History of sickness and medical art 17: Ancient Israel 3


a trepanation evidence in an ancient Jewish city of Lachish

< a trepanation evidence in an ancient Jewish city of Lachish  >

From now on, we look at medical art until about the first century A.D. from the first millennium B.C.

 

これから紀元前2千年期末から紀元1世紀ぐらいまでを医術を見て行きます。

 

The epidemic of an ancient city of Philistine : it described black plague in the eleventh century B.C.

< The epidemic of an ancient city of Philistine : it described black plague

in the eleventh century B.C. >

 

The Doctor

The Israeli flamen performed medical care in the same way as them of Mesopotamia and Egypt, and also performed magic and exorcism.

The flamen distinguished a sickness according to a rule of religious uncleanliness.

Although this differential diagnosis included the thing based on medical basis, there were many superstitious things.

About skin disease, the flamen determined whether or not it was an epidemic, and after that, he decided the medical treatment method.

The patient of leprosy (Hansen’s disease) was isolated.

In ancient times, prophets took the place of the doctor; Elisha was curing the skin disease of a general in Syria.

Isaiah attached a dried fig to a swelling of dying Jewish King.

Becoming the doctor was restricted to the Levite, and it was forbidden that the defective person of eyesight performs medical care.

It was not permitted that the doctor inspects patient, in evening, on a cloudy day, or the dusky room.

 

 

医 師

イスラエルもメソポタミアやエジプトと同じように祭司が医療に当たり、呪術や悪魔払いを行っていた。

祭司が宗教的な浄・不浄の法則に従って病気を鑑別した。

この鑑別法は医学的な根拠に基づくものもあったが、迷信的なものが多かった。

皮膚病については、祭司が伝染病かどうかを識別し、治療方法を決めた。

ライ病(ハンセン病)の患者は隔離された。

古くは預言者が医者の代わりをしていて、エリシャはシリヤの将軍の皮膚病を治療している。

イザヤも死にかかっていたユダヤ王の腫れ物に、干しいちじくのかたまりをつけさせた。

医師になるのは、聖職を司るレビ族に限られ、視力に欠陥のある者は、医療を行うことを禁じられた。

夕暮れや、曇りの日、あるいは薄暗い室内で検査を行うことも許されなかった。

 

prophet Isaiah: a picture by Michelangelo in Sistine Chapel

< prophet Isaiah: a picture by Michelangelo in Sistine Chapel >

Barbers etc. might have performed bloodletting (phlebotomy) and the simple physical therapy that was not approved generally, but the doctor came to gradually make a specialty of the medical care.

Although it seemed that the doctor performed both internal medicine and surgery, there also was the surgery specialty.

The brain surgery (trepanation) of Lachish in the 9th century B.C. shows the existence of the expert clearly.

“The doctor”of Hebrew word in the Old Testament meant the repairman.

It was despised with “a useless doctor” in the Book of Job.

Talmud (establishment in the 4th century) described the doctor was ingredients essential for the community life.

Moreover, it also described, “unless one pays a suitable charge, one cannot receive good medical treatment. “

 

理髪師などが、一般に認められない瀉血や簡単な物理療法を行うことがあったかもしれないが、徐々に医療は専門の医師が行うようになった。

医者は内科、外科いずれも行ったと思われるが、外科専門もいた。

前9世紀のラキシュの脳外科手術は明らかに専門家の存在を示す。

旧約のヘブライ語の医者は修繕屋を意味しており、ヨブ記では「無益な医者」と侮蔑されていた。

タルムード(4世紀成立)では医者は共同体生活には欠くことが出来ないと記されている。

また相応の料金を払わないと良い治療を受けられないともある。

 

 

The excavation of a wine cellar at about B.C. 1700 in Canaan  

< The excavation of a wine cellar at about B.C. 1700 in Canaan  >

 

Medicines

Olive oil or wine was used for external medicine of a wound, dried fig was used for medicine of a swelling, and a marjoram (mint family) and sour wine were used for a painkiller.

Peppermint or cumin were used for a cold medicine, almond were used for a love potion, myrrh was used for a preservative and a painkiller, and frankincense was used for a body preservative

There were a lot of medicines of Mandrake (hallucinogenic drug), Balsam (plaster), resin, a spice, oil, and narcotic etc.

However, the number was few as compared with the medicines of the Mesopotamia or Egypt.

 

薬 剤

オリーブ油やブドウ酒が傷のための外用薬、干しいちじくが腫物薬、マヨラナ(シソ科)や酸いブドウ酒が鎮痛剤に使われた。

乳香が死体防腐剤、没薬(もつやく)が防腐剤や鎮痛剤、ハッカやクミンが風邪薬、アーモンドは媚薬に使用された。

他にマンドレーク(幻覚薬)、バルサム(膏薬)、樹脂、スパイス、油、それに麻薬など多数の薬がある。

しかしメソポタミアやエジプトの薬剤に比較するとその数は限られていた。

 

 

Categories: culture+society, history+evolution, <english language, <japanese language, Series: History of sickness and medical art | Tags: , , | Leave a comment

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