The society and the information 58: News media has fought 15


社会と情報 58: 戦った報道 15

 

1明治時代の引き札

< 1. An advertisement handbill in Meiji Period, military personnel was popular >

< 1.明治時代の広告チラシ、軍人が人気 >

 

This time, I supplement with the last explanation about the social change that happened under a war regime.

 

今回は、戦時体制下で起こった社会的変化の補足説明になります。

 

 2憲兵

< 2. Military policeman >

< 2. 憲兵 >

 

I divide the social change into two elements

 

People’s thought and feelings were changing unconsciously

One is a surge of national sentiments such as patriotism or a chain of hatred.

When people endured hardship in a battlefield or their relative died of wounds, they felt stronger resistance in being pointed out that going into battle is useless.

This was connected to strict defending of national interests.

 

People intensely criticized the coward attitude of the government toward the Triple Intervention that had to abandon a territory.

 

Furthermore, because they couldn’t abandon China that they obtained in exchange for a life of Japanese soldiers 290,000, and couldn’t withdraw from it, again enlarged the war.

 

 

社会的変化を二つに分けます

 

しらずしらずのうちに国民の思想や心情が変化していく

一つは憎しみの連鎖や愛国心などの国民感情の高まりです。

さらに、出征し辛酸を舐め、また身内が戦傷死した場合、それを無駄だったとすることに人々は強い抵抗を感じます。

これが国益の厳守に結びつきます。

国民は領地を返還させられた三国干渉で政府を弱腰と猛烈に批難し、また日本将兵29万の命と引き換えに手に入れた中国を放棄出来ないとして、撤退が出来ず戦争を拡大することになった。

 

Another is the spreading of the weapon use and military spirit.

I investigated the spread of guns in “Our war 17-22” series before.

As a result, it was clear that the spread of guns caused the increase of the crime victim.

In other words, it changed to the society approved of violence, and settled troubles by violence.

This is clear at a glance if we see an action movie of Hollywood.

Similarly, if the martial spirit penetrates the whole society, the autocratic behaviors increase to many families such as Spartan discipline.

 

Thus, they would get used to the national interest, violence, and regulation.

 

もう一つは、武器使用と軍人精神の波及です。

以前、「私達の戦争 17~22」で銃の普及を検証しました。

その結果、銃の普及は犯罪被害者の増大を招いていました。

見方を変えれば、暴力を是認し暴力で解決する社会に変容したのです。

これはハリウッドのアクション映画を見れば一目瞭然です。

同様に軍人精神が浸透すれば、スパルタ教育など社会から家庭まで専制的な振る舞いが増大します。

こうして社会は国益や暴力、攻撃、統制に慣れて行きます。

 

3 1936年小学校読本

< 3. Elementary school language Reader in 1936 >

< 3. 1936年の小学校国語読本 >

 

The government led the people for war regime reinforcement

First, war weariness had been prevalent for almost people, so the government praised military personnel and encouraged to become good military personnel.

In addition, they assumed a hypothetical enemy, incited fear, and encouraged battling spirit.

Every military power practiced this.

For this purpose, education, public information, and oppression (prohibition of criticism) were important.

 

国が戦時体制強化の為に国民をリードする

初めは国民誰しも厭戦的です、そこで国は軍人を讃えて良き軍人になることを奨励します。

また仮想敵国を想定し恐怖を煽り、戦闘意欲を鼓舞するようにもなります。

古今東西、軍事大国はこれを実践して来ました。

これら教宣には教育と広報、批判禁止(弾圧)が重要です。

 

If expressing the article before last in other words, it is summarized as follows.

* A big menace near at hand.

* We should defend the national interests (territory) that we paid large sacrifice to obtain to.

* The near enemy is thing we should despise, and the repulse is easy.

This will be the most effective sentence that instigates the people.

 

 

前々回の某新聞の記事を言い換えればこうなります。

大きな脅威が迫りつつある。

多大な犠牲を払った国益(領土など)を死守すべき。

目前の敵は蔑視すべきもので、撃退は容易である。

これは国民を煽る最も有効な言葉でしょう。

 

4 在郷軍人会

< 4. A local veterans’ association >

< 4. 在郷軍人会の集合写真 >

 

On the other hand, it does not attract attention, but there is local veterans’ association as the example which raised an effect steadily.

This association was organized by the reserve duty that was available for mobilization of wartime and reached 3 million people in the 1930s.

Japanese population at the time was approximately 60 million people.

At first, the purpose was an education training of military personnel, but this became the implementing group to uplift their fighting spirit by the military leadership later.

In each place, this played a major role by protest and the boycott to anti- authority newspapers (Asahi and Mainichi), and by the promotion of the emigration to Manchuria and Mongolia.

Japan learned this system from Germany.

 

Thus, people regarded the continent invasion as national interests and accepted a war and the government of national unity.

However, people cannot embark on war only in this.             

 

I think about the economic factor on the next time.

 

一方、目立たないが着実に効果を上げた例として在郷軍人会があります。

在郷軍人会は、戦時動員可能な予備役によって構成され、1930年代には300万人に達していた。

当時の日本人口は約6000万人でした。

当初、これは軍人の教育鍛錬が目的であったが、後に軍主導による戦意高揚の実践部隊となっていった。

これは各地で、反権力新聞(朝日や毎日)への抗議や不買運動、満蒙開拓移民の推進で大きな役割を担った。

日本は在郷軍人会の制度をドイツに倣った。

 

こうして国民は大陸侵攻を国益とみなし、戦争と挙国一致体制を受容するようになっていた。

しかしこれだけで戦争に踏み出せるわけではない。

 

次回は経済的な要因について考えます。

 

 

 

 

 

Categories: history+evolution, <english language, <japanese language, politics, Series: The society and the information | Tags: , , , , , , , , | 4 Comments

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4 thoughts on “The society and the information 58: News media has fought 15

  1. thank you for visiting my blog.and liking my recent post “raping Europe. Do you remember ISIS decapitated the Japanese aide worker in Syria in 2014?

  2. Thank you for visiting my blog and liking my recent post ,Raping Europe.”Do you remember ISIS decapitated the Japanese Aide worker in Syria in 2014?

    • I know ISIS decapitated two Japanese men in Syria.
      But I think ISIS is a radical element than a pure Muslim group.
      I think that their aggressiveness is more a result from poverty and hatred than a result from Islam.
      But, I yet have not checked it in detail.

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