Go around the world of Buddha statues 29: The beginning of God statue in China 7


仏像を巡って 29: 中国の神像の始まり 7

    1

< 1. a statue of Taoism in Taiwan >

< 1. 道教像、台湾 >

 

This time, we look at the wonder of religion that was behind the background of the birth of god statue.

“The beginning of God statue in China “ is the last at this article.

 

今回は、神像誕生の背景にある宗教の不思議を見ます。

これで、「中国の神像の始まり」は終わります。

 

 

2

< 2. the change of the Chinese human statue for approximately 4,000 years >

< 2. 約4000年間にわたる中国の人物像の変遷 >

 

What had happened to Taoism and Buddhism?

In the despair of troublous times in those days, people didn’t come to refuse Buddhism only because it was a religion of different ethnic groups.

Then, the people became fascinated by the cultivation of mind or the help of the Buddha that Buddhism advocated.

The people received the theory “a never-ending cycle of life and death” to endure temporal unreasonableness.

In addition, many dynasties came to use the influence.

 

On the other hand, Taoism became popular until it was favorably compared with Buddhism, but it was necessary to change to other direction from Chinese alchemy (medicine-making techniques) because of developing poisoning death by the medicine for immortality.

Therefore, Taoism incorporated the cultivation of mind from Buddhism as means of the perpetual youth and longevity.

In addition, Taoism had been necessary to theorization due to argument with Buddhism, and put the philosophy of Doka on a basis.

 

On the other hand, Buddhism adopted a prayer and execration of Taoism, too.

Buddha and Laozi that had been the founder of the each sect were advertised as the same person by both religions.

 

 

道教と仏教に何が起きていたのか

乱世にあって、人々は絶望の中で仏教が異民族の宗教だからと言うだけで拒否しなくりました。

仏教が唱える精神修養や仏の御加護は人々の心を捉えました。

民衆は現世の理不尽に耐える為に輪廻転生説を受け入れていきました。

また多くの王朝はその影響力を利用するようになりました。

 

一方、仏教を凌ぐまで普及した道教でしたが、錬丹術の失敗(不老長寿の薬で中毒死)から方向転換する必要がありました。(「病と医術の歴史30」参照)

そこで道教は不老長寿の手立てとして仏教の精神修養を取り込みました。

また道教は仏教との論争で理論化が必要になり、道家の老子、荘子(紀元前4世紀頃)の思想を基本に据えました。

荘子の思想「無」は般若心経(仏教経典)の「空」に似ていたことも有利に働いた。

 

一方、仏教も道教の祈祷(折伏、呪詛)を取り入れました。

両宗教は、宗祖である老子と釈迦は、同一だと互いに喧伝するようになりました。

 

3

< 3. Laozi of China and “a never-ending cycle of life and death” of India >

< 3. 中国の老子とインドの輪廻転生 >

 

A mystery of the statue birth of Taoism

The supreme god of Taoism should have become clear from those days because sacred books of Taoism were accomplished from about the first century.

However, the statues birth of Taoism was the sixth century, and was 2 centuries later than Buddha statues had spread.

Even if people can make human statue, it seems to have had a hesitation to express supreme god by human image.

 

In many religions of the world, why was there such delay of god statues?

 

There is the hint a little.

In addition, the purposes of the worship were restrictive and intermittent, such as ancestor worship, burial, disease recovery, huge harvest, and exorcism.

 

However, when a unified dynasty was born, the guardian deities of each tribe were systematized, and a personal god like the king came out on the top.

This personal god became the supreme god who can accept all wishes from national prosperity to disease recovery.

 

In this situation, when a religion having the statue of personal god came in, a tendency of the molding of the god statue becomes lively.

In this way, the god statue was independently enshrined and came to be always worshiped.

As for this, not only China but also India and Japan were similar.

 

 

尊像(神像)誕生の不思議

道教の経典は後漢時代(後1~3世紀)に成立し、道教の最高神はこの頃から明確になったはずです。

しかし尊像の誕生は仏像が普及してから2世紀ほど遅れた6世紀でした。

初期の道教では道観(道教の神殿)と仏教の寺を併設することがあり、5世紀頃の記録に、仏像は置いてもまだ尊像を置かなかった記録があります。

人々は人物像を造ることが出来ても、尊像を人間の容姿で表現することに躊躇があるようです。

 

なぜ世界各地の宗教で、このように神像誕生の遅れがあるのでしょうか?

 

そのヒントは幾らかあります。

古くは、人々は超自然の力を期待して、人間の姿よりはむしろ架空の動物を崇拝対象にした。

また崇拝は限定的で断続的なものだった(祖先、埋葬、病気平癒、豊穣祈願、厄払いなど)。

しかし、統一王朝が誕生すると、部族毎の守護神は体系化され、王のような人格神がその頂点に立つようになった。

この人格神は、国家安泰から病気平癒まで、すべての願いを受け入れる最高神となった。

 

この状況で人格神の像を有する宗教が外来すると、その神像を造形する気運が盛り上がります。

こうして人格神の像が単独で祀られ、常時礼拝されるようになった。

これは中国だけでなくインドと日本(三徳山三仏寺の金剛蔵王大権現)も同様でした。

 

 

4

< 4. a crematory of Ganges and the mausoleum of first Qin Emperor >

< 4. ガンジス川の火葬場と秦の始皇帝の陵墓 >

 

It shows that a collision of different cultures further developed the view of society, religious piety and carving skill of people.

For example, by accepting of the concept ”a never-ending cycle of life and death”, Chinese burial culture united with Indian cremation culture that differed in ” view of life and death”, and it affected not only China but also Japan.

 

そこには人々の信仰心、社会観、造形表現力が異文化流入によって大きく発展する姿がありました。

例えば、輪廻転生の受け入れによって、死生観を異にする中国の土葬文化とインドの火葬文化が合体し、中国だけでなく日本にも影響を与えたのです。

 

Afterword

Religion has sublime idea, and particularly there is a power to grow splendid neighborly love.

On the other hand, the more believers’ piety is strong, the more they hate pagans intensely.

However, the syncretism was possible precisely even between the religions caused serious confrontation because there was a truth common to all humankind in those, and spread in the world.

 

From next time, I will treat another theme about god statue of the world.

 

 

あとがき

宗教には崇高な理念があり、特に素晴らしい隣人愛を育む力があります。

一方で、信仰心が強ければ強いほど異教徒を激しく憎悪することにもなります。

しかし対立を生む宗教間にも、人類共通の真理があるからこそ習合を可能にし、世界に広がって行ったのです。

 

次回からは、また別のテーマで世界の神像を巡る予定です。

 

 

 

Categories: culture+society, history+evolution, <english language, <japanese language, Series: Go around the world of Buddha statues | Tags: , , , , , , , | Leave a comment

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