Series: History of sickness and medical art

History of sickness and medical art 31: China 6


 

病と医術の歴史 31: 中国 6        

 

 

    1殷の青銅器

< 1. Bronze ware of Yin dynasty, the 14-11th century B.C. >

< 1. 殷の青銅器、紀元前14~11世紀 >

 

This time, I introduce a summary of Chinese medical art, and end it.

今回で、中国医学のまとめを行い、終わります。

 

2薬膳料理 

< 2. “Dishes of Chinese food therapy”was stewed medicines in soup >

< 2. 薬材を煮込んだ薬膳料理、 >

 

The megatrend (mainly till the 1st century)

In ancient China, the medical art of empirical science gradually developed from medical art being mainly magic.

As for the recognition to physiology, there was an emphasis on heart and a body fluid theory same as other ancient civilization.

There were several phases of outstanding changes in medical art till the 1st century.

Doctors divided their treatments among medicine men in Imperial Court.

There was the activity of doctors who went around each country intended for common people also.

Some important medical books were published.

The etiology had a concept being close to human body at around the 1st century B.C., but after that, it united with a theory of mind by religion (Taoism) and it didn’t develop.

However, because they attached importance to the practice, Acupuncture, Moxibustion and Chinese herb were developed

 

 

大きな流れ(主に紀元前後まで)

古代中国において、呪術中心の治療から経験科学による医術が徐々に発展していった。

身体生理への認識では、他の古代文明と同様な心臓重視と体液論があった。

医学上、何段階かの目立つ変化、宮廷内での巫医と医者の分掌、庶民をも対象にした遍歴医の活躍、医学書出版などが紀元前に起きて発展していた。

病因論は、紀元頃には身体に密接した概念を持ったこともあったが、その後は宗教(道教)の精神論と一体となり、安住してしまった感がある。

しかし実践を重視した鍼灸と漢方薬では高みを極めることになった。

 

3脈診

< 3. pulse diagnosis >

< 3.脈診 >

 

The characteristic of Chinese medical art, and the background

A: they did not identify a cause of the disease and decided the treatment policy by combination of plural symptoms.

B: they attached importance to disease prevention by raising natural healing capacity than treating the disease from outside.

C: in the disease diagnosis, the pulse diagnosis was developed especially.

 

In China, why didn’t the surgery develop? And why did the etiology greatly depend on the theory of mind?

 

Many religions of the world disliked the profanity of the body, and Confucianism prohibited the dissection like Christianity and Islam.

Therefore it is weak as a persuasive power that Chinese surgery didn’t develop by the prohibition of the religion.

Looking around the world, because pastoral tribe did not have resistance to the dissection than agricultural people, this may be a cause of it.

 

Another characteristic will originate in a reason that is pointed out in certain culture psychology.

People of the East Asia have a strong tendency that ” can see forest but don’t look at tree ” as compared with Westerner.

This seems to have led Chinese etiology that didn’t identify one cause and saw the whole symptom.

This will become to the characteristic A.

 

中国医学の特徴とその背景

A: 一つの病因を特定するのではなく、複数の症状の組合せ「証」によって治療方針を決めた。

B: 病気を外部から治療するよりも、自然治癒力を高めることと病気予防を重視した。

C: 病気診断では、四診(観察、聴・嗅診、質問、脈診)の脈診が発達した。

 

中国ではなぜ外科手術が発達しなかったのか、また病気を全体で捉えるのは良いとしても、病因論(因果関係)がなぜ精神論に大きく依存してしまったのか?

 

世界の宗教は概ね身体の冒涜を嫌い、儒教もキリスト教、イスラム教と同様に解剖を禁止した。

だから宗教の禁則で中国の外科が発達しなかったとするのでは説得力が弱い。

世界を見ると、農耕民族より牧畜民族の方が解剖に抵抗はなかったので、これが一因かもしれない。

 

もう一つの特徴は文化心理学で指摘されてことが起因しているのだろう。

東アジアの人々は欧米人と比べ「森を見て、木を見ない」傾向が強い。

これは中国の病因論が、一原因に特定せず、症状全体を見ることにつながりそうです。

これが特徴Aに繋がるのだろう。

 

 

4道教

< 4. a symbol showing “Yin and Yang” and a temple of Taoism >

< 4. 陰陽を表す図と道教の寺院 >

 

In China, Yin and Yang philosophy (space or body unify and change by two opposed elements) began to be unified at about the 3rd century B.C.

And Confucianism and Taoism of two major religion of China theorized it.

Taoism greatly was developed during Tang Dynasties, and the prescription of perpetual youth and longevity was expected, but failed in Chinese alchemy (mercury poisoning).

