Series: Birth of primitive art

Birth of primitive art :  A table of contents and abstract


I show the list of a series ” Birth of primitive art”.

please look at  page of ” Birth of primitive art “.

1  2 3 4  5  67  8 9 10 11 12 13  14   15 16 17       

 

 

Categories: culture+society, history+evolution, <english language, <japanese language, Series: Birth of primitive art | Tags: , , , , , , , , , | 2 Comments

Birth of primitive art 17: It might tell us something.


The color of earth people's skin 

< The color of earth people’s skin >

 

This series of “Birth of primitive art ” is finished in this time.

We look at things that people of 30000 years ago left and have more than one interpretation today.

I feel that the secret of human-beings evolution and a still more important suggestion are hidden in them.

 

今回で、「原初美術の誕生」の連載を終えます。

数万年前の人々が残し、解釈が定まっていない物を見ます。

それらには、人類進化の秘密、さらに重要な示唆が隠されているような気がする。

 

making negative hand shape

< Left fig.: making negative hand shape. Right fig.: the hand shape >

 

These hand shapes were painted 20,000 years ago in a cave, France.

Many kind of pattern were painted bending finger as indicated.

These are found all over the world at 15% of ruins in 13000~35000 years ago.

It may show the number.

There are peoples who count number of heads until 20 using the finger of his hand within the reindeer nomad in Siberia.

 

 

この手形はフランスの洞窟に2万年前描かれたものです。

図のように指を曲げて、幾通りもの指が欠けたパターンを描いたようです。

世界中で、35000~13000年前の遺跡の15%で見つかっています。

これは数字を示しているらしい。

シベリアのトナカイ遊牧民には、手の指を使い20まで頭数を数える人々がいる。

 

Venus of Laussel

< partial diagrammatic view, Venus of Laussel, France, 25000 years ago >

 

This Venus has a horn of the bison on which the lines of 13 was engraved.

The lines probably show a number of the moons for one year, and some days.

 

このビーナスは13の線が刻まれたバイソンの角を持っている。

この刻線は1年間の月数か何か日数を示しているらしい。

a board made from a bone, France, 28000 years ago

< a board made from a bone, France, 28000 years ago >

 

Many symbols that have segregated and been continuing probably show phases of the moon.

 

描き分けられた図形が連続しており、月の満ち欠けを示していると考えられる。

 

The symbols of rock arts of the prehistoric age

< The symbols of rock arts of the prehistoric age、by Bradshaw Foundation >

 

The symbols were drawn repeatedly in 146 caves in France.

Surprisingly, the same as the symbols had appeared all over the world.

The symbols were drawn 13000~35000 years ago.

Within the 26 symbols, there are 15 symbols that are found at 15% or more of all the ruins.

The zig-zag sign at the right lower was found in Australia, the north-south United States, India, and inside and Southern Africa.

The symbols were drawn 13000~20000 years ago.

 

 

この記号はフランスの洞窟壁画(146箇所)に頻繁に描かれていたものです。

驚くことに世界中にこれと同じ記号が出現しているのです。

この記号群は35000~13000年前に描かれたものです。

この26個の記号中、全遺跡の15%以上で見つかったものは15個あります。

右下のジグザグ記号はオーストラリア、南北アメリカ、インド、中・南部アフリカで見つかっています。

それが描かれた時期は20000~13000年前の期間です。

 

What would these mean?

 

They had already treated the number.

With that、The number of game animal was counted, the calendar was recorded and the period like childbirth was possibly measured.

They have recognized surrounding nature abstractly, and were thinking of it and expressing it.

 

Their capability to express fine arts and the symbols suddenly did not appeared in glacial epoch of Europe.

I think that people in those days were unable to tell the symbols to all each continent.

Those days, all people that had diffused on the earth must have had the same intelligence and feeling.

 

Because human beings had been adapted to the climate for the past 10,000 years at most, the color of skin changed, and the race was birthed.

Europe of the glacial epoch enabled the settlement of group, and explosion of fine arts was induced, and disappeared by warming.

That’s just about it.

 

Thank you for reading this series until the last.

 

 

これらは何を意味するのでしょうか?

 

彼らは既に数字を扱っていたのです。

それにより狩猟動物の頭数を数え、暦を記録し、出産のような時期を計っていたのかもしれません。

自然を抽象的に認識し、思考し、表現していたのです。

 

美術や記号を表現する能力はヨーロッパの氷河期に突如として出現したのではないのです。

当時の人々が、各大陸の隅々まで記号を伝えるのは不可能です。

地球上に展開していた当時の人々は、すべて同じ知能と感情を持っていたのです。

 

高々ここ1万年間の気候に順応したことにより、肌の色が変わり、人種が生まれたのです。

     氷河期のヨーロッパが集団定住を可能にし、美術の爆発を生み、そして温暖化共に消え去った。

それだけのことなのです。

 

連載を最後までお読みいただきありがとうございました。

 

 

 

 

 

Categories: culture+society, history+evolution, <english language, <japanese language, Series: Birth of primitive art | Tags: , , , , , | 2 Comments

Birth of primitive art 16: What did precede the primitive art? Part2


 

The Himba woman in northern Namibia 

< The Himba woman in northern Namibia >

 Last time, we looked at the oldest fine arts and the ocher that were used abundantly over the world.

Using the red selectively has concerned with the creation of fine arts.

This time, I will consider this.

 

The Himba woman has covered their body and hair with red ocher that dissolved with oil.

This is not only sunscreen, but also the female beauty that has symbolized blood color of life.

 

前回、地球最古の美術とオーカーが多用されたことを見ました。

赤色を選択的に使うことは、「美術の創出」に関わりがあります。

今回、これを考察します。

 

ヒンバ族の女性は油で溶いた赤色オーカーを体と髪に塗ります。

これは日焼け防止もあるが、血の色が生命を象徴する女性の美しさなのです。

 

   the ancient architecture in China, Japan, and South Korea

< the ancient architecture in China, Japan, and South Korea >

The ancient architecture in East Asia was almost red color.

Fig. A is the oldest Buddhist temple in Luoyang, China (the 1st century).

Fig. B is a gate of Heian Jingu in Kyoto and was reproduce a part of Heiankyo of the 8th century.

Fig. C is a tower of the Buddhist temple in Koyasan, Japan.

Fig. D is a gate of the detached palace of the 15th century in Seoul, South Korean.

 

At present, although many of temples of the ancient city were fading, they were shining with vermilion at when they were built.

Since ancient times, the appearance of the king’s palace, the shrine, and the temple in East Asia was applied red.

 

東アジアの古代建築は赤一色。

Aは洛陽にある中国最古の仏教寺院(白馬寺)です(1世紀)。

Bは京都の平安神宮の門で、8世紀の平安京を一部再現したものです。

Cは日本、高野山の仏教寺院の塔です。

Dは韓国ソウルにある15世紀の離宮の門です。

 

現在、古都の寺院の多くは色褪せているが創建当時は朱色に輝いていた。

古来、東アジアの王宮、神殿、寺院の外観は赤く塗られていた。

 

a Ryukyu king is standing in front Shuri Castle. Buddha Amida was painted in Tibet.

< Left side, a Ryukyu king is standing in front Shuri Castle. Right Side, Buddha Amida was painted in Tibet. >

In Asia, the red had an important meaning.

Ryukyu Dynasty was the style of China as same as Korean Peninsula.

The dress for courtesy in three nations was the same crimson.

In Buddhism, the body color of the highest Buddha Amida was red.

The red color symbolizes authority and dignity。And it gives people an idea of great benefit.

 

 アジアにおいて、赤は重要な意味を持っていた。

琉球王朝は朝鮮半島と同様に中国風でした。その儀礼用装束は三カ国同じ真っ赤でした。

大乗仏教の最高仏阿弥陀如来の身色は赤で表された。

赤色は権威と尊厳を象徴し、人々に絶大な恩恵をイメージさせた。

 

Red color in Europe, Egypt, and South America 

< Red color in Europe, Egypt, and South America >

 On other continents, what is the red role?

Fig. A is a room of the Palace of Knossos in Crete (around the BC 19th century).

It was rare to apply red color to building in Europe.

Fig. B is Seth God in ancient Egypt, and its body color is red that means the calamity.

Fig. C is a Mass of martyrdom by the priest with red vestment.

In Christianity, although the red color meant the love, yet it more meant the evil and the sacrifice.

Fig. D is the female doll that was decorated with red for sacrifice in Inca Empire.

Probably, latter three were emphasized the minus images of the scorching sun or blood.

 

他の大陸において、赤色の役割は・・・

Aはクレタ島のクノッソス宮殿の一室です(BC19世紀頃)。ヨーロッパの建物が赤で塗られることは少ない。

Bは古代エジプトのセト神で、この邪神の身色は災厄を意味した赤でした。

Cは赤い祭服の司祭による殉教のミサです。キリスト教で、赤は愛を示すこともあるが、悪魔や生け贄をより意味した。

Dはインカ帝国の赤で飾られた生け贄用の女性人形です。

後の三つは、灼熱の太陽や血のマイナスイメージが強調されたのだろう。

 

What do the red color mean?

Since ancient times, the red color was strongly concerned with good luck, disaster, love, and authority (sacredness) around the world.

It changed by the cultural sphere or the religion little by little.

The meaning of red was probably separated to two, because the people that lived in Middle East of dry climate or in Asia of moistness climate had the difference in the consciousness to the sun.

Even so, because it has a meaning that originates a long time ago, the red color has still continued to give strong impact.

 

赤色の意味するもの

古来、赤色は世界各地で吉兆、厄災、愛、権威(神聖)などと強く結びついていた。

それは文化圏や宗教によって異なっていた。

赤色イメージは、湿潤なアジアと乾燥した中東とで、太陽への意識の違いにより、二つに別れたのだろう。

それでも赤色が強いインパクトを与え続けてきたのは、赤色に遙かに時代を遡る意味があったからだろう。

 

We look back the evolution a little.

All from insect to primates, when it has been born, it has the smell (sexual pheromone), taste, and vision image (snake) that stir up a feeling of likes and dislikes.

A scholar says, “the reason that human beings have feeling special to red originates in having asked for fruits ripe of red color on tree.” 

The period from birth of the primates is 60 million years.

 

少し進化を振り返ろう。

昆虫に始まり霊長類は生まれながらにして、好悪の感情を呼び覚ます臭い(性フェロモン)、味、視覚イメージ(蛇)がある。

ある進化学者は、人類が赤色に特別な感情を持つのは、霊長類の誕生から始まる6千万年間の樹上生活において、赤く熟した果実を求めたことに起因すると言う。

What is art?

The primitive man came to use the red color selectively, probably, because it had satisfied their comfortable feelings.

The revolutionary change occurred in that time, because the ability of associating some imagery and expressing the imagery was being born in their brain.

They had associated some imagery with the law of causality that they thought. Then they expressed it. It will give them a pleasant sensation and a sense of relief, and might had induced art.

At that time, if there was dense group society, the art was born at a breath, and the culture grew.

 It produced the necklace, the Venus, the statues of lion man, flutes, and many rock arts of game animal.

 

Next time, I look at other mysteries hidden in primitive fine arts.

 

 

芸術とは何か?

原人が赤色を重宝し始めたのは、それが良好な感情を満足させたからでしょう。

画期が生まれたのは、彼らの脳に、イメージの連想と、表現力が誕生しつつあったからでしょう。

彼らは考えた因果律と心象を関連づけ、それを表現することで、快感や安堵感を覚え、芸術を生むことになった。

もし、この時に密な集団社会があれば、その芸術は一気呵成に花が開き、文化が生まれた。

 このことが首飾りに始まり、ビーナスやライオンマンの像、フルート、狩猟動物の岩絵を生みだした。

 

次回は、原初美術に秘められた他の謎を追います。

 

 

 

 

 

Categories: culture+society, history+evolution, <english language, <japanese language, Series: Birth of primitive art | Tags: , , , , , , , , , , | 4 Comments

Birth of primitive art 15 : What did precede the primitive art ? part1


 1 ブロンボス洞窟

< Blombos Cave in South Africa. A cave entrance is right-hand mountain side.  modern human beings lived 100,000 years ago. >

Till last time, we looked at the primitive fine arts since 35000 years ago in the world.

Didn’t human beings make fine arts during 5 million?

This time, I will approach this mystery.

