History of sickness and medical art 21: India 1

Brahman God

< 1. Brahman God >

We look at medicine of India at about the first millennium B.C.

There was a medical system called Ayurveda in I    ndia.

Before looking at it, we survey Indian culture and religion of the day.


As for the ancient record of India, the time when it was written is ambiguous, and the contents are almost the scripture and the myths.

The spread of writing began around the 5th century B.C. by rule class.

There are few ruins that tell the history of the time vividly except some king’s epitaphs.











Kausanmbi: a city remains at the 7th century B.C. 

< 2. Kausanmbi: a city remains at the 7th century B.C. >

The Aryan who came in northwest India from about 1500 years B.C. ruled the indigenous people.

Then they produced Brahmanism, and established the sacred book (Veda).

The contents of this Veda were mainly the songs praising for gods and religious service, and were inherited with the word-of-mouth between teachers and students.

The beginning of Veda was considerably old, and many myths and the Scriptures were produced over long years.  

Brahmanism managed the festival of the royal family, and was also concerned with the religious service of village after village.

The Brahman who has monopolized the festival had very big power and privilege.









The civilization area at the first millennium B.C. 

< The civilization area at the first millennium B.C. >

From around 500 years B.C., a new breath arose in the religious world.

It is that esoteric books (Upanishad) making up for Veda was produced.

Soon the freethinkers who criticized Brahmanism began activity.

From among them, people appeared who dived into public and created a new religion.

In this way, Buddhism and Jainism were born.

The center of the civilization and the religion at the time is middle basin of Ganges.










< 4. Atharvaveda >

I quote two phrases from Atharvaveda (this sacred book including many incantations was established at about 1000 years B.C.).

“A thing in thee, a thing in thy body, and it are fearful things.

A thing in hair and a thing in thy eyes.

I will beat the all things by my words.

As with Savitr God may encourage thou.”


“As wind, as thinking power, and as a bird.

A child of October!  Let you fly along with childbirth.

You give a birth and must descend from it.”


Lower phrases are the incantation for avoiding a miscarriage.




「汝自身の中にあるもの、汝の身体の中にあるもの、それは恐るべきものである。髪の中にあるもの、さてはまなざしの中にあるもの。そのすべてを言葉によって打ち負かそう。サヴィトリ神が汝を鼓舞するように! 」





a ceremony of the modern Hinduism

< 5.  a ceremony of the modern Hinduism >

The important duty of Brahman was to remove accident and illness by religious service (altarage) and incantations.


We look at the medicine of India from the next time.








Categories: history+evolution, <english language, <japanese language, science, Series: History of sickness and medical art | Tags: , , , | Leave a comment

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