Went around Croatia and Slovenia 15:  The wonder of Dubrovnik 1


クロアチア・スロベニアを巡って 15: ドゥブロブニクの不思議 1

 

1

< 1. The port of Dubrovnik  >

< 1. ドゥロブニクの港 >

 

How did this small city-state survive between great powers?

It was the history that this city-state had continued demanding freedom.

From today, I will chase the wonder of this rare marine city-state.

 

この小さな都市国家が如何にして大国の狭間で生き延びることが出来たのだろうか?

それは自由を求め続けた歴史でもありました。

今日から、この希有な海洋都市国家の不思議を追います。

 

Preface

When I visited this old city, I was first surprised at the huge rampart being disproportionate to the small town.

In the Middle Ages, there were a lot of free cities and seafaring countries, but there quietly was this small marine city-state that enjoyed freedom in a corner of tumultuous Balkan Peninsula.

The activity of Dubrovnik was indirectly connected with European Renaissance and the Age of Discovery.

For over 1000 years, there were various magnificent dramas of the clash of civilizations among Europe, Asia, and Africa, and the trade that extended to the Indian Ocean from the Mediterranean Sea.

 

I survey Dubrovnik that lived in the Middle Ages

There are romances between people and sea, and a hint to peace here.

 

 

はじめに

私がこの旧市街を訪ねて最初に驚いたのは、小さな町に不釣合いな巨大な城壁でした。

中世、自由都市や海洋国家は数多くあったが、この騒乱のバルカン半島の片隅で人知れず、自由を謳歌した小国があった。

ドゥロブニクの活躍はヨーロッパのルネサンスと大航海時代と間接的につながっていました。

そこには、ヨーロッパとアジア、アフリカの文明の衝突、さらに地中海からインド洋に跨る交易の千年に及ぶ壮大なドラマがありました。

 

これから中世世界に生きたドゥロブニクを概観します。

そこには人々と海を巡るロマン、さらには平和へのヒントがあります。

 

 

 2海洋国家

 

< 2. These seafaring countries of Italia were leaders of the Mediterranean Sea in the Middle Ages >

< 2. 中世、地中海の覇者となったイタリアの海洋共和国 >

 

Explanation 

A fig.: It shows 8 seafaring countries of Italy and the Adriatic Sea.

Red circles are 3 countries that played an active part in the sea until the last.

 

B fig.: The length of Venice main island is about 5 km.

C fig.:   The width of Genoa harbor is about 3 km.

D fig.:   The castle width of Dubrovnik that was capital of Republic of Ragusa is about 500 m.

 

Dubrovnik was very small compared with two great powers Venice and Genoa.

 

解説:

A図: イタリアとアドリア海にあった8カ国の海洋共和国を示す。

赤丸は最後まで活躍した三つの共和国です。

B図: ベネチアの本島、その長さ約5km。

C図: ジェノバの港、その巾は約3km。

D図: ラグーサの首都ドゥブロブニクの城砦、その巾は約500m。

 

ドゥブロブニクは二大強国ベネチアとジェノバに比べて遥かに小さかった。

 

 

3船2

 

< 3. A sailing ship that started to play an active part in the 15th century >

< 3. 15世紀に活躍し始めた帆船 >

 

The history of Dubrovnik

In the about 7th century, this town’s history began from a Roman that lived at current seaside across a small canal from Slav of the mountainside.

In the 13th century, both people filled up the canal and merged.

 

ドゥブロブニクの歴史

7世紀頃、町は、今の旧市街の海側にローマ人、山側にスラブ人が小運河を隔て住み着いたことに始まる。

13世紀、両者は運河を埋め立てて統合した。

 

 

4名称未設定-5

 

< 4. Around the Adriatic Sea in the middle 14th century >

< 4. 14世紀中頃のアドリア海周辺 >

 

After being ruled by many peoples, from the 6th century, Dubrovnik was dominated by Byzantine Empire, subsequently Venice (1204-1359), Hungary (1359-1526), and Ottoman Turkey.