 

 前回まで、35000年前以降の世界の原初美術を見て来ました。

 それ以前の500万年の間、人類は美術を作らなかったのでしょうか。

 今回は、この謎に迫ります。

 

The oldest figure

< The oldest figure >

Fig. A, the figure was found in Israel, was made of a red stone between 700000 and 230000 years ago, and was 4 cm in height.

 Fig. B, the figure was found in Morocco, was made of a quartz between 500000 and 300000 years ago, and was 6 cm in height. 

Red ocher had adhered to the surface.

Both are considered that primitive man made.

 

Ages ago, primitive man on the way of evolution was performing fine arts creation.

Aはイスラエルで見つかった23~70万年前の高さ4cmの赤い岩製人物像です。

Bはモロッコで見つかった30~50万年前の高さ6cmの石英製人物像です。その表面に赤いオーカーが付着していた。

両方共、原人が作ったと考えられる。

遙か昔、現世人類への進化途上の原人が美術創作を行っていたのです。

The oldest painting in Africa

< The oldest painting in Africa >

This painting found at the Apollo 11 cave in Namibia is estimated to date from approximately 25,000–27,000 years ago. It is an animal figure drawn on the slate.

 

At the south end of Africa, the creation was performed nearly in parallel to the Europe glacial epoch fine arts.

 

これはナミビアのアポロ11洞窟で見つかった約25000~27000年前の動物図です。

アフリカ南端で、ヨーロッパ氷河期美術とほぼ並行して創作が行われていたのです。

something like fine arts  

< something like fine arts  >

Fig. A are the oldest bead made of many shells between 140000 and 100000 years ago, and were found in the cave in Israel.

Fig. B is an ocher found at Blombos Cave in South Africa. On its surface was the straight line pattern engraved, and it was made 75000 years ago.

In the cave where modern human beings were living, 8000 pieces and 12 sharpened crayons of ocher were found.

There were also brown and yellow colors of ocher, but the red was the most.

Ocher with the oldest used marks was found in Zambia in Africa, and was thing of 250,000 years ago.

Fig. C is a plate was found at Neanderthal ruins in Hungary, it was made of ivory at 250000 years ago. Red ocher had adhered to the surface.

It is considered that people was using at the ceremony over a long period of time.

What does the appearance of the bead, the plate, and the ocher mean?

This is concerned with “what is fine art?” deeply

 

The answer will be concerned with the relation of red color of ocher and human beings.

 

Aはイスラエルの洞窟(Skhūl),で見つかった10~14万年前の最古の貝殻製ビーズです。

Bは南アフリカのブロンボスで見つかった75000年以上前の直線模様が刻まれたオーカー(黄土)の一つです。この現世人類が生活していた洞窟からは8千点のオーカーと先端を尖らせたクレヨンが12本見つかった。オーカーの色は黄色と茶色もあったが、赤が最も多かった。

最も古い使用痕のあるオーカーはアフリカのザンビアで見つかり、25万年前のものです。

Cはハンガリーのネアンデルタール人遺跡(タタ)で見つかった象牙製プレートで、赤いオーカーが塗られていた。これは入念に作られ、長期間繰り返し儀式などに使われたと推測される。

このビーズやプレート、オーカーの出現は何を意味するのでしょうか?

これは「美術とは何か」と深く関わっています。

 

オーカーの赤色と人類の関わりにその答えがありそうです。

 

Burial and red color 

< Burial and red color >

Fig.A is two small children’s burial at 27000 years ago in Austria. Many red ochers was scattered there.   

In burial of Cro-Magnon after 37000 years ago, accessories attached to the dead and ocher was scattered on it.

Although Neanderthal was burying after 70,000 years ago, the dead that was painted with red pigments is seen in various area of Europe.

Ocher was used also with many pictures in every area of the earth.

Fig.B is the inner room of an ancient tomb in Japan at 5th century, and it is also painted in red.

This red was made from mercury and sulfur.

     Since time began, the red color had an important meaning in every corner of the earth.

 

Next time, I want to explain this meaning.

Aはオーストリアで見つかった27000年前の幼児2体の埋葬で、赤いオーカーが撒かれている。37000年前以降のクロマニヨン人の埋葬では、死者はオーカーが撒かれていることがある。ネアンデルタール人は7万年前以降、埋葬を行っていたが、赤色顔料を塗った遺体がヨーロッパ各地で見られる。世界各地の絵画にもオーカーは使用されていた。

Bは5世紀、日本の亀山古墳の墓室も赤く塗られていた。この赤は水銀と硫黄から作られた。

 遙か昔から世界各地で赤色は重要な意味を持っていた。

 

次回、この意味を説き明かしたいと思います。

 

 

 

 

Categories: culture+society, history+evolution, <english language, <japanese language, Series: Birth of primitive art | Tags: , , , , , , | Leave a comment

Birth of primitive art 14 : People who made first fine arts 3


 Rock-Art、Four hunters and a leader、south-eastern Spain、8000 years ago

< Rock-Art、Four hunters and a leader、south-eastern Spain、8000 years ago >

 This time, the change that occurred in Cro-Magnons heart is evident from the burial and the fine arts.

I examine the thing that the change brought, and also the cause.

 

Last time, although we looked at the influence of their settlement, it is more important that rich contacts increased into the family or the group.

Influence good for child rearing must have come out first.

When they gathered together, they probably enjoyed a long talk like present-day hunter-gatherers.

This probably grew their intelligence, language, and their culture.

Probably, this is one of the reasons in which Neanderthal who used fire and had language functions (cerebral language field and throat structure) lost battles with Cro-Magnon.

今回は、クロマニヨン人の心に起きた変化を埋葬と美術から読み取ります。

 その変化がもたらしたもの、さらに原因について考察します。

 

前回、定住の影響を見ましたが、さらに重要なのは、家族や集団に濃密な時間が増えたことです。先ず育児に良い影響が出たはずです。また現代の狩猟採集民のように、集えば長話を楽しんだことだろう。これは知能と言語を発達させ、文化発展を促しただろう。火を扱い言語機能(脳の言語野と喉構造)を有したネアンデルタール人が、クロマニヨン人との生存競争に負けた理由の一つがここにあるのだろう。

reconstruction of a burial, a ruins in Russia, 28000~20000 years ago

< reconstruction of a burial, a ruins in Russia, 28000~20000 years ago, by Don’s Maps >

What happened to Cro-Magnons family?

A 13-year-old boy lies on the left of the figure, and an 8-year-old girl lies on the right.

They dressed with protections against the cold from head to tip of foot entirely.

Splendid spears made of ivory and the necklace of beads, etc. were added in large quantities.

 

This burial clarifies the difference between Neanderthal and Cro-Magnon.

 Although Neanderthal also buried one person, they didn’t bury small child or more than one person.

Cro-Magnon performed a burial of mother and child for the first time in the cave in Israel at 90,000 years ago.

After that, the burial examples such as two small children and three adults increased in Eurasia from 40,000 years ago.

They began to be strongly conscious of the bonds of mother and child, a family, and a group.

Probably, respecting for maternity added on prayer of fertility, and it led to Venus statue and next mother goddess worship.

クロマニヨン人の家族に何が起きたのか。

図の右に8歳の少女と左に13歳の少年が横たわっている。彼らは頭から足先まで防寒具を着せられ、象牙製の立派な槍やビーズのネックレスなどが大量に副葬されていた。

この埋葬にネアンデルタール人とクロマニヨン人と違いが明瞭に出ている。

ネアンデルタール人も埋葬を行っていたが幼児や複数葬はほとんどなかった。クロマニヨン人は9万年前のイスラエルのカフゼー洞窟で母子二体の埋葬を初めて行い、その後、幼児二体、成人三体などの組合せ例がユーラシアで4万年前以降増加する。彼らは母子や家族、集団の絆を強く意識し始めた。母性への敬いが豊穣への祈りに加わり、ビーナス像、後の地母神崇拝へと繋がったのだろう。

Originally, because hunter-gatherers have several problems in life with a lot of people, they dispersed easily. Similarly, they are hesitant to settle down.

Something that controls this minus feeling and advances must have happened in their heart.

Although advanced technology and intelligence were indispensable to adaptation to arctic cold, unless the bonds of family or group arose strongly, the epoch would not have happen.

 

But, gradually woman and magician are expressed carefully, and group behavior such as the hunting that was shown a prefatory picture came to be drawn in the last stage.

Furthermore, mother and child and the women who danced were also drawn.

On the other hand, drawing carefully game animals decreased.

元来、狩猟採集民は、大勢での生活は問題が多く離散しやすく、定住も同様に抵抗がある。この感情を抑制し前進させる何かが彼らの心に起こったはずである。極寒への適応には高度な技術と知能が不可欠だが、家族や集団を結びつける感情が強く沸き上がらないと画期は起こらなかった。

ヨーロッパの氷河期美術を概観すると、最初、人間、特に男は稚拙(丸に点)に描かれていた。しかし徐々に女性と魔術師が丁寧に表現され、末期には巻頭図のような狩りなどの集団行動が描かれるようになった。さらに母子や踊る女性達も描かれた。一方で狩猟動物を丁寧に描くことは減っていった。

 

Brain of modern humans, a red maker is group of neurons A10(VTA)

< Brain of modern humans, a red mark  is group of neurons A10(VTA)、by CMAJ >

What happened to Cro-Magnons brain?

Neurotransmitter dopamine is widely secreted from A10 for a long time in large quantities, especially to the frontal lobe.

Although neurotransmitters are tens of kinds, a dopamine is called a pleasure substance, and have a role to maintain a feeling of happiness and romantic feeling strongly.

A10 is like the big faucet that only human beings have.

 

The frontal lobe takes the central role on planning, conforming to a social norm, controlling feelings, and the consciousness is in it.

When dopamine is secreted into it, people continue to have strong motivation.

In this way, the epoch happened, didn’t it?

The background in which primitive fine arts arose in Europe was the interaction of global environment and human-beings evolution, and the interaction of their intelligence and the settlement in a group.

Furthermore the brain and the gene were deeply concerned with it.

Next time, we will look at some mystery of primitive fine arts.  

 脳に何が起きたのか?

A10から神経伝達物質ドーパミンが広範囲、特に前頭葉に大量かつ長時間分泌される。神経伝達物質は数十種類あるが、ドーパミンは快楽物質と呼ばれ、幸福感や恋愛感情を強く持続させる働きがある。このA10は人類だけが持っている大きな蛇口のようなものです。

前頭葉は、計画、社会規範遵守、感情抑制などの働きを担い、意識もここにあります。ここにドーパミンが分泌されると、長期的で強い動機付けが行われます。このようにして画期は起こったのでしょうね。

ヨーロッパで原初美術が誕生した背景には、地球環境と人類進化、集団による定住と知能の相互作用、さらに脳と遺伝子が深く関わっていたのです。

次回からは、まだ解明されていない原初美術の謎に迫ります。

Categories: culture+society, history+evolution, <english language, <japanese language, Series: Birth of primitive art | Tags: , , , , , , , | Leave a comment

Birth of primitive art 13 : People who made first fine arts 2


left side is modern human, right side is Neanderthal

< left side is modern human, right side is Neanderthal、by Wikipedia >

 Last time, we looked at the situation in which human beings had gone into Europe.

 Why did the Cro-Magnon begin first fine arts?

 The reason is explored together with readers.

 

前回は現世人類がヨーロッパに進出した状況を見ました。

なぜクロマニヨン人が原初美術を始めたのだろうか?

 その理由を読者と一緒に探ります。

 

Tools of Neanderthal and Cro-Magnon in Europe is compared

<  Tools of Neanderthal and Cro-Magnon in Europe is compared. >

 Fig. A shows the stone tool that Neanderthal made from 70000 to 50000 years ago. Figs. B and C show what the Cro-Magnon man made.

The stone tools were made from 20000 to 12000, and a harpoon was made of bone from 17000 to 11000 years ago.

The bone or horn implement rapidly developed since Cro-Magnon has appeared.

 Stone tools of Cro-Magnon became sharp edged tool. These and spear thrower enabled them to do efficient hunting. Moreover, they made the extreme clothes that matched their body with sharp cutlery and thin needle. These enabled the lives of extreme cold.

