History of sickness and medical art 31: China 6


 

病と医術の歴史 31: 中国 6        

 

 

    1殷の青銅器

< 1. Bronze ware of Yin dynasty, the 14-11th century B.C. >

< 1. 殷の青銅器、紀元前14~11世紀 >

 

This time, I introduce a summary of Chinese medical art, and end it.

今回で、中国医学のまとめを行い、終わります。

 

2薬膳料理 

< 2. “Dishes of Chinese food therapy”was stewed medicines in soup >

< 2. 薬材を煮込んだ薬膳料理、 >

 

The megatrend (mainly till the 1st century)

In ancient China, the medical art of empirical science gradually developed from medical art being mainly magic.

As for the recognition to physiology, there was an emphasis on heart and a body fluid theory same as other ancient civilization.

There were several phases of outstanding changes in medical art till the 1st century.

Doctors divided their treatments among medicine men in Imperial Court.

There was the activity of doctors who went around each country intended for common people also.

Some important medical books were published.

The etiology had a concept being close to human body at around the 1st century B.C., but after that, it united with a theory of mind by religion (Taoism) and it didn’t develop.

However, because they attached importance to the practice, Acupuncture, Moxibustion and Chinese herb were developed

 

 

大きな流れ(主に紀元前後まで)

古代中国において、呪術中心の治療から経験科学による医術が徐々に発展していった。

身体生理への認識では、他の古代文明と同様な心臓重視と体液論があった。

医学上、何段階かの目立つ変化、宮廷内での巫医と医者の分掌、庶民をも対象にした遍歴医の活躍、医学書出版などが紀元前に起きて発展していた。

病因論は、紀元頃には身体に密接した概念を持ったこともあったが、その後は宗教(道教)の精神論と一体となり、安住してしまった感がある。

しかし実践を重視した鍼灸と漢方薬では高みを極めることになった。

 

3脈診

< 3. pulse diagnosis >

< 3.脈診 >

 

The characteristic of Chinese medical art, and the background

A: they did not identify a cause of the disease and decided the treatment policy by combination of plural symptoms.

B: they attached importance to disease prevention by raising natural healing capacity than treating the disease from outside.

C: in the disease diagnosis, the pulse diagnosis was developed especially.

 

In China, why didn’t the surgery develop? And why did the etiology greatly depend on the theory of mind?

 

Many religions of the world disliked the profanity of the body, and Confucianism prohibited the dissection like Christianity and Islam.

Therefore it is weak as a persuasive power that Chinese surgery didn’t develop by the prohibition of the religion.

Looking around the world, because pastoral tribe did not have resistance to the dissection than agricultural people, this may be a cause of it.

 

Another characteristic will originate in a reason that is pointed out in certain culture psychology.

People of the East Asia have a strong tendency that ” can see forest but don’t look at tree ” as compared with Westerner.

This seems to have led Chinese etiology that didn’t identify one cause and saw the whole symptom.

This will become to the characteristic A.

 

中国医学の特徴とその背景

A: 一つの病因を特定するのではなく、複数の症状の組合せ「証」によって治療方針を決めた。

B: 病気を外部から治療するよりも、自然治癒力を高めることと病気予防を重視した。

C: 病気診断では、四診(観察、聴・嗅診、質問、脈診)の脈診が発達した。

 

中国ではなぜ外科手術が発達しなかったのか、また病気を全体で捉えるのは良いとしても、病因論(因果関係)がなぜ精神論に大きく依存してしまったのか?

 

世界の宗教は概ね身体の冒涜を嫌い、儒教もキリスト教、イスラム教と同様に解剖を禁止した。

だから宗教の禁則で中国の外科が発達しなかったとするのでは説得力が弱い。

世界を見ると、農耕民族より牧畜民族の方が解剖に抵抗はなかったので、これが一因かもしれない。

 

もう一つの特徴は文化心理学で指摘されてことが起因しているのだろう。

東アジアの人々は欧米人と比べ「森を見て、木を見ない」傾向が強い。

これは中国の病因論が、一原因に特定せず、症状全体を見ることにつながりそうです。

これが特徴Aに繋がるのだろう。

 

 

4道教

< 4. a symbol showing “Yin and Yang” and a temple of Taoism >

< 4. 陰陽を表す図と道教の寺院 >

 

In China, Yin and Yang philosophy (space or body unify and change by two opposed elements) began to be unified at about the 3rd century B.C.

And Confucianism and Taoism of two major religion of China theorized it.

Taoism greatly was developed during Tang Dynasties, and the prescription of perpetual youth and longevity was expected, but failed in Chinese alchemy (mercury poisoning).

The Buddhism being ascendant in those days had a systematized theory of mind (people’s understanding brings solace), and Taoism enhanced Yin and Yang philosophy to counter it, and it seems to be involved in medical art.

This will become to the characteristic B.

 

Still probably, the biggest factor was that China was on the Eurasian edge, and was shut from other advanced civilization with the large desert, the mountain range, and the sea for a long time, therefore it seems to cause.

 

From the next time, I see the medical art of the ancient Greece.

 

中国では、陰陽思想(宇宙や身体は二つの要素が対立し統合して変化する)は紀元前3世紀頃にまとまり始め、それが中国の二大宗教の儒教と道教によって理論化されていた。

唐の時代に道教は大きく発展し不老長寿の処方を期待されるが、錬丹で失敗した(水銀中毒)。

当時、覇を競っていた仏教は体系化された精神論(悟りが救いをもたらす)を持っており、道教はこれと対抗する形で陰陽思想を高め、それが医術に取り込まれたようだ。

これが特徴Bに繋がるのだろう。

 

 

それでもおそらく最大の要因は中国がユーラシアの端にあり、長らく砂漠と山脈、海に遮られ他の高度文明との交流が遅れたことが災いしたのだろう。

インドやローマとの交流はあったが、仏教など一部に限られていた

 

 

次回から、古代ギリシャの医術を見ます。

 

 

Categories: culture+society, history+evolution, <english language, <japanese language, Series: History of sickness and medical art | Tags: , , , | 2 Comments

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2 thoughts on “History of sickness and medical art 31: China 6

  1. Very interesting!…. I am looking forward for your next delivery and the Greek approach!🙂
    Happy day to you… Regards, Aquileana😀

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