History of sickness and medical art 28: China 3


 medical book “Huangdi Neijing”

<1. medical book “Huangdi Neijing”>

 

This time, I look at how people recognized the sickness in those days.

 今回は、当時の人々が病をどのように認識していたかを見ます。

 

 Restored instruments of acupuncture in “Huangdi Neijing” 

< 2. Restored instruments of acupuncture in “Huangdi Neijing” >

 

The oldest medical book “Huangdi Neijing”

This Chinese oldest medical book is written in the form that legendary Yellow Emperor discusses with a subject.

It was written in the first century B.C.

This form resembles the pattern that a legendary wizard had a dialogue with a king in ” Caraka Sanhita” of India.

It consists of pathology, general remarks of physiology, and clinical medicine including diagnosis, treatment, acupuncture and moxibustion.

 

“ People are kept alive by life energy ( Qi ) of nature, and is controlled with the rule of four seasons”

From ancient times, in China (East Asia), people think people being harmonize with nature, and it becomes sickness when balance collapses.

 

最古の医書「黄帝内経」

この中国最古の医書は伝説上の黄帝が臣下と問答する形で著されている。

前1世紀頃に集成された。

この形式は、インドの「チュンカラ・サンヒター」に出てくる聖仙と王の問答に似ている。

病理学、生理学の総論と診断、治療、鍼灸など臨床篇からなっている。

 

「人は天地の気をもって生じ、春夏秋冬の四季の法をもて成る」

古来より中国(東アジア)では、人間は自然と調和しているものであり、バランスが崩れると病になると考えている。

 

this Classic Taoist Taijitu shows “Yin and Yang” 

< 3. this Classic Taoist Taijitu shows “Yin and Yang” >

 

The fundamental theory is in Confucian doctrine” I Ching”.

It is said that people take birth with life energy ( Qi ) of “ Yin and Yang”, and people get sick if the harmony in the body was lost.

Furthermore, it was assumed that the human body is made of wood, fire, soil, gold, and water.

The basic elements of every phenomena and things were assigned to five.

There was 4 body fluid theory in Greece medicine, but there was 5 body fluid theory in China.

Moreover, people recognized that all blood was under rule of the heart, circulated through it continuously, and didn’t stop.

 

 

根本理論は儒教の教説「易」であり、人間は陰陽の気を呼吸しており、体内でこの両者が調和を失えば病気になるという。

さらに人体は木、火、土、金、水から出来ているとし、あらゆる現象と事物を5要素に割り当てた。

ギリシャ医学では4体液説だが、中国では5体液説であった。

また血液はすべて心臓の支配下にあり、絶えず循環し、留まることがないと認識していた。

 

Meridian of “Huangdi Neijing” 

< 4.   Meridian of “Huangdi Neijing” >

 

Moreover, there is the 12 principal meridians in body, and life energy ( Qi ) circulates through this course.

It presupposed that health can be maintained by keeping this circulation normal, and the sickness is treated by giving acupuncture and moxibustion.

Moreover, it presupposed the sickness was divided into two, one of it depended on external factor such as wind, chill, dryness, humidity, and other depended on inner factor of joy, pathos, anger, fear, etc.

 

また体内には12本の経脈と支脈といえる無数の絡脈があり、気はこの経路を循環する。この経路を正常に保つことによって健康が保持できるとし、ここに鍼灸を施すことによって治療するとした。

また、病気は二つに分けられ、風・寒気・乾燥・湿気などの外的影響によるものと、喜び・哀しみ・怒り・恐れなどの内的影響によるとした。

 

     Zhang Zhongling

< 5. Zhang Zhongling >

 

The oldest clinical medical book “Shanghan Lun”

This book was written by Zhang Zhongling of good doctor at the end of the Han dynasty, and was a monument that told the birth of experience medicine.

He was called Hippocrates.

In a preface, he wrote his families had died in large quantities in a short term and 70 percent of it was “Shanghan”, and indicated the motive of writing the book.

He systematically explained the treatment of “Shanghan” from the onset of a disease to the death, and medical treatment was explained mainly by medicines only, but the etiology was not explained.

 

最古の臨床医学書「傷寒論」

後漢時代の名医・張仲景によって著されたこの本は、経験医学の誕生を告げる記念碑であり、彼はヒポクラテスと並び称された。

序文で、彼の一族が短期間に大量死し、その7割が傷寒の病とし、本を書く動機を書いている。

傷寒(腸チフスを含む急性熱病)の治療を発病から死亡まで系統的に述べ、治療は薬物が中心で病因論には触れていない。

彼は臨床医としても優れ、広く各医家の長所を吸収し、経験と知識を統合し独創的な治療法を試みた。

 

 

 

Categories: history+evolution, <english language, <japanese language, science, Series: History of sickness and medical art | Tags: , , , , | 2 Comments

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2 thoughts on “History of sickness and medical art 28: China 3

  1. fascinating!

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