 

図Aはネアンデルタール人が70~50千年前に作った石器です。図BとCはクロマニヨン人が作ったもので、石器は20~12千年前、骨角器の銛は17~11千年前のものです。骨角器はクロマニヨン人になってから急速に発達した。

クロマニヨン人の石器は精緻で鋭い刃物になっている。これらと槍投器が効率の良い狩猟を可能にした。また鋭い刃物と細い針で体に合う極寒服を作った。これらが極寒の生活を可能にした。

 

On the other hand, the reindeer and horse of the large animal traveled in large herds in this cold. They were waiting for them in a ravine etc. and they hunted them in a group.  Furthermore, extreme cold enabled preservation of a lot of meat. In this way, they became to settle down on ideal place one season in a group.

 

Which route does group of animals pass through?  Can a few mammoths be discovered?  

This was their big anxiety. Probably, when they were not able to predict, they wanted to depend on the prayer or the curse like indigenous people.

 

In this way, they worshipped the skull of game animal, and the mural painting of the animal.

A statue of lion man and several figure of magician suggest later idol worship.

 

一方、この寒さの中、大型のトナカイや馬が大群で移動していた。彼らは渓谷などでそれらを待ち伏せ, 集団で狩りをした。さらに極寒は大量の肉の保存を可能にした。こうして彼らは好適地に、集団で1シーズン定住を行うようになった。

 

動物の群れはどのルートを通るのか、数少ないマンモスを発見することが出来るのか、これは彼らの大きな懸念であった。彼らは予測出来ない時は、先住民と同様に祈りや呪いに託したのだろう。

 

こうして狩猟動物の頭骨や自ら描いた動物の壁画を拝んだのだろう。

ライオンマンの像や魔術師の図は、後の偶像崇拝を想わせる。

 

Comparison of the dwelling 

< Comparison of the dwelling >

 Neanderthal made Fig. A, and Cro-Magnon made Figs. B and C.

 Fig. A is an imaginary picture of a shelter at a ruin in France, is about 15 m in length, and was made about 400,000 years ago.

It was built standing trees to holes and fixing these with stones.

Although it is the first construction dwelling in Europe, the oldest dwelling at 1.8 million years ago is found in Africa, and was very small.

 

Fig. B shows the restoration of a dwelling at the ruins in Ukraine, is about 6 m in diameter, and about 18,000 years ago.

It was built assembling trees, covering with furs, using bones of the mammoth as a weight for these.

 

Fig. C is an imaginary picture of dwelling at Gonnersdorf ruin in Germany, is about 6 m in diameter, and was made about 15,000 years ago.

It was built assembling trees, and stretching furs of horse on its frame.

In it, there were a cooking device that made with bones of the mammoth, and a cooking hole.

They lived on several dwellings like this during winter months in a group.

Probably, except this period, they went in quest of game animal, and lived life on the move.

 

 

図Aはネアンデルタール人が、図B,Cはクロマニヨン人が作った。

図Aはフランスの遺跡にある避難所の想像図で、長さ約15m、約40万年前のものです。これは穴に木を立て石で固定し建てられた。これはヨーロッパで最初の築造住居跡ですが、アフリカでは180万年前の最古の小さな住居跡が見つかっている。

 

図Bはウクライナのメジリチ遺跡の復元で、直径約6m、約18千年前のものです。木で枠組みし、毛皮で覆い、マンモスの骨を重しにした。

 

図Cはドイツのゲナスドルフ遺跡の復元図で、直系約6m、約15千年前のものです。木で枠組みし、馬の皮を張って作られた。その中にはマンモスの骨を組んだ調理器と調理穴がある。この数棟に冬の数ヶ月間、集団で生活していた。この時期以外は狩猟動物を求めて移動生活をしていたのだろう。

 

Although the existence of a furnace was common in them, Figs. B and C were firm and adapted to extreme cold.

Originally, since hunter-gatherers move frequently, they carry neither a tool nor materials.

Therefore, a shelter becomes very simple as shown in Fig. A.

 

People that drew cave mural paintings lived in the entrance of cave and on rock shadow.

There, wind was interrupted, low tree have grown, and the water place was near.

 

炉の存在は共通するが、図B,Cは強固で極寒に適応している。元来、狩猟採集民は頻繁に移動するので、道具や資材を持ち運ばない。したがって図Aのように避難所は非常に簡便となる。

 

洞窟壁画を描いた人々は深い河谷にある洞窟の入口や岩陰  で暮らした。そこは風が遮られ、低木も茂り、水場も近かった。

 

This settlement of a glacial epoch brought about fundamental changes to people.

They were able to been having Venus statues that were sculptured and made of clay near themselves.

The settlement by large group also became to enable the allocation of tasks, and entrust mural painting to skillful person.

These led to development of fine arts and technology.

 Since they repeatedly have grouped together and have broken up, it promoted the exchange of knowledge and goods.

 The acquisition range of stone tool spread from a few kilometers to a few hundred kilometers.

 In this way, Cro-Magnon created the primitive fine arts in the extreme cold.

 

Next time, we will look at the important impact that the settlement caused further.

 

この氷河期の定住は、人々に変化をもたらした。

彼らは素焼きや彫刻のビーナス像を作って、身近に持つことを可能にした。集住は作業分担を可能にし、壁画を巧みな者に任すことにもなった。これらが美術や技術の発展につながった。繰り返す離散と集住は、知識や情報、物資の交換を促進した。石器材料の入手範囲は、それまでの数十kmから数百kmに広がった。

こうしてクロマニヨン人が氷雪の極寒の中、原初美術を生むことになった。

 

次回は、さらに定住が引き起こした重要なインパクトを探ります。

 

 

 

 

Categories: culture+society, history+evolution, <english language, <japanese language, Series: Birth of primitive art | Tags: , , , , , , | 2 Comments

Birth of primitive art 12 : People who made first fine arts 1


 a reconstruction of Dolni Vestonice ruin, Czech Republi, about 29000 years ago

 < a reconstruction of Dolni Vestonice ruin, Czech Republi, about 29000 years ago, by Don’s Maps

 >

 From now on, we will explore the meaning and mystery at the birth of primitive arts.

 First, we first approach people who made origin fine arts.

 It will clarify the reason that people made art bloom on this place and at this time.

 This time, it shows the situation in which human beings had been deploying to each continent.

  

これからは原初美術誕生の意味と謎を探ります。

原初美術を誕生させた人々に迫ります。

人々が、なぜこの地に、またこの時期に芸術を開花させたのかを明らかにします。

今回は、現世人類の各大陸への展開を追います。

 

 Journey of human beings

< Journey of human beings  

 The map shows the situation in which human beings deployed to each continent.

 The lines and the arrows show the representative root and each initial period.

 The map simplified ”JOURNEY OF MANKIND” (with Bradshaw Foundation and 0ppenheimer).

 Human beings branched from the ancestor of the chimpanzee about 5 million years ago in Africa, and as new species of it were born any number of times after that, but almost became extinct.

 About 40,000 years ago, modern humans (Cro-Magnon) went into Europe.

Soon, Neanderthal that was indigenous inhabitants became extinct.

It is presupposed by archaeological proof that the author of the primitive arts in Europe was Cro-Magnon mostly.

 

地図は、我らの直系の祖先(現世人類)が、世界各地に移住していった様子を示す。

線と矢印は最初期の移動時期と代表的な経路を、数値は千年前を示す。

この図はJOURNEY OF MANKIND (Bradshaw Foundationと0ppenheimer氏製作)を簡略化したものです。

我々人類は約500万年前にチンパンジーの祖先からアフリカで分岐し、その後、幾度も新しい種が誕生しては絶滅していった。

現世人類(クロマニヨン人)は約4万年前、ヨーロッパに進入して来ると、先住のネアンデルタール人は絶滅した。

ヨーロッパの原初美術の担い手は、考古学的な証拠により、ほぼクロマニヨン人だとされている。

 

Transition of the average temperature during 160,000 years 

< Transition of the average temperature during 160,000 years >

 The time when human beings immigrated to each continent was influenced by climate.

 The general lowering of sea level by the cooling enabled that they go into Asia, Australia and next Japan, and North American continent.

 Conversely, the warming changed desert and ice sheet into prairie, and it enabled that they go into Europe, next Northern Europe, and Africa and South American continent.

This is one of the reasons that the commencing time of the primitive arts have varied.

Growth and decay of the fine arts in Europe was influenced by climate.

 The statue of Venus was made in large numbers from 32000 to 25000 years ago. Wonderful cave mural paintings, such as Lascaux and Altamira, were made from 19000 to 15000 years ago.

 Ice sheet expanded most between both the periods in 21000 years ago.

 When warming advanced rapidly, the fine arts declined quickly, and it had been lost until the Celtic bronze ware culture began.

 

人類が各大陸へ移住した時期は気候に左右された。

寒冷化による海面低下は、アジアやオーストラリア、後の日本やアメリカ大陸への進入を可能にした。

また温暖化は、砂漠や氷床を草原に変え、ヨーロッパへの進入、後の北欧進入、アフリカとアメリカ大陸南下を可能にした。

このことが原初美術の開始時期にバラツキが出た理由の一つです。

ヨーロッパの美術の興隆は気候に左右された。

ビーナス像が32~25千年前に大量に造られた。ラスコーやアルタミラ等のすばらしい洞窟壁画は19~15千年前に造られた。氷床は21000年前, 両期間の間で最も広がりました。

その後、温暖化が急激に進行すると美術は急速に衰え、ケルトの青銅器文化が始まるまで消えたままだった。

 

Vegetation of the last glacial maximum LGM (21,000 years ago),

< Vegetation of the last glacial maximum LGM (21,000 years ago), by PNAS >

Central Europe of this period was covered with snow and ice in winter, and grass in summer.

Africa and India were dry than now.

The northwestern part (Kimberley neighborhood) of Australia approximated to Southeast Asia across a strait, also was forests.

also had the neighborhood and a across and a strait.

The northwestern part (Kimberley neighborhood) of Australia approximated to Southeast Asia across a strait, also was forests.

Japan was connected with the continent in part and was covered with the forest than now.

Human beings were not able to go south, because North America was covered with the glacier.

The period before and behind this became a little warm and human beings became easy to live and migrate.

In this way, the primitive fine arts flowered at the migrated place.

 

Next time, we will look at the life of Cro-Magnon man in Europe, and some factor of birth of fine arts also.

 

この極寒期の中央ヨーロッパは、冬に氷雪、そして夏に草に覆われた。

アフリカとインドは今より乾燥していた。

オーストラリアの北西部(キンバリー辺り)は東南アジアと海峡を挟んで近く、森林もあった。

日本は大陸と一部繋がっており、今より森林に覆われていた。

北アメリカは氷河で覆われており、人類は南進することが出来なかった。

この前後の期間は少し温暖で、人類は移動と生活がしやすかった。

こうして、原初美術はその移住先で花開くことになった。

 

次回は、ヨーロッパのクロマニヨン人の生活ぶりを見て、美術誕生の要因を探ります。

 

 

Categories: culture+society, history+evolution, <english language, <japanese language, science, Series: Birth of primitive art | Tags: , , , , , | Leave a comment

Birth of primitive art 11 : primitive arts of American continent


        stone colossal head, 176cm in height, Mexico

< map No.2, stone colossal head, 176cm in height, Mexico, about 3200 years ago >

 This time, it is last to introduce primitive arts over the world.

 I take a brief look at the oldest fine arts in American continent and the beginning of Inca and Mayan civilization.

 

今回で、世界各地の原初美術を紹介する最後となります。

 南北アメリカの最古の美術からマヤ・インカ文明の始まりまでを概観します。

 

 American continent

< American continent, area of the oldest fine arts are red 1, 4.  area of ancient civilization are yellow. No. 2 shows Mayan and Aztec. No.3. shows Inca. 

Human beings advance into American continent at first time by way of Alaska about 15000 years ago.

They arrived at the southernmost end of South America after thousands years.

 Therefore, the footprint of the human beings in this continent will become comparatively new.

 

人類はアラスカ経由で15000年前頃にアメリカに初めて進入し、南米南端に到達するには更に数千年を要しました。

したがってこの大陸での人類の足跡は比較的新しいものになります。

 

Toquepala cave ruin, about 9500 years ago, Peru

< map No.4, Toquepala cave ruin, about 9500 years ago, Peru >

 The oldest rock art in American continent is the mural painting in this cave.

 This cave is in the middle of the Andes, and the altitude of 2700 m.

 The picture shows a situation of hunting that some people drive the animals like camel into a fence.

 The picture was drawn with pigment of red, yellow, green, black, and white.

