The society and the information 30: information crosses the border 4


  the collapse of the Berlin Wall    

< 1. the collapse of the Berlin Wall >

 

This time, I watch a story of how the collapse of the Berlin Wall happened in 1989.

It was like that a stormy blew above the Soviet Union, East Europe, and defunct East Germany.

Just like a spring storm, after going away, the people would taste joy of the liberation.

 

今回は、1989年のベルリンの壁崩壊が起こった経緯を見ます。

それはソ連と東欧、東独を巻き込んだ嵐でした。

まるで春の嵐のように、去った後、人々は解放の喜びを味わうことになった。

 

 both the Presidents of Reagan and Gorbachev

< 2. both the Presidents of Reagan and Gorbachev >

 

Summary

After the collapse of the Berlin Wall, East-West Germany was unified.

And East European countries such as Poland, Hungary, and Czechoslovakia converted from the single-party regime subordinated to the Soviet Union to a democracy nation.

Now, many have participated in EU and the people get freedom and economic development.

The people seem to enjoy fully the freedom of a movement, a habitation, a finding employment, and speech in the EU area.

However, ten years ago, there was no freedom in those countries, the people suffered economic stagnation, and their complaint was suppressed by the security police and the army.

 

概要

ベルリンの壁崩壊後、東西ドイツは統一され、ポーランドやハンガリー、チェコスロバキアなどの東欧諸国は、ソ連従属の一党独裁体制から民主制国家へと転換した。

現在、多くはEUに参加し、人々は自由と経済発展を手に入れました。

人々はEU域内の移動、居住、就職、言論の自由を満喫しているように見える。

しかしほんの10年前、それらの国では自由が無く、経済低迷に喘ぎ、不平不満は治安警察や軍隊によって圧殺されていた。

 

Hungarian capital of Budapest and Danube

< 3. Hungarian capital of Budapest and Danube >

 

What became a trigger?

While the Soviet Union economy had become weak, in 1985, the President Gorbachev appeared with advocating perestroika (reform) and glasnost (information disclosure).

He thought it indispensable for people facing directly the problem and talking frankly for escaping from the slump.

In the federation, he aimed at the democratization and promoted a market economy from a planned economy.

As for the diplomacy, he promoted a nuclear disarmament between the U.S., and declared the military nonintervention to East Europe, or recognizing the independent of the republic in the federation.

In the backdrop, there was a failure of the planned economy, the high burden of military expansion expenses, and a detente among the U.S., Republic of China, and the Soviet Union.

In addition, the disaster of Chernobyl nuclear power plant in 1986 raised an importance of people’s information disclosure, and awareness about the politics.

Under one-party regime that was assumed to have been decayed strongly, I was amazed that the reform had advanced without big resistance.

 

 

何が引き金になったのか?

ソ連は経済が弱体していく中で、85年、ゴルバチョフ大統領がペレストロイカ(改革)とグラスノスチ(情報公開)を掲げて登場しました。

彼は低迷を脱するには国民が問題を直視し、率直に語り合うことが不可欠と考えた。

彼は連邦内では、民主化を目指し、計画経済から市場経済を推し進めた。

外交では米国との核軍縮を進め、連邦内の共和国の独立容認、東欧への軍事不介入を宣言した。

この背景には、計画経済の失敗、軍拡費の高負担、米中ソ間の緊張緩和があった。

また86年のチェルノブイリ原発事故は、国民が情報開示の重要性、政治への関心を高めることになった。

あれほど腐敗し強固に見えた一党独裁体制下で、大きな抵抗もなく改革が進むことに私は驚嘆した。

 

"Prague Spring" incident in Czechoslovakia

< 4. “Prague Spring” incident in Czechoslovakia   >

 

What had been occurring in East Europe?

Although East European people appealed for the reform of economy and politics many times with performing the demonstration and the strike, people were strangled after bloodletting always.

In Czechoslovakia, “Prague Spring” which aimed at liberalization in 1968 collapsed by the Soviet Union having led the army, and the dark long time came to continue.

However, in Poland, the trade union “Solidarity” of 1 million people affiliation was formed in 1980 and pressed the government for the reform.

Hungary was closest to Europe historically, borrowed much money from Europe, and the economic exchange advanced.

And then the democratization momentum of the people had been rising.

In 1985, the party that the trade union having been born one after another recommended won congressional seat for the first time in the general election finally.

And one-party dictatorship was broken.

As for this, other East Europe and East Germany were similar.

 

東欧で何が起きていたのか?

東欧の人々は、幾度も経済と政治の改革を訴えデモやストを行ったが、その都度、流血の末、封殺された。

68年、チェコスロバキアで自由化を目指した「プラハの春」はソ連率いる軍隊により潰え、長く暗い時代が続くことになる。

しかしポーランドでは、80年に百万人加盟の自主労組「連帯」が結成され政府に改革を迫った。

またハンガリーは、歴史的に西欧に最も近く、西欧から多くの融資を受け、経済交流も進み、民主化気運が高まっていた。

85年、次々に誕生した自主労組の推す党が、ついには総選挙で議席を初めて占め、一党独裁は破られた。

これは他の東欧や東ドイツも同様でした。

 

.   Chairman Walesa of “Solidarity” in Poland

< 5.   Chairman Walesa of “Solidarity” in Poland >

 

Next time, I look at what made the people challenging.

 

次回は、何が人々の背中を推したのかを見ます。

 

 

 

 

 

Categories: culture+society, history+evolution, <english language, <japanese language, politics, Series: The society and the information | Tags: , , , | Leave a comment

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