The Buddhism being ascendant in those days had a systematized theory of mind (people’s understanding brings solace), and Taoism enhanced Yin and Yang philosophy to counter it, and it seems to be involved in medical art.

This will become to the characteristic B.

 

Still probably, the biggest factor was that China was on the Eurasian edge, and was shut from other advanced civilization with the large desert, the mountain range, and the sea for a long time, therefore it seems to cause.

 

From the next time, I see the medical art of the ancient Greece.

 

中国では、陰陽思想(宇宙や身体は二つの要素が対立し統合して変化する)は紀元前3世紀頃にまとまり始め、それが中国の二大宗教の儒教と道教によって理論化されていた。

唐の時代に道教は大きく発展し不老長寿の処方を期待されるが、錬丹で失敗した(水銀中毒)。

当時、覇を競っていた仏教は体系化された精神論(悟りが救いをもたらす)を持っており、道教はこれと対抗する形で陰陽思想を高め、それが医術に取り込まれたようだ。

これが特徴Bに繋がるのだろう。

 

 

それでもおそらく最大の要因は中国がユーラシアの端にあり、長らく砂漠と山脈、海に遮られ他の高度文明との交流が遅れたことが災いしたのだろう。

インドやローマとの交流はあったが、仏教など一部に限られていた

 

 

次回から、古代ギリシャの医術を見ます。

 

 

Categories: culture+society, history+evolution, <english language, <japanese language, Series: History of sickness and medical art | Tags: , , , | 2 Comments

History of sickness and medical art 30 : China 5


病と医術の歴史 30: 中国 5

 

1三国志

 < 1.   Soldiers of Sanguo Shidai of China >

< 1. 中国、三国時代の軍人 >

 

This time, I introduce medicament, cure, and Chinese alchemy.

 今回は、薬剤と養生、錬丹について見ます。

 

Medicament

“Shennong Ben Cao Jing” is fatherless, the oldest book about materia medica, and was compiled during Later Han and Sanguo Shidai( the 2nd –3rd century).

This book sums up the knowledge and the treatment of the medicament from Zhanguo ( the 4th century B.C.).

 

薬 剤

「神農本草経」は作者不詳で、後漢から三国時代(2~3世紀)に成立した最古の薬物学書です。

この書は戦国時代(紀元前4世紀)からの用薬の経験と薬物学の知識を系統的にまとめている。

 

2神農本草経

 

< 2. “Shennong Ben Cao Jing” >

< 2. 神農本草経 >

 

3麻黄

 

< 3. Ephedra >

< 3. 麻黄 >

 

In the book, there are 365 kinds of medicament, it is categorized as 252 plants, 67 animals, and 46 minerals, and majority of the efficacy is obvious.

For example, ephedra is antidiarrheal, seaweed is used to treatment of lump, glycyrrhiza is alexipharmic, and rheum is a laxative.  

The medicament is categorized into 3 groups.

It consist of 120 kinds of medicament having harmless but weak effect for recuperation, 120 kinds of medicament having harmless and effect for recuperation and treatment, and the rest is such as medicament for destroying tumors in the stomach but being harmful.

And it mentions the production area of medicament, the collection season, the processing process, the most suitable type (pill, powder, and it saturated in alcohol), the taking time, and the taking method.

 

Books about materia medica after the 3rd century were based on this “Shennong Ben Cao Jing”.

In plant medicament, it is well known as a certain kinds of hydrangea is suitable for malaria, ginseng is suitable for recovery of energy, and tetradium ruticarpum is suitable for ascariciding.

Some of the medicaments were from Egypt and India, and Southeast Asia.

 

 

薬物は365種あり、植物252、動物67、鉱物46に分類され、大多数は効能が確かである。

例えば麻黄は下痢止め、海藻は瘤の治療、甘草は解毒、大黄は通便など。

薬物を三種類に分け、無毒だが効果が弱く保養用120種、有益・無毒の保養と医療作用のある120種、残りが有毒で寒熱を除き、胃腸内の腫瘤を破るなどの医療作用があるとした。

また薬物の産地、採集時期、加工製法、適した剤型(丸、散、酒漬など)、服用時期、服用方法にも触れられている。

 

魏・晋代以降(紀元3世紀から)の薬物学の書は、この「神農本草経」を基礎にしている。

植物性薬剤では、ペストにダイフウノキ(高木の種)の油、マラリアにジョウサンアジサイ、精力回復に朝鮮人参、回虫にゴシュユ(低木)が良く知られている。

薬物にはエジプトやインド、東南アジア産のものも見られる。

 

Regimen

The regimen was important means of tonicity, the prevention of disease, and prevent aging.