 

 

アメリカ最古のロックアートは、この洞窟の壁画です。

この洞窟はアンデス山脈の中腹、標高2700mにあります。

絵には、集団でラクダ科の動物を柵に追い込む狩りの様子が描かれている。

この写真は不鮮明ですが、赤、黄、緑、黒、白などの顔料で描かれています。

 

the Andes can be seen in the distance.

< the Andes can be seen in the distance. >

 There is large plateau in the middle of the mountain range of the Andes at a level of 4000 meters.

 First farming started in there after that, and Inca civilization was born.

Machu Picchu that is often called the city in the sky is slightly 200km from Toquepala cave. It is altitude of 2430m.

 

4000mの山々が連なるアンデス山脈の中程に高原があり、後にそこで最初の農耕が開始されインカ文明が生まれることになります。

空中都市マチュ・ピチュ(標高2430m)はトケパラ洞窟からわずか200kmの所にあります。

 

human figure and lizard, Coso rock art, Eastern California,

<  Map No.1, human figure and lizard, Coso rock art, Eastern California, from 10000 to 1000 years ago, by Bradshaw foundation  >

Rock arts in this area are close to 100,000.

The representational figures consist of animals such as bighorn sheep, and animal-human conflations.  They are drawn by sculpture.

 

この地域には10万近い岩絵があります。

その代表的な図像はオオツノヒツジ等の動物と動物と人間が合成されたものです。シンボル化された人物像が彫刻によって描かれています。

 

, bards and deer, Baja California,

< Map No.1, bards and deer, Baja California, by Bradshaw foundation  >

Rock arts of this area began to be drawn from about 7000 years ago, and the person and the animal were drawn.

 

この地域の岩絵は、古くは7000年前頃のもので、人物と動物が描かれている。

 

the above rock art was drawn on this rock shadow, Baja California

< Map No.1, the above rock art was drawn on this rock shadow, Baja California, by Bradshaw foundation  >

Many of rock arts in North America are in mountain range, and it are many dried places now.

Hunter-gatherers drew them.

 

北米アメリカの岩絵の多くは山岳部で、現在は乾燥化している所も多い。

これらはすべて狩猟採集民が描いたのだろう。

 

The dawn of ancient civilization

before long、as a settled agriculture started in the central part of American continent and the central Andes, new fine arts was born.

A stone carving of infographic topping is representative art of Olmeca civilization that was first born in the central part of American continent.

Although earthenware, the clay figure, and the jade figure also were made in there, colossal head in stone is unique.

This stone colossal head was set up religious service center ruins including a pyramid.

Probably, it was a monument in which influence of a person of power was shown.

Then, it developed into Mayan and Aztec civilization.

 

古代文明の曙

やがてアメリカ大陸の中部と中央アンデスで定住農耕が始まると、新たな美術が誕生し始めます。

巻頭写真は中部アメリカ(メキシコ)の最初の文明、オルメカ文明の代表的な石彫です。

土器や土偶、翡翠製人物像も作られたが、巨大人頭像がユニークである。

この巨石人頭像はピラミッドを含む祭祀センター遺構内に据えられており、権力者の威光を示す記念碑だったのだろう。

この後、マヤ、アステカ文明へと変遷していくことになる。

 

 human figure and human head, 3m in high, Cerro Sechin

< Map No.3, human figure and human head, 3m in high, Cerro Sechin, about 3800 years ago, Peru >

This ruin is one of the ruins that became a forerunner of the Inca civilization in the central Andes.

These images were engraved by lines on slates that surround the foundation of the shrine made from brick.

Although earthenware, the clay figures also were made in there, much later, gold work became very famous.

In this way, the primitive fine arts in American continent developed into the fine arts of civilization.

 

 

 From next time, we will look at the mystery and meaning of primitive fine arts birth that we have seen until now.

 

この遺跡は中央アンデスに興るインカ文明の先駆けになる遺跡の一つです。

これは煉瓦製神殿の基壇部を囲む石板に線刻された図像です。

土器、土偶も作られますが、かなり後に金細工が一世風靡することになります。

 こうしてアメリカ大陸でも原初美術から文明の美術へと変遷を遂げて行きました。

 

次回から、今まで見てきた原初美術誕生の謎とその意味を読み解いて行きます。

 

 

 

 

Categories: culture+society, history+evolution, <english language, <japanese language, Series: Birth of primitive art, uncategorized | Tags: , , , | 2 Comments

Birth of primitive art 10 : primitive arts of East Asia


flame-like earthenware, Niigata Prefecture, japan, About 5000 years ago 

< flame-like earthenware, Niigata Prefecture, japan, About 5000 years ago >

This time, we look at primitive fine arts of Japan and China.

 The characteristic fine arts will teach us the life of the primitive.

 

今回は、日本と中国の原初美術を見ます。      

 その特色ある美術から原初の暮らしが見えて来ます。

 

  left, The oldest clay figure, about 6cm in height, Ibaraki Prefecture, about 8000 years ago. right, a clay figure is called ” Venus” , Nagano Prefecture, 27cm in height, about 5000 years ago.

< left, The oldest clay figure, about 6cm in height, Ibaraki Prefecture, about 8000 years ago. right, a clay figure is called ” Venus” , Nagano Prefecture, 27cm in height, about 5000 years ago. >

 The world’s first earthenware was made in Japanese Islands at 12000 years ago.

 In those days the people settled in a place while they were hunting, gathering and fishing, because blessings of nature were rich.

It enabled manufacture of the earthenware and the clay figures.

The clay figures had continued to be made for about 8000 years, and it was over as wet-rice farming was popular.

 Above-mentioned the oldest clay figure resembles the Venus image of about 15000 years ago in Siberia. ( refer to “Birth of primitive art 3”)

In the last half of this epoch, the characteristics of woman became to be inconspicuous from the clay figures.

 And decoration and deformation became to be conspicuous.

Then realistic animal clay figures also became to be made.

 Although the excavated clay figures totaled about 15000, these have damaged almost.

 Perhaps, people broke them intentionally for the purpose of the prayer.

日本列島では12000前頃から世界で最初に土器が作られた。

当時、狩猟採集漁労生活ではあったが、山野の恵みが豊なことにより定住を行っていた。

このことが土器や土偶の製作を可能にし、土偶は約8000年間作られ続け、水稲栽培が普及すると終焉を迎えた。

上述の最古の土偶は約15000年前のシベリア出土のビーナス像に似ている。(原初美術の誕生3:動産美術の展開に詳しい)

しかし縄文時代後半になると土偶の人物像は女性の特徴が目立たなくなり、装飾や強いデフォルメが目立つようになる。また写実的な動物像も作られるようになる。

その出土総数は15000体ほどあるが、大半が破損しており、祈祷目的で故意に壊したものらしい。

big eyes clay figure, Aomori Prefecture, about 3000~2300 years ago

< big eyes clay figure, Aomori Prefecture, about 3000~2300 years ago >

This is one of clay figures in the last half of this epoch. Its eyes are emphasized.

これは後半の土偶の一つであるが、目が強調されている。

the oldest kinds of earthenware 

< the oldest kinds of earthenware >

Although earthenware was made for cooking, before long, its ornament became to be important.

A flame-like earthenware of infographic topping had appeared suddenly, and disappeared after about 1000 years.

This is considered to be a thing for not daily necessities but religious service.

 

土器は煮炊き用に製作されたが、やがて装飾が重視されるようなった。

巻頭写真の火焔土器は突如として出現し、千年ほどで消えた。

これは実用品ではなく祭祀用のものと考えられる。

 

The feature of these fine arts

 In primitive fine arts of Japan, there are neither realistic drawing nor life scenes almost.

 Of course, there is neither cave mural paintings nor big lock arts.

 Probably, the reason depends to a large extent on the settled life and hunting small animals and gathering nuts.

 The clay figures and earthenware that was made of clay were in close contact with their lives.

 While every locations interplay, these fine arts grew on the whole in Japan islands. Those days, a royal power did not exist.

 この美術の特徴

日本では、写実的な描画や生活場面が描かれることはなかった。

 もちろん洞窟壁画も大きなロックアートもない。

 その理由は、小動物と木の実、遡上する魚などに依存する狩猟採集と定住生活が大きく影響したのでしょう。

材料がすべて粘土である土偶や土器は、生活と共にあった。

各地が交流しながら、この美術は列島全体で発展していった。当時、王権は存在していなかった。

 

 

What place was Japanese Island that developed these?

The places where typical clay figures and earthenware were made are Nagano Prefecture and Niigata Prefecture, and there are at the center of the Japanese Islands.

 

 これらを育んだ日本列島はどのような所だったのか。

代表的な土偶や土器が作られた場所は長野県や新潟県で、日本列島の中心にある。

a clay figure of ” Venus” was excavated on this plateau area. Nagano Prefecture

< a clay figure of ” Venus” was excavated on this plateau area. Nagano Prefecture >

 People in those days also lived on the vast brush or the foot of the mountains.

当時の人々も、この変わらぬ山野で暮らした。

a reproduction of house in those days 

< a reproduction of house in those days >

 People in those days lived in this like thatched hut by one family.

 One village consisted of from some families to hundreds of persons.

当時の人々は、家族単位で、この草葺き小屋に住み、数家族以上、最大は数百名が暮らす村もあった。

Primitive fine arts of China.

Chinese earthenware was made at the same time as wet rice culture started 10,000 years ago.

A little late, the female clay figure was also made.

  中国の原初美術

中国の土器は水稲栽培が1万年前に始まったのと同時に作られ始め、少し遅れて女性の土偶も作られた。

left, earthenware was pictured with fish images, about 7000 years ago, middle reach of the Hwang.  Right, a figure of jade, about 8.6 cm in high, lower reach of Chang Jiang, about 5500 years ago

< left, earthenware was pictured with fish images, about 7000 years ago, middle reach of the Hwang.  Right, a figure of jade, about 8.6 cm in high, lower reach of Chang Jiang, about 5500 years ago >

 The surface of this earthenware was pictured with fish images, hoping to be plentiful.

This figure is burial goods and was sewn to religious leader clothing.

 After that, in China, products of jade and the bronze ware that began from the second millennium B.C., became the gorgeous mainstream of fine arts.

 Thus, in East Asia, primitive arts that are a different from other areas was born.

 Next time, we look at the fine arts in American continent.

 

これら彩陶の表面には多産の祈りを込めて魚が多く描かれた。

この人物像は副葬品で、宗教的指導者の衣類に縫いつけられていたらしい。

この後、中国では玉製品と紀元前2千年期に始まる青銅器が美術の華やかな主流になっていく。

このようにして東アジアでは、他地域とは少し異なる原初美術が生まれた。

 

次回はアメリカ大陸の美術を見ます。

Categories: culture+society, history+evolution, <english language, <japanese language, Series: Birth of primitive art | Tags: , , , , | 2 Comments

Birth of primitive art 9: primitive arts other than Europe 2


a rock art in Bhimbetka, two fighters have a shield and a sword

< a rock art in Bhimbetka, two fighters have a shield and a sword >

This time, we look at primitive fine arts in India and Australian.

 

 a map of primitive fine arts、fine arts of glacial epoch were born in a red part, other primitive fine arts were born in No. 1~7.

< a map of primitive fine arts、fine arts of glacial epoch were born in a red part, other primitive fine arts were born in No. 1~7. >

 

Bhimbetka hills in India Central Highlands 

< map No.3, Bhimbetka hills in India Central Highlands >

In Bhimbetka hills,there are about three hundred of Rock Shelters that have mural paintings.

Its oldest fine arts were drawn in about 10,000 years ago. After that, it had been continuously drawn by indigenous people.

Some people say that there were the fine arts from about 30,000 years ago.

There were traces of early human activity in these ruins also.

Footprints of modern human in 75000 years ago were in southern India.

 

ビーマベトカ山には、壁画がある岩陰や洞窟遺跡が3百ヵ所ほど見つかっている。

概ね1万年前から描かれ、後に先住民によって描き加えらえた。

一部には3万年前の絵もあると言われている。

この遺跡には原人の生活跡もある。インド南部には75000年前の現世人類の足跡がある。

 

two rock arts are thought of as a kind of the oldest thing in Bhimbetka.

two rock arts are thought of as a kind of the oldest thing in Bhimbetka.

