The society and the information 24:  Wonder of brain and nerves 2


The society and the information 24:  Wonder of brain and nerves 2

< 1. brain >

We look at an information system of sense and movement in brain.

感覚と運動の情報システムを見ます。

 

the function of brain

< 2.  the function of brain >

The splendid control system

 For example, I assume you lift a boiling kettle.

You touch the handle with confirming it by eyes, and lift it along with grasping so that it may not incline.

At this time, the motion of the hand and the arm were continuously controlled with the feedback control of hot water quantity in the kettle, or an incline of it.

When you touched the heated handle of the kettle, at once you will let go of your hold on it.
If you are carrying it, you will carry it to the neighborhood with being prepared for your burn. 

At this time, the former was a reflex reaction before going into your brain.

As for the latter, the advanced processing was done in brain, because you will suffer a big burn in your feet, when you let go of your hold on it.

Probably, when being holding the kettle, even if someone speaks to you, you will be able to complete also the work while talking.

 

素晴らしい制御システム

例えば、あなたが沸騰したヤカンを持ち上げるとしましょう。

あなたは目で確認しながら取っ手に触れ、握りながら傾け無いように持ち上げます。

この時、やかんの湯量や傾きの感覚情報を連続的に帰還制御し手と腕を動かしていた。

もしあなたが熱いヤカンの取っ手に触れた時、とっさに手を放し、もし運搬途中なら、火傷覚悟で近くまで運ぶでしょう。

この時、前者は脳に入る前の反射的な反応をした。

後者は、もしそこで手を放せば、足などに大きな火傷を負うことになると脳内で高次の処理がなされた。

もしヤカンを持っている時、誰かがあなたに話しかけても、会話をしながら作業が出来たでしょう。

 

a flow of the information processing 

< 3. a flow of the information processing >

* The input information is processed at multiple levels in a number of cerebral fields.

On the other hand, as for an emergency and everyday repetition movement, it is performed reflectively before going to the brain.

* Much control is carried out without being conscious, and if needed, you can do it consciously. 

 

*     入力情報は脳の複数の分野で重層的に処理される。一方、緊急時と日常的な繰り返し運動は脳に入る前に反射的に行われる。

*     多くの制御は意識せずに行われ、必要に応じて意識して行うことも可能です。

 

our brain leaving a trace of the evolution 

< 4.  our brain leaving a trace of the evolution >

Structure of our brain from the point of view of the evolution

The reason why the brain is controlled at multiple levels is related to the evolution of a living thing.

As shown in above picture, human beings’ brain becomes large so that some functions are added, and its whole came to unite.

The fishes that have an old brain as the evolution react almost reflexively to sensory information.

In the reptiles, the sensory information came to unite a little, and then in old sort mammals, emotional control (anger, sympathy) was added on it.

In new sort mammals that a cerebral cortex developed, a large number of advanced processing fields combined together, and in human beings, thought and consciousness were added on it.

 

進化から見た脳の構造

脳の制御が重層的に行われている理由は生物の進化と関係しています。

図のように、人類の脳は機能が追加されるような形で大きくなり、それ全体が連合するようになりました。

進化的に古い脳を持つ魚類は、感覚情報にほとんど反射的に反応します

爬虫類では感覚情報の統合が少し進み、古い哺乳類では感情的な制御(怒り、共感)が加わります。

大脳皮質が発達した新哺乳類では、多数の高次の処理野が連合し、人間では思考や意識が加わります。

 

Point

This multistory feedback control was indispensable to the brain that enables quick accurate action.

However, there are two problems also in the system born by this evolution.

*The nerves to inform the early abnormalities (cancer, mental disease) in the brain or the internal organs are insufficient.

* As for being controlled automatically in the brain, conversely, for us, it is difficult to notice the mistake or the defect, and to correct it consciously.

 

This is similar about the information system of our society and organization.

By ourselves, we must cope with the expansion of community scale (globalization), and the progress of information media (the Internet).

 

Next time, we look at a wonder and a danger of the information processing of the brain.

 

ポイント

素早く適確な行動を可能にする脳に、この重層的な帰還制御は不可欠でした。

 

しかしこの進化で生まれたシステムにも問題はあります。

*     進化途上において重要では無かったのか、内蔵や脳自身の初期異常(癌化、精神病)を知らせる神経が不足しています。

*     脳や神経が自動処理していることは、逆に言えば、その間違いや欠陥に気づかず、また意識して修正することが困難だと言うことです。

 

このことは我々の社会や組織の情報システムについても同様です。

我々自身で社会規模の拡大(グローバル化など)、情報媒体(インターネットなど)の進歩に対応しなければならない。

 

次回は、脳の情報処理の不思議と危うさを見ます。

 

 

 

 

Categories: culture+society, history+evolution, <english language, <japanese language, science, Series: The society and the information | Tags: , , | Leave a comment

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