Go around the world of Buddha statues 11: the statues of Korea and Japan 3


 MentuhotepⅡ, Cairo, the 21st century BC 

< 1. MentuhotepⅡ, Cairo, the 21st century BC >   

I infer the reason why the Buddha statues of Korea and it of Japan have been different.

 

A thing I thought firstly

The above figure was the great king who revived Ancient Egypt that had been in disorder.

When I watched it in Cairo museum once, I felt a sense of incongruity to the thickness of the leg.

It was unbecoming in the wonderful statues of Egypt.

According to one of the reasons, the art seemed to have declined by a long-term disorder of the dynasty.

I thought that expression of the face of the Korean Buddha statues would be the same as the above reason.

It is because Joseon Dynasty abolished many temples and oppressed Buddhism.

 

 

韓国と日本の仏像が異なる理由を推理します。

 

私が最初に思ったこと

上図は動乱に陥ったエジプト王朝を再興した偉大な王であった。

かつて私がカイロ博物館でそれを見た時、その足の太さに違和感を覚えた。

それはエジプトの素晴らしい彫像美術に似つかわしくなかった。

その理由の一つに、長期の動乱により芸術が衰退したことがあるらしい。

韓国仏像の顔の表現は、上記理由と同じだろうと考えた。

朝鮮王朝は多くの寺を廃止し、仏教を抑圧したからです。

Another reason

However, while I investigated, I noticed bigger reason of history and geopolitics.

 

別の理由

しかし調べて行く内に、もっと大きな歴史と地政学的な理由に気づきました。

 

 Kongorikishi 

< 2. Kongorikishi >

A:  Tibet, others are unknown

B:  China, Dun Huang, latter half of the 9th century

C:  China, Beijing, this temple was founded in Yuan Dynasty (the 13~14th century)

D:  Japan, Todai-ji temple, Kamakura period, 1203

 I think the expression of the face of Kongorikishi statues is almost the same in all the areas of Mahayana Buddhism.

The crown of C image resembles the thing of Tibet.

A: チベット、年代不明。

B: 中国、敦煌、9世紀後半。

C: 中国、北京碧云寺、寺創建が元時代(13~14世紀)。

D: 日本、東大寺、鎌倉時代、1203年、運慶・快慶作。

金剛力士像の顔の表情は、大乗仏教の全地域でほぼ同じように思える。

Cの宝冠はチベット仏教のものに似ている。

a image that was pictured in a gate of a Buddhist temple in Korea 

< 3. a image that was pictured in a gate of a Buddhist temple in Korea >

Although I see this picture as a soldier of Yuan Dynasty (Mongolia), a Kongorikishi image should usually be pictured here.

 

私には、この絵は元王朝(蒙古)の兵に見えるが、普通、ここには金剛力士が描かれるはずです。

Influence of Yuan Dynasty

The 10-14th century was a period when horseback races of the North rose in the whole land of Asia.

The Korean Peninsula had a border with many nations of horseback races at the north edge.

Yuan Dynasty (1271-1368) became the Asian greatest empire at last and ruled the Goryeo dynasty (918-1392) of Korean Peninsula.

Because this empire recommended Tibetan Buddhism, a common point of the Buddha statues among Tibet, Mongolia, China, and Korean Peninsula was born.

Then the influence remains after the 14th century.

 

On the other hand, after an extinction of Tang Dynasty (the 10 century), when China came in disorder, Japan entered the closure of the country.

Therefore, Japan of an island country came to develop the different Buddhist art from a continent.

 

 

元王朝の影響

10~14世紀は北方騎馬民族がアジア全土に勃興した時代でした。

朝鮮半島は北で幾多の騎馬民族国家と接していました。

ついに元(1271~1368年)がアジア最大の帝国となり、朝鮮半島の高麗王朝(918~1392年)も支配しました。

この帝国はチベット仏教を奨励したので、チベットからモンゴル、中国、朝鮮半島までの仏像に共通点が生まれ、14世紀以降もその影響が残ったのです。

一方、唐の滅亡後(10世紀)、中国が争乱時代入ると、日本は鎖国状態に入ります。

こうして島国日本は大陸と異なる仏教美術を育むようになりました。

The world before Tang Dynasty

In order to know the influence that the Buddhist art received, I look at the state just before that.

 

元王朝直前の世界

仏教美術が受けた影響を知るために直前の様子を見ます。

a map in power relationships of Liao and Song Dynasty in 1111

< 4.  a map in power relationships of Liao and Song Dynasty in 1111. Liao is shown with green, and Song is yellow. >

Liao Dynasty(916-1125) had a border with Goryeo Dynasty, and Song Dynasty (960-1276) ) had a border with Liao.

Tang Dynasty was apt to be thought to be the golden age of the Buddhist art.

But, in the times of Song and Liao of horseback races, furthermore the superior arts were made.

To be continued later.

 

遼(916~1125年)が高麗と接しており、宋(960~1276年)は遼と接していました。

普通、唐が仏教美術の最盛期だと思われがちですが、中央アジアの騎馬民族が支配した遼とそれに接する宋の時代に、さらに優れた作品が作られたのです。

次回に続きます。

Categories: culture+society, history+evolution, <english language, <japanese language, Series: Go around the world of Buddha statues | Tags: , , , , | Leave a comment

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