< two rock arts are thought of as a kind of the oldest thing in Bhimbetka. >

Upper image shows that a cow 1.6 m in length, the cow that is ousting a man, other man who put a hand on his waist, and thinly a crab on the left.

Lower image shows humped cattle.

The pictures of these oldest stages drew many big animals, for example a water buffalo, a cow, an elephant, etc., but almost never drew figure paintings.

The images were drawn with only outline or were buried by geometric pattern inside the outline.

The figure paintings were stylized simply, although the animal images were quite realistic.

Over the time, people drew person ride horse or elephant, battling by bow and spear, tinseled horse or elephant, dancing while beating drum, honeybee collection, and fishing.

 

上図には、長さ1.6mの牛、牛に追われ走る人、腰に手をあてる人、左に蟹が薄く見える。下図にはこぶ牛が見える。

これら初期の絵は、水牛、牛、象などを輪郭やその内側を幾何学模様で埋めた大きな動物像が多く、人物像はほとんどなかった。

動物はかなり写実的であるが、人物は様式化されている。

時代が下ると、馬や象の騎乗、弓矢や槍などでの戦い、盛飾を付けた馬や象、太鼓を打って舞踊、蜜蜂採集、漁労が描かれる。

 

 

Bradshaw in northwest Australia

< map No.4, Bradshaw in northwest Australia, mural paintings are in such rock shadow >

There are the oldest rock paintings of Australia in Kimberley of northwest Australia. It is supposed that there are 100,000 places or more.

Its oldest fine arts were drawn over 17,000 years ago. After that, it had been continuously drawn.

Some people say that there were the fine arts from about 43,000 years ago.

First modern human of Australia crossed the Timor strait that became to narrow at the glacial epoch in about 70,000 years ago.

 

オーストリア西北部のキンバリーにオーストラリア最古の岩壁画があり、10万以上あると推測されている。

最古のその美術は17000年前から描かれ、その後も描き続けられた。

一部には43000年前の絵もあると言われている。

オーストラリアの最初の現世人類は、7万年前頃の氷河期、狭くなっていたティモール海峡を渡った。

 

two rock arts were thought of as a kind of the oldest thing in Bradshaw.

two rock arts were thought of as a kind of the oldest thing in Bradshaw.

< two rock arts were thought of as a kind of the oldest thing in Bradshaw. >

Upper image shows a four man canoe with upswept prow and stern. It possibly was the world’s oldest boat painting.

Lower image shows a herd of deer with splendid antler that lined in a row.

Deer of this kind have never lived in Australia, but had lived in Southeast Asia at the glacial epoch.

The people who finished the voyage possibly wrote it depending on own memory.

 

上図、これはおそらく世界最古のボートである可能性がある、4人が乗ったカヌーの船首と船尾は上向きに反っている。

下図、これは立派な枝角を持つ鹿の1列に並んだ群れで、この種の鹿はオーストラリアにはおらず、氷河期の東南アジアに生息していた。

航海を成し遂げた人が記憶に頼って書いたのかもしれない。

 

a rock art of dancing persons in Bradshaw

< a rock art of dancing persons in Bradshaw >

They wear various decorations to waist, ankle, and head, are dancing while wriggling body and arm.

It seems that the smiling face of dancing person is seen.

In India and Australia, drawing mural painting is beginning from 10000 to 20000 years ago, too.

It is not improbable that is beginning from 30000 to 40000 years ago depending on the case.

 

 Next time, we will look at primitive fine arts in Japan and American.

 

腰、足首、頭に飾りを着け、体や腕をくねらせ踊っている。

踊り手の笑顔が伝わってくるようである。

インド、オーストラリアでも1~2万年前に壁画が描かれ始めていた。場合によっては3~4万年前もありうる。

 

次回は、日本とアメリカ大陸の原初美術を見ます。

 

 

Categories: culture+society, history+evolution, Series: Birth of primitive art | Tags: , , , | 8 Comments

Birth of primitive art 8: primitive arts other than Europe 1


  rock arts in Tassili-n-Ajjer       

< rock arts in Tassili-n-Ajjer  >

The first fine arts of the human beings were born in Europe of the glacial epoch, and eventually were lost.

 However, primitive fine arts were born in different parts of the world after that.

We look at the arts in different parts simply.

  

人類最初の美術が氷河期のヨーロッパで誕生し、やがて廃れた。

 しかしその後、世界各地で美術が誕生することになる。

 各地の原初美術を簡単に見ます。

a map of primitive fine arts、fine arts of glacial epoch were born in a red part, other primitive fine arts were born in No. 1~7.

< a map of primitive fine arts、fine arts of glacial epoch were born in a red part, other primitive fine arts were born in No. 1~7. >

The primitive fine arts in Africa 1 and 2, India 3, Australia 4, and America 6 and 7 were rock arts.

 They are reflecting a life of hunting and gathering life. The indigenous people are continuing drawing them in some locations until recently. For this reason, establishing inaugural year of drawing pictures is difficult.

 Japan made many Venus image out of clay, but didn’t make rock arts.  japan is only special.

アフリカ1,2、インド3、オーストラリア4、アメリカ6,7の原初美術は岩絵であった。

それらは狩猟採集生活を反映しており、場所によっては先住民が最近まで描き続けていた。このために年代確定が困難になっている。

日本だけは岩絵を作らず、多くのビーナス像(土偶)を作った、これは特殊である。

map No.1,  Tassili n'Ajjer,  Algeria  

< map No.1,  Tassili n’Ajjer,  Algeria  >

 Although there is in the middle in Sahara Desert here now, was in rich green those days.

 The rock arts on cliffs began to be drawn from 8000 years ago, and stopped by advance of desertification before long.

 Although at first they have lived a life of hunting and gathering, the paintings show that their lives changed from cow breeding to the trade on a horse.

The painting place is near once the water place, and will be in which religious service and ceremony were performed.

 

ここは現在、サハラ砂漠の真ん中であるが、当時は緑豊かであった。

8000年前頃から壁画が描かれ始め、やがて砂漠化の進行で、それは途絶えた。

始めは狩猟採集生活であったが、牛飼養から馬による交易へと変化していったことが絵からわかる。

壁画が描かれた場所はかつての水場近くであり、祭祀や儀礼が行われていたことだろう。

Tassili n'Ajjer,  a rock art in times of hunting and gathering  

< Tassili n’Ajjer,  a rock art in times of hunting and gathering  >

 Upper two persons wear some decorations to head, neck, and arm, and the scares in sequence of white points are on the body.

 This scar is a custom that has continued in Central Africa still.

 On the lower side, there are a goat, several playing children, a visionary animal, and tent like jellyfish.

 Each is no relation, the observing point is freedom, and they painted it by priority of how important.

 There isn’t sacredness on it, but I feel pleasure and familiarity to it.

上部の二人は頭や首、腕に飾りを着け、体に白い点列の瘢痕がある。

この傷痕は現在も中央アフリカに続く風習である。

下部には山羊、遊ぶ子供達、空想上の動物、クラゲに似たテントが描かれている。

それぞれがバラバラで、描く視点が自由で、重要度によって描き分けられている。

そこに神聖さはなく楽しさと親しみを感じる。

Tassili n'Ajjer,  a rock art in times of cattle breeding 

< Tassili n’Ajjer,  a rock art in times of cattle breeding > 

Hunter that have an uplifting feeling, curved ships, and a herd of cattle that was made distinction of sex, these are painted in it.

Dancing, war, home life, carriage, religious rite, etc. were painted on rock arts of this time.

Brown is a basic tone of the painting, green and white also are added.

躍動感のある狩人、湾曲した船、雌雄の牛の群れが描かれている。

この時代の絵には、踊り、戦争、家庭生活、馬車、宗教儀式なども描かれていた。

絵は茶色を基調に、緑と白が加えられ描かれている。

map No.2,Tsodilo Hills, Botswana, phot by Jaap Sikkema

< map No.2,Tsodilo Hills, Botswana, phot by Jaap Sikkema >

Bushman (Sun) is continuing a traditional life of hunting and gathering in the Kalahari Desert in Botswana.

In the north direction, there are mountains that they called Tsodilo Hills and regard as sacred.

Several thousands of the rock arts that have been painted by them from 2500 years ago remain here.

One theory is it began at 20000 years ago.

ブッシュマン(サン人)はボツワナのカラハリ砂漠で昔ながらの狩猟採集生活を続けている。

その北方にツォディロ・ヒルと呼ばれる彼らが神聖視する山があり、そこに2500年前から描かれ続けた数千の岩壁画が残っている。一説には20000年前からとも言われている。

Tsodilo Hills,  rock arts by Bushman

Tsodilo Hills,  rock arts by Bushman

< Tsodilo Hills,  rock arts by Bushman > 

The image above is seen painting of ox and rhinoceros, and a Bushman. The image below is seen eland and giraffe. 

The theme of the paintings is mainly wild animal, hunting, and fishing.

Additionally, there are Dancing, war, rain-making rituals, musical instrument performance, and religion ceremony with wearing mask and with dancing.

When it becomes hundreds of years ago, impressive paintings appear. 

There are vast amounts of rock arts in Southern Africa. Bushman paints these from about 6000 years ago to until the 19th century.

People in Africa also had painted rock arts from 8000 years ago.

Next time, we look at primitive fine arts in other continents. 

 

上の写真には牛と犀とブッシュマン、下にはエランド(ウシ科)とキリン、その横に手形が添えられている。

絵の主題は、野生動物と狩猟や漁労が主で、舞踊、戦争、雨乞い、楽器演奏、仮面を被って踊る宗教儀礼などの場面もある。

数百年前になると、見応えのある絵も出現する。

南部アフリカには膨大な岩壁画遺跡があるが、これらはブッシュマンによって約6000年前から19世紀まで描かれたものです。

アフリカの人々も、8000年前から岩絵を描いていた。

次回は、他の大陸の原初美術を見ます。

Categories: culture+society, history+evolution, <english language, <japanese language, Series: Birth of primitive art | Tags: , , ,

原始美術7の誕生:氷河期美術後


a rock art in the Levant, a mother and a child、Minateda, Spain、

< a rock art in the Levant, a mother and a child、Minateda, Spain、>

Eventually, the glacial epoch fine arts that emitted luster had declined.

This decline caused stagnation and new deployment.

We look at this big change easily.

 

光彩を放った氷河期美術にやがて衰退が訪れます。

この衰退は、停滞と新たな展開を招きました。

この大きな変化を少し辿って見ます。

 

Azilian culture, painted stones and bone tools

< Azilian culture, painted stones and bone tools >

At 10000 years ago, the colorful cave paintings and movable fine arts that felt vital force no longer were made.

On the other hand, new movements happened at some places a little distant from France, Germany, Czechoslovakia, and northern Spain.

One is the painted stone at 11000 years ago. Figures like characters were drawn with several red lines on the stones.

Although bone tools are also found simultaneously, the ornamented things are not found at all.

Azilian that made these on the south of the Pyrenees (Spain) disappeared within 1000 years.

 

1万年前を境にして、彩色豊かな洞窟壁画や生命観溢れる動産美術は突如として作られなくなりました。

一方、それまでのフランス、ドイツ、チェコ、スペイン北部から少し外れた所で新しい動きが生まれました。

一つは、11000年前頃の彩礫で、数本の赤色線による文字のような図が描かれた石です。

同時に骨角器も見つかるのですが、装飾された物はまったく見つかっていません。

この作り手のアジール文化(ピレネー山脈の南側、スペイン)は千年ほどで消えてしまいます。

 

rock arts in the Levant

< rock arts in the Levant >

From 11000 years ago to 5000 years ago, many rock arts appeared in the Spain southeast part.

These are the small paintings of animal and person that are drawn on lee of rock in ravines only by red. 

Although animals is drawn realistically, persons are deformed and formalized, and are also humorous.

The themes are hunting, war, a dance, Sherman, etc.  It has composition that has motion with many persons and animals.

The drawn animals are game animals and domesticated dogs, then insects such as spider and fly, etc.

The figure subjects are more male than the woman. The male take a bow and put on bracelet, a hat, etc. The woman put on a skirt and ribbon.

