddha seated statue of Borobudur >

I introduce Southeast Asian Buddha statue and Buddhism remains this time.

 

今回は東南アジアの仏像と仏教遺跡を紹介します。

 

Southeast Asian countries as of now

< Southeast Asian countries as of now >

 

  Southeast Asian countries at the 12th century 

< Southeast Asian countries at the 12th century >

In Southeast Asia, many nations repeated flux and reflux of the tides, and it resulted in major changes in power relationships.

Especially Cambodia (Angkor dynasty), Thailand, Myanmar became the biggest force at one time, respectively.

From ancient times, Buddhism, Hinduism, and Islam from India, China, and Arabia flowed in Southeast Asia, and they were intermingled.

Therefore, Buddhist art had diversity and originality.

 

東南アジアでは、幾多の民族が栄枯盛衰を繰り返し、その勢力図は大きく変わることになった。

特にカンボジア(アンコール朝)、タイ、ミャンマー等は一時、それぞれ最大勢力となりました。

東南アジアは、古代よりインド、中国、アラビアから仏教(小乗、大乗)、ヒンドゥー教、イスラム教が流入し混在した。

したがって仏教美術は多様性と独自性を持つことになった。

 

 

Myanmar

ミャンマー

Buddha seated t stature : Pagan Period, bronze 

< Buddha seated t stature : Pagan Period, bronze >

 

 Pagan : metropolis ruins of the Pagan dynasty   

< Pagan : metropolis ruins of the Pagan dynasty   >

This country was the nearest to India and was affected by Buddhism and Hinduism first in Southeast Asia.

The first Pagan dynasty (the 11~13th century) made Hinayana Buddhism the state religion, and it has continued till today.

Buddhist architectures of more than 2000 are scattered in the jungle of Pagan.

 

この国はインドに最も近く、東南アジアで最初に小乗・大乗仏教、ヒンドゥー教の影響を受けた。

最初のパガン王朝(11~13世紀)が小乗仏教を国教にし、今日に至っている。

パガンではジャングルに2千以上の仏教建築が点在している。

Thailand

タイ

Buddha seated t stature : pre-Ayutthaya art, bronze, the 14th century

< Buddha seated t stature : pre-Ayutthaya art, bronze, the 14th century >

Thailand was sandwiched in between Myanmar of the west and Cambodia of the east, and this Buddha statue style is affected by art of Angkor dynasty.

 

タイは西のミャンマー、東のカンボジアに挟まれ、この仏像様式はアンコール朝の影響を受けている。

 

Ayutthaya: metropolitan ruins of the Ayutthaya dynasty, the 14~18th century

< Ayutthaya: metropolitan ruins of the Ayutthaya dynasty, the 14~18th century  >

The Sukhothai dynasty (the 13~15th century) which Thais made first made Hinayana Buddhism the state religion, and it has continued till the present.

The subsequent Ayutthaya dynasty was ruined depending on an attack of Burma (Myanmar) at the late 17th century.

 

タイ族が最初に作ったスコータイ王朝(13~15世紀)は小乗仏教を国教とし、現在まで続いている。

それに続くアユタヤ王朝は17世紀後半、ビルマの攻撃を受けて滅んだ。

 

Cambodia

カンボジア

Buddha seated stature : Ayutthaya period, bronze 

< Buddha seated stature : Ayutthaya period, bronze >

The Naga (a god of snake) of India protects Buddha doing Zen meditation.

 インドのナーガ(蛇神)が座禅を組む仏陀を庇護している。

Angkor Thom and faces of Kannon( Deity of Mercy)  : metropolis ruins of Angkor dynasty, end of the 12th century

Angkor Thom and faces of Kannon( Deity of Mercy)  : metropolis ruins of Angkor dynasty, end of the 12th century

< Angkor Thom and faces of Kannon( Deity of Mercy)  : metropolis ruins of Angkor dynasty, end of the 12th century   >

At this time, Angkor dynasty (the 9~15 century) became the golden age.

The king who built the Angkor Tom was committed to Mahayana Buddhism than Hinduism.

There are the faces of Kannon that are smiling in four aspects of innumerable towers.

The towers and the Kannon shined in gold in those days.

There is Angkor watt (the early 12th century) of Hinduism adjacent to this.

Hinayana Buddhism is the state religion now.

 

この時期、アンコール朝(9~15世紀)は最盛期を迎えた。

このトムを建設した王はヒンドゥー教より大乗仏教を重視した。

無数の塔の4面には微笑んでいる観音像の顔がある。

当時、塔と観音像は金色に輝いていた。

これに隣接してヒンドゥー教のアンコール・ワット(12世紀始め)がある。

現在は小乗仏教が国教となっている。

 

Vietnam

ベトナム

  Thousand Armed Avalokiteshwara ”Kannon”: wooden statue being treated with vermilion and gold leaf, a northern dynasty, the 17th century

< Thousand Armed Avalokiteshwara ”Kannon”: wooden statue being treated with vermilion and gold leaf, a northern dynasty, the 17th century >

Vietnam had split into north and south until the early 19th century, and the northern part continued being affected by China.

The northern part was affected with Mahayana Buddhism from China, and the southern part was affected with Hinduism and Buddhism from India.

Now, Mahayana Buddhism occupies most.

 

 

ベトナムは19世紀初頭まで南北に分裂しており、北部は中国の支配と影響を受け続けた。北部は中国から大乗仏教、南部はインドからヒンドゥー教と仏教の影響を受けた。

現在、大乗仏教が大半を占めている。

 

Indonesia

インドネシア

 

Bodhisattva seated statue: Eastern Java, stone, about 1300 year 

< Bodhisattva seated statue: Eastern Java, stone, about 1300 year >

 

Borobudur: Central part Java, the last of the 18th century 

< Borobudur: Central part Java, the last of the 18th century >

Indonesia consisted of many islands, and it was an important place of traffic on the ocean for many years, therefore many religions were intermingled.

This temple was built near a metropolis by a dynasty (the 8~9th century) which was devoted to Mahayana Buddhism, and there were 500 Buddha statues in here.

Then, Hinduism and Buddhism were mixed up, Islam became dominant in the 15th century, and this temple was buried in the jungle.

Now, Islam is the largest religion.

 

 

インドネシアは多数の島々からなり、古くから洋上交通の要衝であることから、多くの宗教が混在している。

この寺院は大乗仏教に傾倒した王朝(8~9世紀)によって王都近くに建設され、5百体の仏像が鎮座している。

その後、ヒンドゥー教と仏教が混淆し、15世紀にはイスラム教が旺盛となり、これは密林に埋もれた。

現在、イスラム教が第一の宗教です。

 

 

 

Categories: culture+society, history+evolution, <english language, <japanese language, Series: Go around the world of Buddha statues, travel+photo | Tags: , , , , , | 6 Comments

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6 thoughts on “Go around the world of Buddha statues 5: Buddha statue of Southeast Asia

  1. Beautiful pictures. I especially like the Buddha from Cambodia.

  2. こんにちは(*^_^*)
    ミャンマーの仏像だけが怖い顔をされています?

    • 不思議なことに仏教国なのに、良い仏像の写真が見つからないのです。外交を閉ざしていたせいかも知れません。

  3. Great pictures!

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