Traveling to Spain and Portugal 36: Genius painter Goya 1


スペインとポルトガルを巡る旅 36: 天才画家ゴヤ 1 

1

< 1. “ Portrait of Goya” by Vicente Lopez,1826, in Prado Museum >

< 1. 「ゴヤの肖像」ビセンテ・ロペス作、1826年、プラド蔵 >

 

Today, I introduce a painter being representative of Spain, and a painter being pioneer and agonized also.

I was fascinated by the mystery of Goya having ” brightness and shadows” in the Prado Museum.

I focused on the mystery and genius of Goya, and chose some from his many pictures.

 

今日は、スペインを代表する画家、先駆的で苦悩する画家でもあったゴヤを紹介します。

私はプラド美術館内を巡って、ゴヤの「陽と陰」の不思議に魅せられた。

数多い絵の中から、ゴヤの不思議と天才ぶりに焦点を当てて絵を選びました。

 

 

 

The life of Goya (1746 -1828)

He was born as a child of a plater in a small village near Zaragoza in the Spain northeast and did training for painter in Zaragoza.

In order to make a leap forward, he took an examination for royal school twice, but he was rejected.

He did overseas education in Italy for two years by oneself, became a frescoer after returning home in Zaragoza in 1771, and produced a ceiling picture of Catedral-Basílica de Nuestra Señora del Pilar.

In 1773, He became a painter creating the original pictures of tapestries for royal family in Madrid by the help of the court painter of the same town.

In 1789, he became a court painter of Carlos IV, and then the chief court painter after 10 years.

 

 

ゴヤの生涯(1746年~1828年)

スペイン北東部のサラゴサに近い寒村に鍍金師の子として生まれ、サラゴサで画家修行した。

中央進出を図って王立学校を2度受験するが落選する。

独力でイタリアに2年間留学し、1771年帰国後サラゴサでフレスコ画家になり、ピラール聖母教会の天井画も製作した。

1773年に同郷の宮廷画家の助力で、マドリードの王室タピストリーの原画を描いた。

1789年、国王カルロス4世の宮廷画家となり、10年後には主席宮廷画家として頂点を極めた。

 

However, his life reached a turning point.

In 1792, he is affected by a disease and loses his hearing ability.

Napoleon’s army invaded in 1807, Spain fought for the independence until 1814.

Spain recovered the independence, but after that, the reactionary and disquieting politics continued.

Goya drew the series of “black paintings” in the suburbs of Madrid from 1819.

In 1824, he took refuge in France in disgust of oppression against liberalist, and finished his life of 82 after 4 years.

 

 

しかし、彼に転機が訪れる。

1792年、彼は病に侵され聴力を失う。

スペインは、1807年にナポレオン軍が侵攻し、1814年まで独立戦争を戦った。

スペインは独立を回復したものの、その後、反動と不穏な政治が続いた。

ゴヤは1819年以降、マドリード郊外で一連の「黒い絵」(プラド蔵)を描く。

1824年、自由主義者への弾圧を嫌いフランスに亡命し、4年後82年の生涯を閉じた。

 

 

2

< 2. early works in the royal palace >

< 2.王宮での初期の作品 >

A: “the Parasol”, 1777, in Prado. A tapestry cartoon.

B: “La Nevada”, 1786, in Prado. A tapestry cartoon.

C: “La pradera de San Isidro”, 1788, in Prado. The backdrop of this tapestry cartoon is Madrid.

 

These tapestry that were produced by cartoons of Goya were displayed in the dining rooms or bedrooms of the royal family, and common people and simple living plenty were drawn.

This might be a liking of the royal family, and he was concerned with common people.

Picture C will be drawn again in the series of ” black paintings” later.