 

約11000~5000年前にかけてスペイン東南部に岩壁画が多数出現します。

これは河谷の石灰岩の岩陰に、ほとんど赤だけで描かれた動物と小さな人物の図です。

動物は写実的に描かれ、人物はデフォルメされ形式化されているが、ユーモラスでもある。

テーマは狩猟、戦争、踊り、仮面を被ったシャーマンなどで、複数の人物や動物で動きのある構図になっている。

描かれている動物は狩猟動物、家畜化された犬から蜘蛛、ハエなどの虫にまで及んでいる。

人物像は女性よりも男性の方が多く、弓を持ち、時にはズボンや腕輪、羽根製の帽子などを着け、女性はスカートやリボン、腕輪を着けている。

 

Arctic art、Rock Drawings of Alta 

< Arctic art、Rock Drawings of Alta >

A little late, from 6000 to 2000 years ago, many petroglyphs appeared on rocks near the Northern European (especially Norway) sea and rivers.

Many of petroglyphs are carved with a line or flat surface, and they are applied with red. A large thing is a whale 8 m in length.

Many of the themes are game hunting and fishing scenes and the everyday sight are drawn in the style of a tale on it.

The drawn things are reindeer, deer, seal, whale, salmon and sled, boat.

 

What of the fine arts changed?

Simplify

The cave painting was lost and turned into rock-art

Human and life scene were thought as important.

 

少し遅れて、6000~2000年前、北欧の海や河の近くの岩盤に岩壁画が出現する。

絵の多くは、1本線か面で彫られ、赤く塗られている。大きいものは長さ8mの鯨がある.

テーマは狩猟と漁労場面が多く、日常的な情景を物語風に描かれている。

動物はトナカイ、鹿、アザラシ、鯨、鮭などが描かれ、ソリや船も描かれている。

 

美術の何が変わったのか?

単純化した

洞窟壁画は無くなり、岩壁画になった

人や生活場面が重視された

 

air temperature change during the past 160,000 years 

< air temperature change during the past 160,000 years >

What brought about this change?

The glacial epoch finished. :  Air temperature rose abruptly from 15000-year ago, and 10,000 years ago, it became the same as the present. By this, the glacier and the reindeer went away to the north and Europe became a forest and the world of small animals from the ground of snow and ice.

Their life changed suddenly :  They repeated movement in quest of the small animals which do not make a group. It dispersed the previous big group. Preservation of meat became impossibility.  When they took all games, they moved to next place. This was the same as the hunter-gatherers of the forest before civilization.

The agricultural had diffused from the Balkan Peninsula, and spread throughout Europe at the time 5000 years ago.

At last, the brightness of fine arts in Europe had been lost until the Bronze Age comes.

Culture and art were greatly influenced by change of natural environment and a social aggregation.

 

ext time, we look at prehistory fine arts other than Europe.

 

何がこの変化をもたらしたのか?

氷河期が終わった : 15000年前より気温が急上昇し、1万年前には現在と同じになった。このことにより、氷河とトナカイは北に遠のき、ヨーロッパは氷雪の大地から森林と小動物の世界になった。

生活が激変 : 群れを作らない小動物を求めて移動を繰り返し、分散する社会になった。肉の保存は出来ず、獲物を取り尽くせば移動した。これは文明化以前の森林の狩猟採集民と同じだった。

農耕がバルカン半島から伝播し、ヨーロッパ全域に広まるのは5000年前頃になる。青銅器時代になるまで、ついにヨーロッパ美術の輝きは失われてしまった。

文化と芸術は、自然環境と社会集団の変化に大きく左右されたのだ。

 

次回は、ヨーロッパ以外の先史美術を見ます。

 

 

 

 

Categories: culture+society, history+evolution, <english language, <japanese language, Series: Birth of primitive art | Tags: , , , ,

原始美術6の誕生:氷河期美術の視点


a bison looking back

< a bison looking back: Madeleine, 20000 years ago >

We have seen until now the glacial epoch fine arts that happened in Europe.

This time, we consider the meaning of the glacial arts.

今まで、ヨーロッパで起こった氷河期美術を見てきました。

今回は、氷河期美術の意味を考えます。

 

 transition of Venus statue

< transition of Venus statue: left side, Czech, about30000 years ago. right side, Germany, 15000 years ago. >

The feature of glacial epoch fine arts

1.       What was drawn and sculpted

Although horse, bison and deer were drawn plenty, fish and reindeer that could be caught easily were not drawn little. A natural scene also was not drawn. The mammoth that could be caught rarely, the pregnant female, and the animal of one pair of male and female animals are conspicuous in there. Although the scene where peoples hunted animals were not drawn, an animal in which bow and spear were stuck, and something like trap or cage were drawn.

Male design was simple thing of two points by the circle and another was symbolization of genitals. As for female design, shape of a body was emphasized, and relief in cave and sculpture was only female images. Other sculptures of whole body were half beast and half man or personalized thing.

Else, There are hand paintings that lacked any fingers and simple and various figures. It seems that the numbers were recorded by the condition of lacked finger in hand paintings, and engraved lines recorded the calendar too. Some simple figures were broadly common.

 

氷河期美術の特徴

 1.       描かれ造形されたもの

馬、バイソン、鹿が多く描かれたが、容易に捕れる魚とトナカイなどは少しか描かれなかった。自然景観も描かれなかった。希にしか捕獲出来ないマンモスや身重の雌、雌雄一対の動物が目立つ。人が狩りをする場面が描かれることは無かったが、弓や槍が刺さった動物、罠や檻らしいものが描かれていた。

男性は円に二点の単純なものと、生殖器の記号化だけだが、女性は体型が強調され、浮き彫りや丸彫りは女性像のみである。他の全身像は、半人間半動物や仮装されている。

他に指の欠けた手形やシンプルで多様な図形がある。手形の指の欠け具合や刻みで数や暦を記録したと思われる。シンプルな図形の中には共通性のあるものもある。

 

transition of cave pictures

<  transition of cave pictures: lift side, hyena, France,32000 years ago. right side, bison, Spain,14500 years ago >

2.Technique of drawing and sculpting

The pictorial expression began from the monochromatic outline of a line, and progressed to the line drawing with inflection.

Subsequently, the details like hair were drawn additionally, the contrasting density was expressed in connection with widely painting, and then it progressed to polychromatic drawing from 2-color drawing.

Although most animal images were drawn by the side view, only the hoof was drawn by the front view. This will be because the hoof that shows health condition was thought as important. This brings my mind back to the mural painting of ancient Egypt.

Paints were devised very much and obtained the multiple colors that mixes various minerals with oil and fats, and is liquid. In Altamira, the charcoal that obtains black was selected carefully by the wooden kind. In Lascaux, the bone of the animal was burned at 400 degrees, and calcite was mixed with it, and also it became hot at 1000 times, and used it.

 

2.     描画や造形の手法

 絵画表現は、一筆描きの単色の輪郭線から始まり、抑揚のある線画に進み、毛並みなど細部を書き添え、平塗りに伴って濃淡を表現し2色画から多彩色画へと進んだ。

動物像はほとんど側面観で描くが、蹄だけは正面を向いていることが多くなった。これは健康状態を示す蹄を重視した為だろう。これは古代エジプトの壁画を連想させる。

顔料は非常に工夫され、油脂に様々な鉱物を混ぜ流動性のある多色を得た。アルタミラでは黒を得る木炭を木の種類で厳選し、ラスコーでは、動物の骨を4百度で焼き、それに方解石を混ぜ、さらに千度で熱し使用した。

 

 3.     Others

There is many cave painting in the inner part of the caves that not get any sunlight. There is it in the entrance used as the place of the life. Moreover, the mural painting is drawn also on the cave in which it does not live. The animal of the cave paintings was almost painted-over picture, and probably, the peoples in those days didn’t put importance on good-looking picture.

In 20,000 years, although cave painting came to have a rich expression, Venus statue of end-stage half became a simple design. Although this Venus statue image had a commonality by the side view, it reflected the diversity of the region.

 

 3.     その他

洞窟壁画は生活の場とした入口付近にはなく日の差さない奥所に多い。また住まわれたことのない洞窟にも壁画が描かれている。壁画の動物は重ね描きされており見映えを重視していない。

壁画は2万年の間に豊かな表現を持つようになっていったが、後期のビナース像はシンプルなデザインへと変化した。このビナース像は側面観で共通していたが、地域毎に特色あるデザインへと分化した。

 

hand painting in cave、Flute

< hand painting in cave: France ,32000 years ago. Flute: made of bone, German, about 35000 years ago. >

What changed?

  1. have magical thinking : They expressed things that they wished and accept a value through paintings and statue, and people present their wishes to it.
  2. manipulated number and technology :  They began to record a notation or a calendar by combining. Technology was developed similarly.
  3. created and place importance on formality : Although fine arts change with the times and  reflect the diversity of the region, have a commonality.
  4. cherished these with groups : They taught pictures technique, left cave painting to the specific person, and occasionally performed the festival.
  5. moved broadly and trafficked with the long distance : We can guess from a stone tool, the similarity of design with fine arts, and stone tool material.

何が変わったのか

1.   呪術思考 : 希望するものや価値あるものを表現し、それに願いを託した。

2. 数字や技術を操った : 組合せることにより数や暦などの記録を始めた。

3.   創作し、かつ形式を尊んだ : 描画は発展し対象もやや変化し、共通性を保ちながら地域性も有した。

4.     集団でこれらを育んだ : 絵画技法を伝授し、特定者に壁画を任せ、時には祭儀を行った。

 5.    広範囲に移動し、さらに遠くとも交易した : 石器やデザインの共通性、石器材料から推測出来る。

 

People lived by rock shadow at 30,000 years ago 

< People lived by rock shadow at 30,000 years ago >

What happened to human beings?

 Cro-Magnon man began half-settled life with the group more than a family in arctic cold, in and around cave.

 Two reasons made it possible was that they had to hunt much reindeer that do seasonal migration by group, and coldness enabled preservation of a lot of meat.

 If it is hot, meat will rot. If it is cold, a reindeer will disappear and their heavy winter clothing becomes useless.

 They were able to make the dress that matches their body by the needle made from a bone.

 The intercommunion with a family, a group, and other groups influenced each other, and greatly developed language, child-rearing, and technology. Furthermore, culture and a sense of values (religion, art) were produced.

 

Next time, we will look at decline period of glacial epoch fine arts.

  

 人類に何が起きたのか

 新人類(クロマニヨン人)は極寒の中、洞窟周辺で、家族以上の集団による半定住生活を始めた。

それを可能したのが、季節移動するトナカイの集団による狩猟とその大量の肉の保存を可能にする寒さであった。

温すぎれば肉は腐敗し、寒すぎればトナカイも消え、彼らの防寒具が役に立たなくなる。

彼らは骨の針で体に密着する服を作ることが出来るようになっていた。

この生活スタイルによる家族、集団、他集団との交流が相互に影響し合って、言語、育児、技術を大いに発展させ、さらには文化と価値観(原初の宗教、芸術)を生みだした。

  

次回は、氷河期美術の衰退期を見ます。

 

 

 

 

 

Categories: culture+society, history+evolution, <english language, Series: Birth of primitive art | Tags: , , , , , , ,

Birth of primitive art 5 : the last Brightness of cave art


 

< fig.1、Trios Freres cave、shaman >

This time, we look at the wonderful arts in the last of glacial epoch Europe.

These were in the fate that disappears suddenly soon.

 

At first, it is the Altamira cave (about 14500 years ago) in Spain.

It is close to a sea and is on a gently sloping karsts hill (altitude 160 m.).

 

今回は、氷河期ヨーロッパの最後を飾る素晴らしい美術品を見ます。

これらはやがて忽然と姿を消す運命にありました。

最初は、スペインのアルタミラ洞窟(約14500年前)です。

北側に海があり、標高160mのなだらかなカルスト丘陵にある。

< fig.2, the big roof >

 

 

< fig.3, a bison >

 

The mural paintings were concentrated in the big roof fig.2 (entering the entrance of fig.4, immediately left-hand side).There were pictures of 25 animals drew with red, black and brown.

The pictures were many bisons, deer, wild boar, horse and a person like shaman.

The stereoscopic effect and reality of bison fig.3 are increasing by many colors, gradation and shadow processing.

This is the highest level of Old-Stone-Age pictures.

It is presumed that one author drew the all pictures of the big roof, and the cave had been managed together.

Probably, the bison that emerge in abysmal darkness by a swinging torch may seem to be alive completely.

