Go around the world of Buddha statues 12: the statues of Korea and Japan 4


Bodhisattva statue “ 観音菩薩像”, 985 years, H.18m 

< 1. Bodhisattva statue “ 観音菩薩像”, 985 years, H.18m >

 

I approach the reason why the Buddha statues of Korea and it of Japan have been different.

 

Buddha statues of Goryeo Period (918~1392)

Above image is a stone statue in early Goryeo Period that was made in a momentum of the Buddhism revival.

It is the design with a high regard for shamanism at the sacrifice of truth to life.

 

韓国と日本の仏像が異なった理由に迫ります。

 

高麗時代(918~1392年)の仏像

上記の像は高麗時代初期、仏教復興の気運の中で作られた石仏で、写実性を犠牲にし、シャーマニズムを重視した造形です。

 

Bodhisattva statues of each country

< 2. Bodhisattva statues of each country  >

A:  China or Korean Peninsula, Liao Period, the 10~11th century.

B:  China, Song Period, the 10~13th century.

The images A and B of the neighboring countries are alike, and very attractive.

C:  Korea, Goryeo Period, 1333 years.

D:  Korea, Goryeo Period, 1310 years, Japanese collection.

It seems that Buddha statue C of the same period lacks in luster although the Goryeo Buddhist painting D is elaborate and wonderful.

E:  Japan, Daigo-ji, Kamakura Period, 1192 years, by Kaikei.

Like Buddha statue E, the Japanese Buddha statue reached the peak these days.

 

A: 中国か朝鮮半島、遼時代、10~11世紀。

B: 中国、宋時代、10~13世紀。

隣国の像AとBは似ており、実に魅力的です。

C: 韓国、高麗時代、1333年。

D: 韓国、高麗時代、1310年、日本所蔵。

高麗仏画Dは精緻で素晴らしいが、同時代の仏像Cは精彩に欠けるようです。

E: 日本、醍醐寺、鎌倉時代、1192年、快慶作。

仏像Eのように、この頃、日本の仏像は頂点に至った。

 

The Buddha statues of each country are compared.

各国の如来像を比較

Buddha statues” 如来像” of each countries 

< 3. Buddha statues” 如来像” of each countries >

A:  Korea, Buseok Temple, Goryeo Period, the 11~12th century.

B:  Korea, the right statue is bodhisattva, Sinheungsa Temple, Korea Dynasties period, 1651 years.

C:  China, Shanxi or Henan Province, Ming Period, the 16th century.

D:  Japan, Jodo-ji, Kamakura Period, 1195 years, by Kaikei.

The influence of the Tibetan Buddhism is not seen in an expression change of between Korean statue A and B.

Meanwhile, the truth to life seems to have been lost more.

 

A: 韓国、Buseok Temple, 高麗時代、11~12世紀。

B: 韓国、右は菩薩像、Sinheungsa Temple, 朝鮮時代、1651年。

C: 中国、山西省か河南省、明時代、16世紀。

D: 日本、浄土寺、鎌倉時代、1195年。快慶作。

韓国像AからBの表情変化に、チベット仏教の影響は見られない。

その間に、さらに写実性が失われているように思える。

 

Splendid Buddha statue and Bodhisattva statue of Korea 

< 4. Splendid Buddha statue and Bodhisattva statue of Korea >

A: Buddha statue, Pulguksa temple, Unified Silla Period, the 8~9th century, national treasure.

B:  Bodhisattva statue, Gyeongju, Korea Dynasties period, 1501 years, treasure.

These two statues have high artistry as representing of Buddha statues of the early period and the latter period in Korean Peninsula.

However, in the time between, it seems that the Buddha statues between Goryeo Period and Korea Dynasties Period lacked in luster.

