Capital of Piketty 12: Things in the background of disparity 1


ピケティの資本論 12: 格差の背景にあるもの 1

   1

*1

 

Last time, we looked at the issues of the disparity.

We look at the background of disparity with a focus on U.S.A. four times.

I introduce the main point from some overseas books.

 

前回、格差の問題点を見ました。

これから4回にわたり米国を中心に格差の背景を見ます。

海外の著名人の著書から要点を紹介します。

 

Preface

There are several disparities in any generation, people notice the serious damage and try the correction.

Therefore, they temporarily had been able to lower adverse effects, but it continues because of not being able to eliminate the ingrained discrimination.

On the contrary, when the correction had become radical, the society often was confused.

This repeat may be a history.

I thought that many developed countries became good by democracy and improving awareness of human rights, but the disparity is reviving again now.

 

はじめに

格差(差別)はいつの世にも存在し、社会はその重大さに気付き是正に向かう。

それによって、悪影響を小さく出来たこともあったが、根深い差別を断てず、今も続いているものもある。

逆に、是正が急進的になり、社会を混乱させたこともあった。

この繰り返しが歴史かもしれません。

多くの先進国は民主主義と人権意識の向上で良くなったと思っていたが、今、また格差が復活しつつある。

2

*2

The repeated disparity

In the old days, most imperial collapses had concluded by an invasion of different ethnic groups, but the much was caused by failures of function in the empire.

There were a corruption of powerful persons and a dropping of ruling power, and on the other hand, there were an increase of the dissatisfaction and poverty as for many people.

 

Several centuries ago, the expansion of exploitation and disparity led to a revolution or independence.

There were some people that scrambled for accumulating the wealth and holding power, and other people’s wealth were squeezed approximately reasonably.

Saying that it is rational is because of being performed with obeying the law that the assembly established.

 

There are many factors that a country falls failures of function and declines.

The much start with that the most people become to be suffering from poverty (disparity), because the privileged grasps a lot power, and performs arbitrary management of politics and economy.

Book

“Why nations fail” of Daron Acemoglu is acquainted with this.

 

繰り返される格差

古くは、帝国の崩壊は異民族の侵入で完結したが、その多くは帝国の機能不全に起因していました。

そこには権力者層の腐敗と統治能力の低下、一方で多くの民衆の困窮と不満の増大があった。

数世紀前には、搾取や格差の拡大が革命や独立などに繋がった。

そこには富の集積に奔走し権力を握る人々と、ほぼ合理的に富を絞り取られる人々がいました。

合理的と言うのは、議会が定めた法に抵触しないように行われたからです。

国が機能不全に陥り衰退する要因は多々ありますが、多くは一部の特権層が権力を握り、恣意的な国家・経済運営を行い、益々、大多数の民衆が貧困(格差)に喘ぐことから始まります。

これはダロン・アセモグル&ジェイムズ・A・ロビンソン著「国家はなぜ衰退するのか上・下」に詳しい。

3 図9-8

< 3. share of top decile in total income, by “Capital in Twenty-First Century” >

< 3. トップ十分位の総所得シェア、「21世紀の資本」より >

Explanation: In U.S.A., share of top 10 % in total income is 48 %.

解説: 米国では上位10%の所得層が所得全体の48%を得ている(総資産ではない)。

Background of disparity progressing now

Unfortunately the economic disparity progresses most in the United States, and Europe also progresses, but the degree is different.

I introduce the situation of U.S.A. with American book mainly.

現在、進行している格差の背景

残念ながら経済格差は米国で最も進行し、欧州も程度こそ違うが進行している。

主に米国の学者による米国の状況を紹介します。

* Krugman describes in his book “The Conscience of a Liberal”

Republican Party had confirmed the conservative swing from about 1980s, and was headed to protecting a part profit than equality and fairness.

And the party strengthens solidarity with a small number of moneybags billionaire person and big companies, and got a found and power more.

Thus they accelerated the abolishment of estate tax and the reduction in progressivity of income tax, and abolished the corrective measure that New Deal program had built previously.

In the result, the remarkable disparity of the early 20th century suddenly surfaced again.

Krugman points out about the background factors.

White people having strong discriminatory sentiments against black people had increased a sense of crisis.

 

This continues next time.

 

* クルーグマンは著書「格差はつくられた」で述べています

共和党がおおよそ1980年頃から保守化を強め、平等や公正よりも一部の利益擁護に向い、一握りの超金持ちと大企業との団結を強め、資金と力を得た。

こうして遺産税撤廃、所得税の累進性排除を加速させ、それまでのニューディール政策で築き上げた是正措置は撤廃され、20世紀初頭の著しい格差が再度急浮上してきた。

クルーグマンは、この背景に黒人への強い差別感情を持つ白人達が危機感を募らせた結果だとしている。

次回に続きます。

Categories: book+ film+drama, economy, history+evolution, politics, series: Capital of Piketty | Tags: | Leave a comment

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