壁画が集中しているのは大天井図2(図4の入口入って直ぐ左手)で、25頭の動物絵が赤・黒・褐色で描かれている。

とくにバイソンが多く、鹿、猪、馬などのほか、呪術師らしい人物もある。

バイソン図3は、多色彩、ぼかしと陰影処理により、立体感と写実性が増している。これは旧石器時代絵画の最高水準です。

この大天井は一人の作者がすべて描いたと推定され、洞窟が共同で管理されていたことを伺わせる。

真っ暗闇の中、揺らぐ一つの灯明で浮かび上がるバイソンは、まるで生きているように見えただろう。

< fig.4,Altamira Cave、The lower left is an entrance. full length 270 m, Spain >

 

The first Peoples came to the cave about 19000 years ago.

The People did not live inside the cave (fig.4), but dug the hole in the cave entrance, and were making it the dumping ground.

Because of the thrown-away bone, it turned out that rich woods and many hunting animals were in the circumference of the cave.

The drawing animals accord with the hunting animals.

It seems that the peoples repeatedly used the cave as a meeting place during the long period.

Various small groups came and went the vast domain between France and Spain.

約19000年前に人々が洞窟に最初にやって来た。

人々は洞窟内部(図4)には住まず、洞窟入口内に穴を掘りゴミ捨て場にしていた。

捨てられていた骨から、洞窟周辺は豊かな森、多くの狩猟動物がいたことがわかる。

描かれている動物は、狩猟対象と一致する。

人々は長い期間を通じて何度も繰り返しそれぞれの洞窟を集合場所として使ったようである。

色々な小集団がフランスとスペインの間の広大な領域を行き来していた。

< fig.5、reindeer and fish >


< fig.6、Two bisons、full length 61cm in right-hand side>

 

We look at other distinctive arts from an old thing.

Fig. 5 is a developed figure of commanding sticks was made of hartshorn. This was found in Lortet cave of 17000 years ago in France.

There are a reindeer of right edge looks back, and the legs of two reindeers before it.

And the four salmons seem to poke the deer from the bottom under the legs.

Probably, this drew the spectacle in which a group of reindeer just has been going across a river to which the salmons have been ascending.

They caught the moment that they excited most. The vigorous figure was expressed by simple line engraving.

 

Fig. 6 shows the relief that was made of clay on the floor in Tuc d’audoubert cave of 15000 years ago in France.

One pair of bison at last minute copulation was expressed.

Fig.1 was a copy of mural painting in Trois Freres cave of 15000 years ago in France. This cave connected with the above-mentioned cave.

It is visible to shaman who imitated the figure of a deer, or the personified person.

他の特徴ある美術を古いものから見てみる。

図5は、フランス、ロルテ洞窟出土、17000年前の鹿角製指揮棒の展開図である。

右端に後ろを振り返るトナカイ、その前に2頭の脚が見える。

しかも、その足の下で、4尾の鮭が下から鹿を突いているように見える。

これは鮭が遡上している河をトナカイの群れが渡る光景を描いているのだろう。

彼らは最も興奮する瞬間を捉えた。その躍動感ある図をシンプルな線刻で表現している。

図6は、フランス、チュック・ドードゥベール洞窟、15000年前の床面の粘土製浮き彫りである。

今まさに交尾寸前の雌雄一対のバイソンを表現している。

図1は、上記洞窟と連なっているトロワ・フレール洞窟にある同時代の絵画の一部を模写したものです。それは鹿の姿を真似たシャーマか擬人化された人物に見える。

< fig.7、 line drawing carved into the rock in Addaura cave >

 

Fig. 7 shows the line drawing carved into the rock of about 10000 years ago in Addaura cave of Italy.

Eight persons become a round ring and dance around two lying persons in the picture.

Strangely、the dancers are wearing the mask to which a beak attached. Two persons of middle are bind a head and a leg with a rope, and their penis is rising up.

This is associated with the scene of a sacrifice.

In those days, did the ceremony that wore mask already start?

I will tell the perspective of cave arts next time.

図7は、イタリア、シチリア島のアッダウラ洞窟の線刻画(約10000年前)です。

中央に横たわる二人の周囲を8人が丸い輪になって踊る様子が描かれている。

異様なのは、踊り手は嘴のついた仮面をかぶっている。真ん中の二人は首と足を綱で縛られ、男根が勃起していることです。

これは生け贄のシーンを連想させます.

この頃、既に仮面を被った儀式が始まっていたのだろうか。

次回は、洞窟美術の全体像を語ります。

 

 

 

 

 

Categories: culture+society, history+evolution, <english language, <japanese language, Series: Birth of primitive art | Tags: , , , , , , , , , | Leave a comment

Birth of primitive art 4: Development of the cave paintings


 

 ゲナスドルフ,女性線刻画,Female line-engraving drawing , Gonnersdorf ruin, Germany  

< Female line-engraving drawing in Gonnersdorf ruin, Germany  >

Last time, we looked at the movable statues in the last stage of the glacial epoch.

From this time, we look at the brilliant cave paintings of a glacial epoch.

The Fine arts suddenly bloomed on the ground of arctic cold.

 

First, I do the last supplementary explanation. Last time, there was an opinion that the Venus image of Nebra is visible to a penis. The above figure is the line-engraving drawing of the clay stone in Gonnersdorf ruin that were making the same Venus statues as Nebra. Two women that have an arm were drawn on this stone. Thus, it is guessed that the Venus statue is the thing developed from the female image. Thank you for the precious opinion.

 

前回は、氷河期最後を飾った動産美術を見ました。

今回からは氷河期の見事な洞窟壁画を見ていきます。

突如として極寒の地に美術が花開いた。

 

最初に、前回の補足説明をします。前回示したネーブラのビーナス像が男根に見えるとの指摘がありました。上図はネーブラと同じビーナス像を作っていたゲナスドルフ遺跡の粘土板の線刻画です。これには腕を有する二人の女性が交叉して描かれています。このようにビーナス像は女性像から発展したものと推測されます。貴重なご意見ありがとうございました。

シャーベット洞窟,馬,horse、Chauvet cave

< horse 、 Chauvet cave >

Cave paintings appeared a little later than movable statues for a while. There is no painting outside a cave until the last stage comes. The oldest thing is in Chauvet cave in south France, 31000 years ago. This limestone cave amounts to 400 m in length. In the inner wall, there were the colored pictures of 300 over, the line-engraving drawing of 300 over, many signs, and many handprints.

A horse, the extinct cow, a bison, a bear, a mammoth, a reindeer, the owl, the lion, the hyena were painted on the surface of the wall. The main paints the black of charcoal and the red of Ocher. There is also a room unified in each color. The animal that is running in groups is drawn, and two fighting rhinoceroses that were drawn by the forcible outline look vividly.

 

 

洞窟美術は動産美術より少し遅れて現れます。末期になるまで洞窟外の壁画はありません。最古のものは南フランスのシャーベット洞窟で、31000年前に遡る。この鍾乳洞は全長400mに達する。300点以上の彩色画、ほぼ同数の線刻画、多くの記号、手形が内壁に見つかった。

馬、絶滅した牛(オーロックス)、バイソン、熊、毛犀、マンモス、トナカイ、フクロウ、またライオン、ハイエナが壁面に描かれていた。顔料は木炭の黒とオーカーの赤が主でした。それぞれの色で統一している部屋もある。群れ走っている動物が描かれ、また力強い輪郭線で描かれた戦う犀などは生き生きしている。

 

戦う犀、fighting rhinoceroses,Chauvet cave

< fighting rhinoceroses 、 Chauvet cave >

Secondly, the cave painting is in the Cosquer cave facing the Mediterranean in France. It is divided into many handprints drawn 27000 years ago and the animal group drawn 19000 years ago. Although many handprints are seen in other caves, the paint included in the mouth is sprayed on the hand put on the wall, and a picture is made. A penguin and a seal are rare, although the painting animal is a lot of horses in common with other caves.

The famous Lascaux cave painting appears in France 17000 years ago. The Lascaux cave is one of the 30 caves of the gorges in the limestone region. The stone tool and a bone implement of 100,000 points are found from this whole region. Although there is a trace of a life, there is a cave without paintings, and the caves like this is about half. The Lascaux cave consists of three rooms, is about 70 m in full length, and the largest places“The hole of a bull”are a hole of 9m wide, and Fig. 1.

 

 

次に、洞窟絵画はフランスの地中海に面したコスケール洞窟にある。27000年前に描かれた多くの手形と19000年前に描かれた動物群に分かれる。手形は他の洞窟でも多く見られるが、手を壁にあて、そこに顔料を吹き付けて描く。描かれている動物は他の洞窟と同様に馬が多いが、ペンギンとアザラシはめずらしい。

17000年前頃、有名なラスコー洞窟絵画(フランス)が出現する。ラスコー洞窟は石灰岩地帯の渓谷にある30近い洞窟の一つです。この一帯から10万点の石器や骨角器が見つかっている。生活の痕跡や遺物はあるが絵画のない洞窟はおおよそ半数ある。ラスコー洞窟は3部屋からなり、全長70m程で、最も広い所は幅9mの「牡牛のホール」、図1である。

 

ラスコー,牡牛のホール,The hole of a bull、Lascaux cave 

< fig.1 The hole of a bull 、Lascaux cave >

The side and the ceiling side of a cave mainly have many hundreds of horses, cows, deer, and bisons, and there is a picture of a maximum of 5.5m cow in them.Moreover, there are the colored picture and line-engraving drawings that describe a goat, a sheep, an antelope, a human being, and a geometrical pattern. These numbers are 2000 points. There are 500 handprints that man sprayed paints. Red clay and charcoal were melted and mixed with animal fat, blood, and sap, and black, red, yellow and tea, and brown paints were made. It is thought that the painting brush uses the moss, the hair of an animal, and a wooden branch or one’s own finger.

 

洞窟の側面と天井面には、数百の馬、牛、シカ、バイソンが多く、最大5.5mの牛の画がある。また山羊、羊、かもしか、人間、幾何学模様の彩色画、線刻画が2000点ある。顔料を吹き付けた人間の手形が500点ある。赤土・木炭を獣脂・血・樹液で溶かして混ぜ、黒・赤・黄・茶・褐色の顔料を作っていた。苔、動物の毛、木の枝をブラシがわりに、または指を使いながら壁画を描いたと考えられる。

 

牛と馬,A bull and a horse、Lascaux cave

< fig.2 A bull and a horse  、Lascaux cave >

Fig. 2 in the hole of a bull is painted over picture. Fig. 2 in the hole of a bull was painted over  some pictures repeatedly. The first pictures that was painted was a horse group of gray with running fast, on lower side. Subsequently, it was one horse that has a black mane in the center of the left, and the red body. Subsequently, it was a bull realistically was drawn by the black outline. Finally, a deer was painted in the pictures by only red on lower right.

 

 

牡牛のホールにある図2は重ね描きされている。最初に描かれたのが下部の灰色の疾駆する馬群. 次いで左中央の黒いたてがみと赤い胴体を有する一頭の馬、次いで黒の輪郭線で写実的に描かれた牛、最後に右下の赤一色の鹿が書き加えらえた。

 

バイソンと人,A bison and a person、Lascaux cave 

< fig.3 A bison and a person、Lascaux cave >

Fig. 3 shows the only scene in which a person appears. It is rare that a person appears in the fine arts of the Old Stone Age, and even if drawn, it is childish. In this picture, there is a bison that a spear is stuck in and from which an internal organ fall out, and the person fall down before that.On the lower side, there is a spear and a stick (probably an atlatl) that was attached a bird decoration.The person’s head is like a bird with a beak, it is seen that 4 fingers and the erect sexual organs.It seems to have some kind of message in this picture. The interpretation is a hunting scene, a transformer state of a shaman, a ceremony, etc.

 

Next time, I look at the last of cave fine arts and the shining time.

 

図3は人物が登場する唯一の場面である。旧石器時代の美術に人物が登場するのはめずらしく、描かれていても稚拙である。この絵には、投げ槍が刺さり内蔵が飛び出したバイソンの前に人物が倒れている。その下には投げ槍と鳥飾りを付けた棒(槍投器らしい)が見える。人物の頭はくちばしを持った鳥形で、指は4本で勃起した性器が見える。この絵にはメッセージがあるように思え、狩猟場面、シャーマンのトランス状態、儀礼目的などの解釈がある。

次回は、洞窟美術の最後を飾るものを見ます。

 

 

 

 

 

 

Categories: culture+society, history+evolution, <english language, <japanese language, Series: Birth of primitive art | Tags: , , , , , , , | Leave a comment

Birth of primitive art 2: Opening of glacial epoch fine arts


 ビーナス,A female head, France, Venus of Brassempouy

< A female head, France, 25000 years before, ivory, 4 cm height >

Movable property fine arts appeared suddenly in frigid Europe.

