People who passed through the hardest wall 2: Mandela and apartheid


穿つ者 2: マンデラとアパルトヘイト

Mandela who made a speech in 1993

< 1.  Mandela who made a speech in 1993 >

< 1. 1993年、演説するマンデラ >

 

From now on, I introduce a miracle that happened in South Africa in installments.

This is a tale of one leader who accomplished democratic system peacefully by following through on nonviolence in a state of overwhelming racial discrimination.

This time, I explain apartheid and talk about Mandela from the next time.

 

これから、数回にわたり南アフリカで起きた奇跡を紹介します。

これは圧倒的な差別支配の中で、非暴力を貫き、平和的に民主制を勝ち取った一人の指導者の話です。

今回は、アパルトヘイトを説明し、次回からマンデラ氏について語ります。

 

 シャープビル事件  ,Sharpeville massacre in 1960 

< 2.  Sharpeville massacre in 1960 >

< 2. 1960年、シャープビル虐殺事件 >

 

Apartheid

This means the whole system and the policy of extreme racial separation and discrimination in South Africa.

Whites less than 10% curtailed the human rights of the remaining black people, colored races (mixed blood) and Asian (emigrant), and then performed the confiscation of economy and the isolation.

Black people consisting of many tribes were pursued their land by whites that settled in several hundred years ago, were imposed on every tax such as capitation, and were employed as slave of the farm or the family.

They were restricted from freedom such as marriage, residence and movement, and were not given any reward.

They perfunctorily were given a part of the autonomy of existing village or right to vote, but they couldn’t use the right after all.

When they took action of a complaint for whites, they were suppressed violently with law of white’s government, and became imprisonment.

This was during last half a century, before that, their houses were burnt and they were killed by white’s armed group and armed forces.

 

 

アパルトヘイト

これは南アフリカ共和国の極端な人種隔離・人種差別の政策と制度全体をさす。

1割に満たない白人が残りの黒人、カラード(混血)、アジア人(移民)の人権を奪い、経済的収奪と隔離を行った。

多くの部族からなる先住民の黒人は、数百年前から入植して来た白人に土地を追われ、人頭税などあらゆる税をかけられ、家内や農場の奴隷として使役された。

結婚や居住、移動などの自由が制限された彼らに見返りはなかった。

彼らは、形式的には旧来の村落の自治権や、選挙権を一部与えられこともあったが、結局はその権利が使えないようになっていた。

彼らが白人に不平を訴える行動を起こせば、白人政府の法に従って暴力的に鎮圧され収監された。

これはここ半世紀のことで、それ以前は、白人の武装集団や軍隊によって住居は焼かれ、殺された。

 

Mandela was a human rights activist and a lawyer in 1959

< 3. Mandela was a human rights activist and a lawyer in 1959 >

< 3. 1959年、弁護士、人権活動家のマンデラ >

 

デモ Student demonstration appealed for democratization in 1976

< 4. Student demonstration appealed for democratization in 1976 >

< 4. 1976年、民主化を訴える学生デモ >

 

Origin of apartheid

In ancient times, this place was a land where indigenous people carried on hunting-gathering or cattle breeding.

From the middle of the 17th century, Dutchman gradually began to settle in here, and to plunder.

These whites were called Afrikaner.

At the end of the 18th century, in turn, the United Kingdom in place of the Netherlands being weak began to rule this place.

The U.K. abolished the slavery in the early days, but changed big before long.

At the middle of the 19th century, the excavation of diamond and gold began here, and the U.K. took control of it.

The Afrikaner started the recapture of the economic special privilege, further colony acquisition, and began to war with the U.K. at last, and defeated.

A handful of Britons backed with the power of own country took control of the politics, the economy, and the industry, and a number of Afrikaners bore the farm management and the factory labor.

Before long, the both cooperated with plundering black people.

Current South Africa was born in 1910, and broke away from the British federation.

In 1948, this discrimination system was established as apartheid.

 

 

アパルトヘイトの起源

古くは、この地は先住民が狩猟採集、牧畜を営む土地だった。

17世紀半ば、オランダ人が入植を初め、徐々に収奪が始まった。

この白人をアフリカーナーと呼ぶ。

18世紀末、今度は英国が弱体化したオランダに替わって統治を始めた。

英国は、初めこそ奴隷制度の廃止を行ったが、やがて豹変していく。

19世紀半ば、この地でダイヤモンドと金の発掘が始まり、英国が牛耳った。

アフリカーナーは経済特権の奪還と、さらなる植民地獲得に乗り出し、遂に英国と戦争を始め、敗北を喫した。

少数の英国人は本国の力を背景に政治と経済・産業を握り、多数のアフリカーナーは農場経営や工場労働を担った。

やがて両者は黒人達を収奪することで折り合うことになる。

1910年、現在の南アが誕生し、英国連邦からも離脱し、1948年、差別制度はアパルトヘイトとして確立した。

収監時代のマンデラ , Mandela in jail 

< 5. Mandela in jail >

< 5. 収監中のマンデラ >

 

Beginning of apartheid end

Black people rose up together to ask for democratization, and in 1962, its leader Mandela was imprisoned.

From this time, the world and the United Nations criticized apartheid and the confinement of Mandela, and began to perform every blockade (economy, diplomacy, and arms).

Black people came to repeat the demonstration.

 

In addition, South Africa was warring with the neighboring countries, had fallen into a difficult situation in the inside and outside.

South Africa decided to release Mandela, and abolish the related bills of apartheid at last in 1990.

 

From the next time, I chase the achievement of Mandela.

 

 

アパルトヘイト終焉の始まり

黒人が民主化を求めて立ち上がり、1962年、その指導者マンデラは収監された。

この頃から世界と国連がアパルトヘイトとマンデラ収監を批難し、あらゆる封鎖(経済、外交、武器)を行い始めた。

黒人達はデモを繰り返すようになった。

また南アは近隣諸国とも戦争をしており、内外で苦境に陥り、遂に1990年、マンデラ釈放、アパルトヘイト関連法案の廃止に踏み切った。

 

 

次回から、マンデラ氏の事績を追います。

 

Categories: culture+society, history+evolution, <english language, <japanese language, mind, politics, Series: People who passed through | Tags: , , , , | Leave a comment

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