Bring peace to the Middle East! 58: when religions were born 6: Islam 1


中東に平和を! 58: 宗教が誕生する時 6: イスラム教 1

 

1
< 1. the Kaaba in Mecca >
< 1. メッカのカーバ神殿 >

I investigate the birth of Islam in twice.

二回に分けて、イスラム教の誕生を追います。

 

2b

< 2. Three trade routes >
< 2. 三つの交易ルート >

 
The age when Muhammad (around 570 – 632) was born
Two ancient civilizations were born in the Middle East, but the desert Arabian Peninsula was out of the area.
Country began to be born in the southwest and northern parts of the peninsula since about A.D., and several countries had contested there in about the 3 rd century.
Cities were born in plateaus and oases, camel caravans in the desert were responsible for trade, and caravan cities were made in the routes.
Nomads who were living in tents made tribal societies, sometimes joined hands and at other times separated from others, and repeatedly had fought.
There were three routes of east-west trade on the Peninsula, two sea routes going through the Persian Gulf (blue line) and the Red Sea (red line), and a land route (brown line) parallel to the Red Sea.
Mecca where Muhammad was born was one of the caravan cities in this land route.

 

ムハンマド(570頃―632年)が生まれた時代
二つの古代文明が中東で誕生していたが、砂漠のアラビア半島は園外だった。
紀元前後から半島の西南端と北部に国が誕生し始め、3世紀頃になると数ヵ国が分立するようになった。
高原やオアシスには都市が生まれ、砂漠ではラクダの隊商が交易を担い、隊商都市も出来た。
天幕で暮らす遊牧民は部族社会を造り、離散集合を繰り返し抗争していた。
半島には三本の東西交易のルートとしてペルシャ湾(青線)と紅海(赤線)を行く海上ルート、それに紅海に並行した陸上ルート(茶線)があった。
ムハンマドが生まれたメッカはこの陸上ルートの隊商都市の一つだった。

 

The Persia and the Byzantine Empire of the two great empires were fighting each other, it began to influence the whole peninsula since about the 4th century.
With this, civilization and the sophistication of weapons advanced throughout the peninsula.
On the other hand, when the Persia and the Byzantine Empire entered a peace treaty in the second half of the sixth century, the main trade route became the Persian Gulf, the caravan cities of the land route declined, the nomadic population increased in reverse, and the conflict intensified.
This is “Jahiliyyah” in Islam.
However, in the beginning of the 7th century, when both empires began war, trade route returned to the land route.

 
4世紀頃から、二大帝国のペルシャとビザンチンは互いに争いながら半島全域まで影響を及ぼし始めた。
これにより半島全体に文明化と武器の高度化が進んだ。
一方、ペルシャとビザンチンが6世紀後半に平和条約を結ぶと、交易ルートはペルシャ湾が主になり、陸上ルートの隊商都市が衰退し、遊牧民が増大し、抗争が激化することになった。
これがイスラムで言う「無明時代」です。
しかし、7世紀始め、両帝国が戦争を始めるとまた陸上ルートに交易が戻った。

At that time, the north-south ethnic groups of the peninsula deepened exchanges and had Arabic of common language.
In the peninsula, there was a polytheism of idolatry, but Christianity propagation progressed by the influence of the two great empires.
Judaism also had spread by Diaspora Jewry, and many Jews had lived in Medina.
In Mecca, there was the Kaaba that many statues were enshrined since a long time ago.

当時、半島の南北の民族は交流を深め、共通語のアラビア語を持つようになっていた。
半島には偶像崇拝の多神教があったが、二大帝国の影響によりキリスト教の布教が進んでいた。
また離散民によってユダヤ教も広まり、メディナには多くのユダヤ教徒が住んでいた。
メッカには古くから多くの像を祭った多神教のカーバ神殿があった。

 

 

3a

< 3. Muhammad in Medina >
< 3. メディナのムハンマド >

The act of the Muhammad
He was born as a member of a large tribe of Mecca, was married and had succeeded in commerce trading, but suddenly, heard the revelation of Allah of the one God at about the age of 40.
Because he preached this, made a group of believers, and accused the idolatry of the Kaaba, they were persecuted by ruler class in Mecca.
However, people of the Medina impressed with his doctrine asked him to save mess of the town.
Then, he moved to the Medina with his believers and family (Hijra).
Before long, he conflicted with Jewish in the Medina about ritual, defeated them in battle, and completed a strong Islamic community “Ummah”.
Then he won the fight against Mecca’s army corps.
He died shortly after dominating Mecca, but already the Islam had spread throughout the Arabian Peninsula.

This continues the next time.

 
ムハンマドの行い
彼はメッカの大部族の一員として生まれ、結婚し隊商交易で成功していたが、40歳頃、突如、唯一神アッラーの啓示を聞いた。
彼はこれを説いて信徒集団を作り、カーバ神殿の偶像崇拝を非難した為、彼らはメッカの支配層から迫害を受けた。
彼の教説に感銘を受けたメディナの人々が、彼に町の混乱を救って欲しいと要請した。
彼は信徒達や家族と共にメディナに移り住んだ(ヒジュラ)。
やがて、彼はメディナのユダヤ教徒と儀礼で対立し、これを戦闘で破り、強固なイスラム共同体「ウンマ」を完成させた。
次いでメッカの軍団との戦いに勝利した。
彼はメッカを支配後、まもなく死去したが、すでにイスラムはアラビア半島の全土に及んでいた。

次回に続きます。

 

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Categories: culture+society, history+evolution, <english language, <japanese language, Series: Bring peace to the Middle East | Tags: , , , , | Leave a comment

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