 We see about the typical Venus statue.

極寒のヨーロッパに突如として動産美術が作られ始めた。

 代表的なビーナス像について見る。

  

< A valley of the Chauvet Cave >

氷河期地図,The ruins map, glacial epoch, Europe, 10,000 ~40,000 years ago   

< The ruins map of glacial epoch Europe, 10,000 ~40,000 years ago >

 Many of the cave paintings were painted inside of the limestone cave that sunlight doesn’t reach.

 Many of the caves were in the ravine.

 They were near by the way that the reindeer carries out seasonal migration.

 Many animals drank water at the nearby place.

 People hunted these animals, fished or collected, and lived on the entrance of a cave and a rock shadow.

 From 3 million years ago, the glacial epoch began and it was most cool from 120000 years ago to 40000 years ago.

 Northern Europe and the Alps were covered with the glacier at this time.

 Since a sea surface lowered, there was no sea between England and Scandinavian Peninsula.

 The areas other than the prairie zone in the Mediterranean and the glacier were covered with ice and snow (step, tundra), and the mammoth was walking there in winter.

 

 

洞窟絵画の多くはカルスト地形の鍾乳洞内で、光りが届かない奥深くに描かれた。

 その多くは河谷沿いの山肌の横穴で、季節移動するトナカイの通り道や動物の水飲み場に近かった。

人々はそれら動物の狩猟と漁労採集を行い、洞窟の入り口や岩陰で暮らしていた。

300万年前から氷河期が進行し、4万年前から1万2千年前にかけて最も寒冷化した。

この時、ヨーロッパ北部とアルプスは氷河に覆われており、海面が下がりイングランドやスカンジナビア半島の間には海はなかった。

地中海側の草原地帯と氷河以外の地域は氷雪(ステップとツンドラ)に覆われ、冬にはマンモスが闊歩していた。

 

ビ-ナス,Venus, Dolní Věstonice 、Willendorf、nebra

< Venus statue >

Fig.1: Czechoslovakia, 29000 years ago, a calcination clay, 11 cm height

Fig.2: Germany, 25000 years ago, a limestone, 11 cm height  

Fig.3: Germany, 15000 years ago, a horn, 6~10 cm height  

 

First, Movable property fine arts appeared first and a group of the Venus statue of them is impressive.

 The statues of about 60 were excavated in the large area from France in the west to eastern Russia in the east.

 The oldest thing is the female statue group made from ivory about 35000 years ago.

 It has the common feature with a big breast and abdomen, and its height is from 6 to 15 cm.

 Fig. 1, the Venus statue has a special meaning. From these ruins, many calcination clay images some animal and ball is also found.

 A remarkable point is that they are the products made from clay calcinated at low temperature, therefore it hints at the forerunner of making earthenware.

 This probably shows that the life changed from continuation of movement to seasonal stay.

 Fig. 2, the Venus statue emphasizes a buttock, an abdomen, and a breast with a typical spindle type, and although the face is omitted, it displays the private parts.

 This is associated with a hand ax of stone tool and the symmetrical design is beauty.

They emphasized the generative functions. This reason probably was that they associated the childbirth with the fertility.

 This became a forerunner of many symbols on the world.

 The female head image made from ivory was found in a cave about 25000 years ago (the first Fig.).

 Although the mouth is omitted, its eyes and the nose are clarity, and it is covered with the hair or a hood.

 

 

図1: チェコ、29000年前、焼成粘土、高さ11cm。

図2: ドイツ、25000年前、石灰岩、高さ11cm。

図3: ドイツ、15000年前、角、高さ6~10cm。

 

最初に現れたのは動産美術で、印象深いのはビーナス像の一群です。

西はフランスから東はロシア東部に至る広い地域で約60点出土している。

最古層は35000年前頃に作られた象牙製の女性像群で、高さは6~15cmで、大きな乳房と腹部を持つ共通の特徴がある。

図1、ビーナス像には特別の意味があり、この遺跡からは多くの動物像や焼成粘土の球も見つかっている。

注目点はビーナス像が低温で焼成された粘土製であり、土器作りの先駆けを匂わす。

これはそれまでの移動中心から長期の季間滞在に移行した可能性を示している。

図2、ビーナス像は、典型的な紡錘型で臀部、腹部、乳房を強調し、顔は省略されているが陰部を表示する特徴がある。

これはハンドアックス(握斧)を連想させ、左右対称の美が感じられる。

これら生殖機能を強調したのは、出産から連想される豊穣祈願と考えられ、後に出現する地球上の多くのシンボルの先駆けとなった。

25000年前の洞窟から象牙製の女性頭部像が見つかった(最初の図)。

口は省略されているが目鼻が克明で、頭には頭髪か頭巾で覆われている。

 

ビーナスの浮き彫り,Venus, Laussel, France, Relief

< Relief of Venus, France,25000 years ago, a limestone wall, 44 cm height >

 The same time as this, the relief of Venus was discovered in a rock shadow of the valley near famous Lascaux Cave.

 It had a horn of a bison in one hand.

 The red ground (Ocher) is applied to that surface.

 There are 13 ruled lines in the horn, and I think that it is a calendar or some days.

 Fig. 3, a female statue made from the reindeer horn at 15000 years ago in northeast Germany.

 This statue became last female image and they weren’t made again.

 This emphasizes a buttock and is a simple design with the cylindrical upper half of the body.

 I seems that this was the pendant or putting in the bag.

 In this way the female statues of origin fine arts came into the world。

 Through the time of 20,000 years, it became simple carrying arts from the precious thing that emphasizes fertility.

 

Probably, they had the value as accessories or fetish.

 

 

 

これと同じ時期、ラスコー洞窟近くの河谷の岩陰にビーナス(上記図)が彫られ、バイソンの角を片手に持っている。

表面には赤い土(オーカー)が塗られて、この角には13本の刻線があり、何か暦か日数を示している。

そして最後を飾るのが、東北ドイツで見つかった15000年前のトナカイ角製の図3、女性像です。

これは臀部を強調し上半身が棒状のシンプルなデザインで、ペンダントか袋に入れて用いられたようだ。

このようにして原初美術の女性像は花開き、やがて2万年の時を経て、豊穣を強調する貴重なものから簡易な携行品となった。

 

それらは装飾品か呪物としての価値を持っていたのだろう

 

 

 

 

Categories: culture+society, history+evolution, <english language, <japanese language, opinion, Series: Birth of primitive art | Tags: , , , | Leave a comment

Birth of primitive art 1: What does it mean?


ビーナス像 Venus statue,  About 25000 years before  primitive art
< Venus statue,  About 25000 years before >

 

It was explained by “the origin of mind” how the humankind’s mind was born from space birth to the present age.

Two epoch-making in the evolution of humankind’s mind are the erect posture and family birth。

It is explained by description from 12 to 14 in the series.

A primitive art of the glacial epoch that continues after that is important similarly.

Subsequent to it, the farming revolution, city revolution, and mental revolution are generated.

This series explains the primitive art that humankind first started at about 30,000 years ago in Europe.

 

「心の起源」によって、人類の心が宇宙誕生から現代までどのようにして生まれて来たかが説明されました。

人類の心の進化における二つの画期は直立姿勢と家族誕生です。それは連載の12~14話で説明されています。

その後に続く氷河期の原始美術も重要です。

この後に農耕革命、都市革命、精神革命が続きました。

今回の連載は、ヨーロッパで起きた約3万年前頃に始まる人類最初の原始美術を追います。

 

 シューヴェ洞窟壁画 Chauvet Cave painting,  32000 years ago primitive art

< Chauvet Cave painting,  About 32000 years ago >

Why is this primitive art important? These features are enumerated.

 

1.        This design was the first thing on the earth.

2.        These art activities started suddenly. And 15,000 years continue and there is much the quantity.

3.        There are development progress and local culture in the pictures and statue.

4.        We can feel the symbolism, the narrative, and the realism in the art objects.

5.        The humankind (Cro-Magnon man) that already was born made them.

6.        It was performed in Europe of the arctic cold of a glacial epoch.

なぜこの原始美術が重要なのか? この特徴を列挙します。

1.        このデザインは地球上最初のものであった。

2.        突如として芸術活動が始まり、1万5000年間も続き、その量は多い。

3.        その絵画や彫像には発展経過と地域的な文化性がある。

4.        その造形物から象徴性、物語性、写実性を感じることが出来る。

5.        既に誕生していた現世人類(クロマニヨン)がその担い手であった。

6.        それは氷河期の極寒のヨーロッパで行われた。

振り返るバイソン,a bison looks over one's shoulder,  15000 years ago,primitive art

< a bison looks over one’s shoulder,  About 15000 years ago  >

 

In this period, there were very important on the history of humankind’s mind.

 

1.  Unlike a tool and dwelling till now, the art objects did not satisfied his physiological demand. 

2.  It shows that new intelligence (art, religion, natural history, technical intelligence and those integrated capability) was born.

3.  It did not happen in other areas. And it happened just during the glacial epoch.

The social behavior of the altruistic behavior and the family love that were obtained by evolution differed from the new intelligence greatly.

 

この時代は人類の精神史上、非常に重要であった。

1.        それまでの道具や住居とは異なり、何ら生理欲を満足させない物が作られた。

2.        それは新しい知能(芸術、宗教、博物学、技術的知能とそれらの統合能力)が誕生したことを示している。

3.        他の地域では起こらず、また氷河期だけに呼応することとなった。

進化で得た利他行動などの社会行動や家族愛の獲得と新しい知能とは大きく異なるものだった。

 

addaura洞窟壁画,Addaura Cave painting, 10000 years ago,primitive art

< Addaura Cave painting, About 10000 years ago >

 

The art objects show that the intelligence became highly efficient much more.

On the other hand, considering that a period for the mutation was very short and the place was restricted, we can think the society would make the intelligence.

These art activities were the beginning of the history of mind by the first society and culture.

If we understand it well, we can very know that humankind’s mind was influenced by the society.

Furthermore, we can understand what is the important element of the society

 

Continued to the next.

 

美術品から、その知能が一段と高機能になったことがわかります。

その一方、変化するには短期間であり、時期と場所が限られることからして、社会や文化がその知能を開花させた可能性が高い。

この芸術活動は最初の社会や文化による精神史の始まりと言える。

私達がこれをよく理解すれば、人類の心が社会によって影響されている様子が良くわかります。

さらにその社会の重要な要素が何かも理解出来るはずです。

次回からはこの様子を見ていきます。

<

Categories: culture+society, history+evolution, <english language, <japanese language, opinion, Series: Birth of primitive art | Tags: , , , , , | Leave a comment

Blog at WordPress.com.

Aim 優美聡明

夫婦・日常・色々な事を書いていきます・・・

LIF:E - Love Is For Everyone

Pondering the present, while forgetting about the future and realising the past.

COLORFUL SISTERS

Traveling Fashion Designers 🌼

忍者くんのおススメでござる。

アマゾン流派の忍者でござるよ。

ばしブログ0314

東京の風景や日常、株式投資のつぶやき 

ゆたかなおなか

#元公務員 #早期退職 #52歳 #遠回りの人生

K's Travel Channel

躁うつ患者の旅

神様が先生:毛利太郎(福田泰志 )

日本の萩市&長門市にメシアの民現る!アーメン(一部女性不可)日本共産党(しんぶん赤旗)スマートフォンはGoogle社製のピクセル4(ソフトバンク):何でも手作り作品の「エッセイスト・フクダ」至誠館大学・萩光塩学院・萩商工高校・萩高等学校・大津緑陽高校・長門高校

Life...

What Life is all about

わが心はタイにあり Love Thailand

タイの文化と自然に魅せられて

Rtistic

I speak my heart out.

MiddleMe

Becoming Unstuck

NABE猫ブログ

NABE猫です。経済学、経営学、マーケティングを始めとした科学的な知識を総動員して、オリジナルのアイデアを提供していきます。アイデアの課題は、お金を稼ぐことです。稼げるアイデアを皆さんに!

The Eternal Words

An opinionated girl penning down her thoughts.🌸❤

胡蝶蘭と大学職員

あなたの大学にいる職員さんってこんな人かもしれません。