From the 12th century, Dubrovnik traded between Italy and Balkan, and carried industrial products from Italy, or raw materials from Balkan.

The large ship appeared from the 13th century, and Dubrovnik had large merchant ships more than 180 in the 16th century.

The last of the 15th century, when Dubrovnik was dominated by Ottoman Turkey, its overland trade in Balkan became more active.

Furthermore, Dubrovnik’s sea trade spread from the Adriatic Sea and the Mediterranean Sea to the Black Sea, the Atlantic, and the Indian Ocean.

And Dubrovnik put the consulates in 50 cities and reached its peak.

 

幾多の民族に支配された後、6世紀からビザンティン帝国、次いでベネチア(1204‐1359),ハンガリー(1359‐1526)、やがてオスマン・トルコの庇護下にあった。

12世紀から、ドゥブロブニクはイタリアの諸都市とバルカンの交易を担い、イタリアからは工業製品を、バルカンからは原料を運んだ。

13世紀からは大型船が登場し、16世紀には180隻を超える大型商船を持った。

15世紀後半、オスマン・トルコの支配下に入ると、バルカンとの陸上交易が活発になった。

さらに海上交易の範囲はアドリア海や地中海だけでなく,黒海、大西洋、インド洋にも及び、50都市に領事館を置き、全盛期を迎えた。

 

 

5-旧総督邸

 

< 5. Rector’s Palace >

< 5.旧総督邸 >

 

In 1359, since Dubrovnik was dominated by Hungary, it came to reject a governor accredited from the imperial country.

And Dubrovnik nobles mutually elected their governor.

After this, they had been promoting the domestic administration and diplomatic policy as an independent country.

All nobles 18 years or older performed legislation and picked the execution member.

They limited governor’s tenure to 1 month and avoided dictatorship.

The commoner who supported the economy wasn’t able to participate in it, but an aristocratic democratic system was performed.

This situation was made possible mainly due to the huge rampart and a large amount of contribution.

 

But it began to decline before long.

When the Age of Discovery began on the Atlantic side, the importance of the east Mediterranean Sea decreased.

Dubrovnik took part in two wars of Europe in the 16th and the 17th century and suffered big damage.

Furthermore, it received a crushing blow by a major earthquake of 1667, and the overland trade reduced when the influence of Ottoman Turkey began to drop.

Finally, Dubrovnik’s republic was extinct by the occupation of Napoleon in 1808 and it was dominated by the Austria territory in 1814.

 

This continues next time.

 

 

1359年、ハンガリー庇護下に入ると、それまでの宗主国からの総督派遣を退け、ドゥブロブニクの貴族層が自らの総督を互選するようになった。

これ以降、独立国として内政・外交政策を推進していった。

18歳以上のすべての貴族が立法を行い、執行メンバーを選出した。

彼らは総督の任期は1ヶ月とし独裁を避けた。

経済を支えた平民は参加出来なかったが、貴族的民主制を行った。

これを可能にしたのは、如何なる攻撃にも耐える巨大な城壁と多額の貢納でした。

 

しかしやがて陰りが見え始める。

大西洋側で大航海時代が始まると、東地中海の重要度は低下していった。

ドゥブロブニクは16、17世紀とヨーロッパの戦争に加担して大きな損害を被った。

さらに、1667年の大地震で壊滅的打撃を受け、陸上交易もオスマン・トルコの勢威が下降し始めると縮小していった。

最後に1808年ナポレオンの占領によって共和国は消滅し、1814年にはオーストリア領となった。

 

次回に続きます。

 

 

 

 

Categories: economy, history+evolution, <english language, <japanese language, Series: Went around Croatia and Slovenia, travel+photo | Tags: , , , , | 2 Comments

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2 thoughts on “Went around Croatia and Slovenia 15:  The wonder of Dubrovnik 1

  1. I would love to visit!

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