Go around the world of Buddha statues 17:  the birth of Buddha statues 4


.  a stupa in Sanchi (the grave dedicated to ashes of Buddha) 

     < 1. a stupa in Sanchi (the grave dedicated to ashes of Buddha) >

 

I investigate why Buddha statue was born in Mathura.

 なぜマトゥラーで仏像が誕生したかを追います。

  

By “the birth of Buddha statues2” of this series, I explained the reason why Buddha statue had been born.

It was because the faith to Buddha arose around many stupas built in each place.

 

本連載の「仏像誕生2」で、ガンダーラで仏像が誕生した理由を述べました。

それは各地に造営されていたストゥーパを中心に、釈迦への信仰が湧き起こったからでした。

 

the territory of Kushan Empire is dark green part, the 1-3 century

< 2.   the territory of Kushan Empire is dark green part, the 1-3 century >

A red line is overland trade route, and a blue line is marine trade route.

A yellow frame shows the area that prospered in first half of the first millennium B.C., and includes Mathura.

A pink frame is the place where many city-states prospered at the 6-5 century B.C., and the Buddha played an active part here.

 

赤い線は陸上交易路、青線は海上交易路。

黄色枠は紀元前1千年紀前半に栄えた地域、マトゥラーが含まれている。

ピンク枠は紀元前6~5世紀に多くの都市国家が栄え、仏陀が活躍した所。

 

 

Ancient city Mathura

This city was along Yamuha river.

In the process of Aryan migration to the eastward, the area prospered at first half of the first millennium B.C.

Therefore, many Hindu myths came out of this ground.

In addition, this city was a turning point of an important trade route.

When going to the east, there is center of the civilization in that Buddha played an active part.

When going to the west, there is Gandhara that permit going to west additionally.

And when going to the south, they reached Mesopotamia from the Arabian Sea.

The city had become an important base of Buddhism and Jainism by the 2-4 century B.C.

In the first century B.C., Kushan Empire of northern nomad came into existence, and this city became sub-capital city.

King Kanishka (his reign was about the middle of the 2nd century) of this Empire protected religion including Buddhism.

 

 

古代都市マトゥラー

この地はヤムナ川沿いにあり、アーリア人が東方に移動していく中で、紀元1千年紀前半に栄えた地域でした。

したがって多くのヒンドゥー神話がこの地から生まれた。

また、この都市は重要な交易ルートの分岐点でした。

東に行けば仏陀が活躍した都市文明の中心地、西に行けばガンダーラから西方へ抜けた。

南下すればアラビア海からメソポタミアに達した。

前4世紀から前2世紀には仏教やジャイナ教の重要拠点になっていた。

1世紀になると北方の遊牧民によるクシャーナ朝が興り、この地は副都になる。

この王朝の4代目カニシカ王(在位2世紀中頃)は仏教を含む宗教を保護した。

 

What had occurred first.

Sanchi is about 500 kilometers south of Mathura.

Typical stupa fig.1 that King Asoka built in the third century B.C. remains here.

All kinds of life of Buddha are depicted with sculptures on the face of gates of fence surrounding the stupa,

Although these were timbered at the beginning of the construction, these were rebuilt with stone before and after the Christian era.

However, Buddha was expressed by Dharmacakra, the footprint, a tree of Buddha, the pedestal, etc., and was not yet expressed as a person image.

 

最初に何が起きていたのか

このマトゥラーから500kmほど南にサンチーがある。

ここには紀元前3世紀にアショカ王が建立した代表的なストゥーパ図1が残っている。

それを取り囲む玉垣の門に仏陀の生涯を描いた彫刻が施されている。

これらは建立当初、木造であったが、紀元前後に石像で造り直している。

しかし仏陀は法輪、仏足跡、菩提樹、台座などで表現され、未だ人物像として表現されていなかった。

 

 this figures symbolized Buddha  

< 3. this figures symbolized Buddha  >

 

 .  Yaksi statue of gate of the fence, early the 1st century, a stupa in Sanchi 

< 4. Yaksi statue of gate of the fence, early the 1st century, a stupa in Sanchi >

This female statue is Yaks, and is a goddess of fertility and productiveness.

 この女性像はヤクシーで、豊穣・多産の女神です。

 

Yaksi statue, the 2nd century B.C. – the 1st century A.D.  Patna of the eastern part of north India 

< 5. Yaksi statue, the 2nd century B.C. – the 1st century A.D. Patna of the eastern part of north India >

Yaksi statue and native god had been made in about the 1st century B.C.

 単体のヤクシー像、男性の土着の神像が紀元前2~1世紀には造られていた。

 

clay dolls of north India, a doll of the right-side was in about the 3rd century B.C.  Patna Museum

< 6. clay dolls of north India, a doll of the right-side was in about the 3rd century B.C. Patna Museum >

As for being even older than those, the simple female dolls of clay began to be made the eastern part of north India in the middle of the first millennium B.C., and belatedly to be made around Mathura, too.

 Next time, I summarize the birth of Buddha statue.

 

さらに古くは、素朴な土偶の女性像が、紀元前1千年紀中頃から北インド東部(パトナなど)、遅れてマトゥラーを中心にして造られ始めた。

次回は、仏像の誕生をまとめます。

 

Categories: culture+society, history+evolution, <english language, <japanese language, Series: Go around the world of Buddha statues | Tags: , , , | 2 Comments

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2 thoughts on “Go around the world of Buddha statues 17:  the birth of Buddha statues 4

  1. Very impressive photos. I love the first one very much.

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