 

A: 「パラソル」1777年作、プラド蔵。初期のタピストリー原画。

B: 「吹雪(冬)」1786年作、プラド蔵。タピストリー原画。

C:「サン・イシードロの牧場」1788年作、プラド蔵。背景はマドリード。

 

ゴヤが描いた下絵のタピストリーは王室の食堂や寝室に飾られたものだが、庶民や素朴な暮らしが多く描かれていた。

これは王室の嗜好もあったのだろうが、彼の視点は民衆に向いていた。

絵Cは、後にシリーズ「黒い絵」で、再び描かれることになる。

 

3

< 3. pictures in his prime >

< 3.絶頂期の絵  >

D: “ The Clothed Maja”, 1797-1800, in Prado.

E: “ The Nude Maja”, same as above.

F:“Charles Ⅳof Spain and His Family”, 1800-1801, in Prado.

 

These pictures were things in his prime, but he already lost his hearing ability.

Female nude was limited to picture of a myth in those days, so he was bold.

There were the pictures D and E in the house of a prime minister, and he was tried by the Inquisition after the detection.

Picture F was a picture that Goya drew firstly at when he became the chief court painter.

It is cynical about this family severely.

The arrogant queen is in the center, and King was drawn poorly and was stood aside.

After this, there was never an order from this King.

He wasn’t a brown-noser to power, and El Greco in the 16 century was same also.

 

D:「着衣のマハ」1797-1800年頃、プラド蔵。

E:「裸のマハ」同上。

F:「カルロス4世の家族」1800―1年頃、プラド蔵。

 

これらの絵はゴヤの絶頂期のものですが、既に聴力は失っていた。

当時、女性の裸像は神話の絵に限られていたので、大胆であった。

絵DとEは宰相の家にあって、発覚後、ゴヤは宗教裁判にかけられた。

絵Fは、ゴヤが主席宮廷画家になって最初に描いた絵で、この家族を痛烈に皮肉っている。

傲慢な王妃が中心で、貧相に描かれた王が脇に立っている。

この後、この王からの注文は無くなります、それはそうでしょう。

おもねることのないゴヤの本領発揮です、16世紀のエル・グレコも同じでした。

 

 

4

< 4. looking at common people >

< 4. 民衆を見詰めて >

G: “ Yard with Lunatics”, 1794, in Meadows Museum.

H: “ No.39: And so was his grandfather”, 1798, a series of “ Caprichos” being prints by etching.

He satirized a noble (donkey) depending on his family tree.

I: “ No.23: Those specks of dust”, same as above. An aspect of the Inquisition.

J: “No.55: Until death”, same as above. He satirized the queen (?) of picture F.

 

 

G:「狂人の家」1794年、メドウズ美術館蔵。

H:「39番、祖父の代まで」1798年、版画集「気まぐれ」より。家系図に頼る貴族(ロバ)を風刺。

I:「23番、あの塵埃」同上。宗教裁判の様子。

J:「55番、死ぬまでは」同上。図Fの王妃?を風刺。

 

Goya seemed to really draw the picture G by seeing a mental hospital.

After his hearing ability was lost, he became facing the agony of people deeply.

He published the satiric prints as a painter who introduces his idea from a painter who drew by an order.

He claimed, ” everybody, have a rational mind” in this prints (pictures H,I,J).

 

On the next time, it is the latter half.

 

絵Gは、ゴヤが実際に精神病院を見て描いたらしい。

彼は聴力を失った後、人の苦しみに深く向き合うようになる。

彼は注文で描く画家から、自分の考えを世間に伝える画家として風刺の版画集を出版した。

彼はこの版画集「気まぐれ」(絵H,I,Jなど)で、「皆、理性を使え」と訴えた。

 

次回は、後半になります。

 

 

Categories: culture+society, history+evolution, <english language, <japanese language, Series: Traveled to Spain and Portugal | Tags: , | 2 Comments

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2 thoughts on “Traveling to Spain and Portugal 36: Genius painter Goya 1

  1. “The Clothed Maja” and “The Nude Maja” really stand out!⭐
    Great gallery!… Best regards, Aquileana😀

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