Go around the world of Buddha statues 28: The beginning of God statue in China 6


仏像を巡って 28: 中国の神像の始まり 6

 1 茅山  

< 1. A statue of Taoism in one of Taoism’s sacred spots >

< 1. 道教の聖地茅山、大きな尊像が見える >

 

This time, we look at the situation that statue of Taoism was born.

It resulted after Buddhism had become popular.

今回は、道教の尊像が誕生する瞬間を追います。

それは仏教が盛んになった後に起こりました。

 

How was god statue of Taoism born?

Here, I explain it by applying the word “statue of Taoism (Tianzun)” to god statue

 

道教の尊像の誕生

ここで、私は神像に道教像(天尊)を用いて説明します。

 

 2-J-L

< 2. Triad statues >

< 2. 三尊像 >

In fact, one of these is a Buddha statue, and the others are statues of Taoism.

These resemble closely so that we cannot notice the difference.

 

Fig. J: Triad statues of Taoism in the early 6th century.

This was the first thing as single independent statue.

 

Fig. K: Triad statues of Taoism in the middle of 6th century.

 

Fig. L: Triad statues of Buddhism in the 4th – 6th century.

 

The characteristic of the statue of Taoism is a crown on the head, a short staff of bamboo with bundled hair, and a bent desk of three legs.

Fig. K and O show it clearly.

 

実は、この内、一つは仏像で他は道教像なのです。

見分けがつかないぐらいよく似ています。

 

図J: 道教三尊像、北魏、6世紀初め。

単独の像としては初期のもの。

 

図K: 道教三尊像、北周、6世紀中頃。

 

図L: 仏教三尊像、北魏、4~6世紀。

 

道教像の特徴は、頭上の冠、団扇状の払子、脚三本の曲がった机にあります(図KとOで明瞭)。

 

 

3-M-O

< 3. Triad statues of Taoism (The Three Pure Ones) >

< 3. 道教の三尊像 >

 

In Buddhism, Buddha doesn’t stand in line with three persons, but in Taoism, statues of Taoism that are nearly same class (the supreme god) stand in line with three persons.

But after all, the middle statue is the highest class.

There are many kinds of statue of Taoism by the religious sect of Taoism.

In Buddhism, the middle of triad statues is a rule to be the Buddha, but there are many different types in Taoism.

 

Fig. M: Yun Gang cave shrine, the 8th century

There are many huge cave temples in Buddhism, but only there are a few of small cave shrines in Taoism.

This cave shrine consists of 9 caves, but there are 1400 caves in Longmen Grottoes of Buddhism.

 

Fig. N: No. 5 cave in Yun Gang cave shrine, the 8th century

This is the same as Buddha statue except a crown.

 

Fig. O: Triad statues of Taoism in a Taoist temple of Shanghai

 

仏教では如来が三つ並ぶことはありませんが、道教ではほぼ同格の「天」(最高神)が並びます。

但し、やはり真ん中は一番格が高い。

尊像の種類は道教の宗派や道観(寺院)によって数多くあります。

仏教なら、中心にあるのは釈迦像が決まりですが、道教では様々なようです。

 

図M: 龍山石窟、山西省、唐、8世紀。

仏教には巨大な石窟は多いが、道教のものは小さく少ない。

この石窟は9窟のみだが、仏教の龍門石窟(前回の図I)には1400窟もある。

 

図N: 龍山石窟第5窟、8世紀。

冠を除けば如来像と同じ。

 

図O: 道教三尊像、太清宮、上海。

左から太清道徳天尊(老子の神格化)、玉清元始天尊(最高神)、上清霊宝天尊(「道」を神格化)です(三清の場合)。

 

A huge change of Chinese religion occurred

The Buddhism was introduced into China in the first century, but was not accepted very much first.

It was because Buddhism was a religion of different ethnic groups, and had “a never-ending cycle of life and death” as a doctrine that opposed a view of life and death of Han people.

However, after about the 3rd century, the Chinese religion changed during war-torn era.

Confucianism that only preached the morality to government clerk declined, and Taoism became popular because of having preached perpetual youth and longevity, and disease recovery by prayer.

At the same time, some northern people that founded the many nations in the northern part of China adopted logical Buddhism.

 

Afterward, Buddhism and Taoism gained many believers along with competing each, and many dynasties made each a state religion or prohibited the religion.

Thus, Buddha statues had spread in first, and statues of Taoism were made by copying it.

 

On the next time, we look at the wonder of the religion behind the birth of statue of Taoism.

 

 

大きな信仰の変化が起きていた

紀元1世紀に仏教は伝わっていたが、当初、あまり受け入れられませんでした。

それは仏教が漢民族の死生観と対立する輪廻転生説と異民族の宗教だからでした。

ところが、後3世紀頃以降、三国時代(魏蜀呉)の戦乱とその後の異民族(北方騎馬民族)による戦乱が続くと、信仰に変化が起こりました。

官吏の道徳を説くだけの儒教は衰退し、祈祷による不老長寿や病気平癒を説く道教に人気が出て来ました(太平道、五斗米道)。

同時に、中国北部に幾多の国を興した北方民族(北魏など)は理路整然とした仏教を取り入れました。

 

その後、仏教と道教は競い合いながら信者を増やしていき、幾多の王朝がそれぞれを国教や禁教にしてきました。

このようにして、渡来した仏像が先行し普及し、それを真似て道教像も造られていきました。

 

次回は、神像誕生の背景にある信仰と宗教の不思議を見ます。

 

 

 

Categories: culture+society, history+evolution, <english language, <japanese language, Series: Go around the world of Buddha statues | Tags: , , , , , | 2 Comments

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2 thoughts on “Go around the world of Buddha statues 28: The beginning of God statue in China 6

  1. Fabulous and fascinating!

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