History of sickness and medical art 21: India 1


Brahman God

< 1. Brahman God >

We look at medicine of India at about the first millennium B.C.

There was a medical system called Ayurveda in I    ndia.

Before looking at it, we survey Indian culture and religion of the day.

 

As for the ancient record of India, the time when it was written is ambiguous, and the contents are almost the scripture and the myths.

The spread of writing began around the 5th century B.C. by rule class.

There are few ruins that tell the history of the time vividly except some king’s epitaphs.

 

 

紀元前1千年紀頃のインドの医術を見ます。

インドにはアーユル・ベーダと呼ばれる医学体系がありました。

その前に、当時のインドの文化と宗教を概観します。

 

古代インドの記録は作成時期が不明瞭で、内容も教典や神話がほとんどです。

文字の普及が前5世紀頃から支配階層で始まった。

若干の王の碑文以外、この時期の歴史を如実に語る建築遺物は少ない。

 

Kausanmbi: a city remains at the 7th century B.C. 

< 2. Kausanmbi: a city remains at the 7th century B.C. >

The Aryan who came in northwest India from about 1500 years B.C. ruled the indigenous people.

Then they produced Brahmanism, and established the sacred book (Veda).

The contents of this Veda were mainly the songs praising for gods and religious service, and were inherited with the word-of-mouth between teachers and students.

The beginning of Veda was considerably old, and many myths and the Scriptures were produced over long years.  

Brahmanism managed the festival of the royal family, and was also concerned with the religious service of village after village.

The Brahman who has monopolized the festival had very big power and privilege.

 

 

前1500年頃から北西インドに進入したアーリア人は先住民を支配し、バラモン教を生み出し、経典(ベーダ)を成立させました。

このベーダの内容は神々への賛歌と祭祀が主であり、師弟間の口頭伝承によって伝えられた。

ベーダの始まりはかなり古く、長い年月をかけて数多くの神話や教典類が生まれました。

この頃のバラモン教は王家の祭儀を司り、村々の祭祀にも関わりました。

その祭司を独占したバラモンは非常に大きな力と特権を有していた。

 

The civilization area at the first millennium B.C. 

< The civilization area at the first millennium B.C. >

From around 500 years B.C., a new breath arose in the religious world.

It is that esoteric books (Upanishad) making up for Veda was produced.

Soon the freethinkers who criticized Brahmanism began activity.

From among them, people appeared who dived into public and created a new religion.

In this way, Buddhism and Jainism were born.

The center of the civilization and the religion at the time is middle basin of Ganges.

 

紀元前500年前後から、宗教界に新たな息吹が生じました。

それはベーダを補う奥義書(ウパニシャッド)が制作されたことです。

やがてバラモン教を批判する自由思想家達が活躍を始めます。

その中から、民衆の中に跳び込み、新しい宗教を興す人が現れます。

こうして仏教(釈迦)とジャイナ教が誕生しました。

この時代の文明や宗教の中心地はガンジス河中流域です。

 

Atharvaveda 

< 4. Atharvaveda >

I quote two phrases from Atharvaveda (this sacred book including many incantations was established at about 1000 years B.C.).

“A thing in thee, a thing in thy body, and it are fearful things.

A thing in hair and a thing in thy eyes.

I will beat the all things by my words.

As with Savitr God may encourage thou.”

 

“As wind, as thinking power, and as a bird.

A child of October!  Let you fly along with childbirth.

You give a birth and must descend from it.”

 

Lower phrases are the incantation for avoiding a miscarriage.

 

アタルバ・ベーダ(呪文が多い聖典、前1千年頃成立)から二つの句を引用します。

 

「汝自身の中にあるもの、汝の身体の中にあるもの、それは恐るべきものである。髪の中にあるもの、さてはまなざしの中にあるもの。そのすべてを言葉によって打ち負かそう。サヴィトリ神が汝を鼓舞するように! 」

「風のように思考力のように鳥が飛ぶように、おお十月の子よ、出産とともに飛べ、出産をして降下せしめよ!」

 

下の句は流産の難を避けるための呪文です。

 

a ceremony of the modern Hinduism

< 5.  a ceremony of the modern Hinduism >

The important duty of Brahman was to remove accident and illness by religious service (altarage) and incantations.

 

We look at the medicine of India from the next time.

 

バラモンの重要な役目は、祭祀(供物、供儀)と呪文によって災厄や病を取り除くことでした。

 

次回より、インドの医術を見て行きます。

 

 

 

Categories: history+evolution, <english language, <japanese language, science, Series: History of sickness and medical art | Tags: , , , | Leave a comment

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