 

A: 如来像、仏国寺、統一新羅時代、8~9世紀、国宝。

B: 菩薩像、慶州、朝鮮時代、1501年、宝物。

この二つの像は、朝鮮半島の初期と後期を代表する仏像で芸術性が高い。

しかし、その間の高麗から朝鮮時代の仏像は精彩を欠いているように思える。

 

 

The reason

1.In Goryeo Period, the dynasty continued to be invaded by Liao of northern countries and Yuan, and the dynasty extremely declined. Only the dynasty continued, but the country was burnt to the ground, and the antiquities became the ash and people were not able to afford to raise the artistry of the Buddha statue.

2.When Goryeo was dominated by Yuan, the influence of the Tibetan Buddhism appeared in the crown and the posture of the statues of Bodhisattvas and Four Heavenly Kings in Goryeo. As for this, China was the same, too. However, the facial expression of Buddha and Bodhisattva statues kept the originality of Korean Peninsula.

3.In Korea Dynasties period, the dynasty abolished many temples and oppressed Buddhism. Therefore the execution and the preservation of Buddha statue fell into desuetude.

 

その理由

1.高麗時代は、北方の遼、次いで元から侵略され続け、内乱も加わり王朝は衰退しきった。王朝だけは存続したが、国土は焦土と化し、文物は灰となり、仏像の芸術性を高める余裕はなかった。

2.高麗が元に支配されると、観音像や四天王像の宝冠や姿勢にチベット仏教の影響が現れた。これは中国も同じ。しかし如来と菩薩像の表情は朝鮮半島の独自性を保った。

3.朝鮮時代は崇儒廃仏で、権力者による仏像の制作も保存も廃れた。

 

 

However, there is still a problem.

 しかしまだ一つ問題がある

“持国天” of Four Heavenly Kings of each countries 

< 5.  “持国天” of Four Heavenly Kings of each countries >

A:  China, Beijing, Ming Period, the 14~17th century.

B: China, Tang Period, the 9th century.

C: Korea, Beomeosa temple.

D: Japan, To-ji Temple, Heian Period, 839 years.

The fearful face of Knogorikishi statues is common to China, Korea, and Japan, but the fearful face of Four Heavenly Kings statues seems to be only Japan.

Four Heavenly Kings statues in China and Korea seem to express dignity and influence.

On the other hand, in Japan, Four Heavenly Kings statues were assumed the same role of Knogorikishi. Therefore coercing and terrorizing seems to have been emphasized.

 

 

A: 中国、北京大覚寺、明時代(14~17世紀)に再建。

B: 中国、唐時代、9世紀。

C: 韓国、梵魚寺、年代不明。

D: 日本、東寺、平安時代、839年。

金剛力士像の恐い顔は、中国、韓国、日本に共通ですが、四天王像の恐い顔は日本だけのようです。

中国と韓国の四天王像は、威厳や威光を表現しているように思える。

一方、日本の四天王像は金剛力士像と同じ役割を担わされ、恐れさせ威圧することが強調されのだろう。

 

 

Bishamonten of Four Heavenly Kings: Shizuoka prefecture, Kamakura period, the 12th century

< 6.  Bishamonten of Four Heavenly Kings: Shizuoka prefecture, Kamakura period, the 12th century >

There, I recollect above statue.

I thought it was the representation with a folly of youth of genius Unkei.

But if perchance he knew Four Heavenly Kings statue of continent, then he might have defied the trend of Japan in those days.

      

The above explanation is only my reasoning.

I approach the origin of the Buddha statue from the next time.

 

そこで、思い出すのは上の像です。

私はこれを見たとき、天才運慶の若気の至りと思ったのだが、ひょっとすると運慶は大陸の四天王像を知っており、当時の日本の風潮に逆らったのかもしれない。

 

上記の説明は、私の推論にすぎません。

 次回から仏像の起源に迫ります。

 

 

Categories: culture+society, history+evolution, <english language, <japanese language, Series: Go around the world of Buddha statues | Tags: , , , , , | 2 Comments

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2 thoughts on “Go around the world of Buddha statues 12: the statues of Korea and Japan 4

  1. I appreciate very much the (background) work for Your post Great post.

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