Bring peace to the Middle East! 23: about terrorism 3 : the background 1


中東に平和を! 23: テロについて3: その背景 1

 

1

*1

We again look at the internal conditions of Egypt, and the background for intensification of the armed struggle in the Middle East.

前回に続いて、エジプトの内情と中東での武装闘争激化の背景を見ていきます。

What was Egypt’s next move?
In 1970, Sadat of the same officer corps took office as the President after sudden death of Nasser.
At the time, Egypt had suffered economically as a result of the complete defeat in the Middle East war of six years ago, and the North Yemen civil war that Egypt sent most troops became bogged down, and it was the worst.
Therefore, he made ready careful and waged the fourth Middle East war in 1973, and he could take advantage during the beginning of the war.
However, as Israel recovered before long, the war reached a cease-fire by the mediation of United Nations and U.S.
Until this time, Sadat had a strategy victory.

エジプトが次に打った手
1970年、ナセルの急死に伴い同じ将校団のサダトが大統領に就任した。
当時のエジプトは、6年前の中東戦争完敗の痛手が大きく、また大半の自軍を投入していた北イエメン内戦が泥沼化し、最悪だった。
そこで彼は周到に準備し、1973年に第4次中東戦争を始め、緒戦を有利に進めた。
しかし、やがてイスラエルが挽回してくると、国連や米国の仲介により停戦を迎える。
ここまではサダトの作戦勝ちだった。

 

2
< 2. Camp David Accord. From the left side, delegates of Israel, the U.S., and Egypt  >
< 2. キャンプ・デービッド合意、左からイスラエル、米国、エジプトの代表 >

And he first concluded a peace treaty with Israel in Arab by Camp David Accord in 1978, and won Nobel Peace prize with the Israel prime minister.
This was impossible without the effort of the U.S. President, but became just like speculation of Israel that provoked it.
With this, he recovered Sinai Peninsula and the Suez Canal, but forsook the Palestinian independence that was an earnest desire of Arab.
Sadat aroused an antipathy of people, the Arabic countries sent a letter breaking off to him, and he was assassinated at last.

そして、彼は1978年、キャンプ・デービット合意により、アラブで最初にイスラエルとの平和条約を締結し、イスラエル首相と共にノーベル平和賞を受賞した。
これは米国大統領の奔走抜きには不可能だったが、誘ってきたイスラエルの思惑通りとなった。
これにより、彼はシナイ半島とスエズ運河を取り戻したが、アラブの悲願であったパレスチナの独立を見捨てた。
こうしてサダトは国民の反感を買い、アラブ諸国から絶縁状を叩き付けられ、ついには暗殺された。

 

3
< 3.  Israeli military >
< 3.イスラエル軍 >

In this time, what was taking place in the Middle East?
The repeated Middle East war caused a vast cost of war burden and internal trouble, and Egypt and the neighboring Arabic countries became weakened.
On the other hand, Israel became more and more great power.
Furthermore, the modernization and the socialist state construction that Nasser promoted caused autocracy and corruption.
Thus, the secularization of Nasser who aimed at the pan-Arabism (unification of Arab) and the complete independence from colony was considered failure.
The fall of leader Egypt showed that armed forces of the Arabic countries could not beat Israel anymore.
Extremists who already fought for liberation in Palestine had to depend on themselves alone.

この時代、中東で何が起きていたのか
度重なる中東戦争は莫大な戦費負担と内紛を招き、エジプトと周辺アラブ諸国は弱体化する一方、イスラエルは益々強国になっていった。
さらにナセルが推進した近代化と社会主義国家建設は、一党独裁と汚職を招いた。
こうして植民地からの完全な独立と汎アラブ主義(アラブ民族の統一)を目指したナセルの世俗化路線(イスラム色を弱める)は失敗だとみなされた。

盟主エジプトの凋落は、アラブ諸国の軍隊がもはやイスラエルに勝てないことを示した。
既にパレスチナ解放を目指して武装闘争を行っていた過激派にとって、自ら戦いとるしか道は無くなっていた。

 

4
< 4. Conference of the Non-Aligned Countries  >
< 4. 非同盟諸国会議 >
Why did Egypt dig itself into a hole?
Nasser regained the rule of Egypt in their own race after 2300 years, abolished a landlord system that was a corrupt practice and pushed forward the modernization daringly.
Furthermore, he repelled the intervention of suzerain Britain and France alone, supported the independence of each Arabic country and fought against Israel for Palestine.

But Nasser was decisively disadvantageous.
His supporting independent movements of the Arabic countries and having nonalignment policy was so obtrusive behavior for the U.S. that wanted to contain Soviet Union, and for Britain and France that had regrets about the Middle East.
Therefore, they not only bother him, but also the financial support and the military aid to Egypt were outrageous even if he wanted.
This let Nasser be nearer to the Soviet Union.
On the other hand, they enough supported Israel with arms supplies and atomic energy, because the Britain and France wanted to suppress Egypt and the U.S. could not go against a Jewish lobby group.
And world Jewish wealth was poured for supporting Israel.
Egypt did not have the prospects of success, because the Industry was undeveloped and only had a small amount of oil production.
Still, Nasser and Sadat fought alone.

Nasser performed the report of the war results being further from the truth in the Third Middle Eastern War in desperation.
He announced that the cause of the defeat was an assistance of the U.S. and hidden strategy.
There was arms supplies from the U.S. , but the hidden strategy was groundless.
This not only dishonored Nasser but also rose more a hatred for the Europe and America.

This continues the next time.

なぜエジプトは墓穴を掘ったのか
ナセルは2300年振りにエジプトの統治を自民族に取り戻し、悪弊だった大地主制を撤廃し、果敢に近代化を進めた。
さらに宗主国英仏の介入に一人で立ち向かい、アラブ各国の独立を支援し、パレスチナの為にイスラエルとも戦った。

だがナセルは圧倒的に不利だった。
彼のアラブの独立支援と非同盟主義は、中東に未練がある英仏にとっても、ソ連を封じ込めたい米国にとっても目障りだった。
したがって邪魔こそすれ、頼まれてもエジプトへの資金援助と軍事援助は論外だった。
このことが、一層ナセルをソ連寄りにさせた。
一方、ユダヤロビーに逆らえない米国とエジプトを抑えたい英仏はイスラエルに充分な武器と原子力で援助した。
世界のユダヤの富がイスラエル支援に注がれた。
これでは産業が未発達で産油量の少ないエジプトに勝算はなかった。
それでもナセルとサダトは孤軍奮闘した。

ナセルは第三次中東戦争の折、苦し紛れに日本の大本営発表と同じ真逆の戦果報告を行い、さらに敗因を米国の加担と陰謀のせいにした(武器供与はあったが陰謀は事実無根)。
これはナセルの名誉失墜だけでなく、アラブの欧米への憎悪をさらに駆り立てた。
次回に続きます。

Categories: culture+society, history+evolution, <english language, <japanese language, opinion, politics, Series: Bring peace to the Middle East | Tags: , , , , , , , , | Leave a comment

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