Many thinkers and medical scientists preached the regimen, and there were two points of view: “Let’s cultivate life with motion” or “Let’s cultivate life with stillness”

” Hundred Schools of Thought” insisted that we have to be according to nature, and do the care of health about eating and drinking, and have the harmony of mind.

Tua Tuo created the exercises borrowing from five animal postures in Qigong。

“ Curing before becoming sickness” had been written in certain medical book.

 

養 生

養生は強壮・疾病予防・老化防止の大切な手段であった。

多くの思想家や医学者が養生法を説き、「静を以って生を養う」「動を以って生を養う」の二つの観点があった。

多くの「諸子百家」は自然に従い、飲食の摂生や精神の調和を主張した。

華陀は気功・導引から五つの動物姿態の模倣体操を編み出した。

「内経」は「未だ病まざるを治す」、すなわち疾病予防が養生上重要であるとした。

 

4練丹

 

 

< 4. Chinese alchemy? >

< 4. 錬丹術? >

 

5硫化水銀

 

 

< 5. Cinnabar > 

< 5.丹砂 >

 

Chinese alchemy and immortality

On the other hand, “Shennong Ben Cao Jing” included the knowledge of Taoism (thought of immortal), and showed the early state of Chinese alchemy.

In this book, it was written that mercury already had effect on the treatment of scabies and the insecticide of louse.

Chinese alchemy is to made the medicament for immortality by means of mixing and producing chemically change to metals such as mercury sulfide (cinnabar), gold or leaden.

A certain book of Taoism in the 4th century was the first important book about Chinese alchemy, and the chemical knowledge became abundance.

Chinese associated the elixir of immortality with remarkable changing of mercury from red ore of mercury sulfide (fig. 5) and the non-corrosive attribute of gold.

In ancient China, the people attached importance to living in this mortal world than afterworld.

Therefore, the First Qin Emperor had searched the medicament for immortality, in best days, kings of Tang (the 7-9th century) drank the medicament for immortality made by Chinese alchemy, and the many kings died by poisoning.

Before long, Taoism came to cultivate the immortality not by medicament of immortality but by Qi (spirit) of his body.

On the other hand, the abundant knowledge by Chinese alchemy developed the chemistry and the metallurgy, and then the world’s first gunpowder was made in China in the ninth century.

 

 

錬丹と不老不死

一方、「神農本草経」には道教(神仙思想)が根強く、錬丹術の初期の様子が見える。

この書には、すでに水銀が疥癬の治療、虱の殺虫剤に効能ありと書かれていた。

錬丹とは、硫化水銀(丹砂)、金、鉛などの金属を化学変化させ調合し不老不死の薬を作ることです。

4世紀の道教の書「抱朴子」は錬丹術の初期の重要な書で、化学的知識も豊富になっていた。

中国では、硫化水銀の赤い鉱石(図5)から水銀への著しい変化、また金の非腐食性に生命の真髄を仮託した。

古代中国では、人々は死後よりも現世に生きることに重きを置いていた。

それが秦の始皇帝の徐福派遣(仙人探し)に始まり、最盛期、唐の王(7~9世紀)は錬丹家が作る不老不死の薬を飲用し、多くは中毒死した。

やがて道教は不老不死を薬でなく、人体内部の気で養う方向に向かっていった。

一方、錬丹術による豊富な知見は、化学と冶金学を発展させ、9世紀には世界最初の火薬が中国で作られた。

 

 

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History of sickness and medical art 29 : China 4


病と医術の歴史 29: 中国 4

 

1針治療

< 1. Acupuncture >

< 1. 針治療 >

 

I reopen this serialization after a long absence.

It carries on from “ History of sickness and medical art 26,27,28:China 1,2,3 “

 

久しぶりに連載を再開します。

「病と医術の歴史 26,27,28: 中国 1,2,3 」の続きです。

2,亀甲, Tortoiseshell 

< 2. Tortoiseshell >

< 2. 亀甲 >

 

Treatment

Medicine man ascertained the cause of sickness by the fortune-telling using a tortoiseshell, and used three kinds of treatment measure.

  1. The physical measure being friction, fumigation and Acupuncture Moxibustion, etc.
  2. The measure transferring a demon of the disease cause to other.
  3. The measure by incantation, or talisman, etc.

Clause 1 involves the administration of a medicine, and it also is an aim that an internal demon runs away because of pain of the drug.

Clause 2 used the dolls being made of grass.

 

 

 

治 療

巫医は亀甲による占いで病気の原因を突き止め、三種類の治療法を使った。

  1. 一. 摩擦・燻蒸・鍼灸(針灸)などの物理的なもの。
  2. 二. 病気原因の悪霊を他の物体に乗り換えさせるもの。
  3. 三. 呪文・護符などによるもの。

第一項には、薬剤投与も含まれるが、服用によって体内の悪霊が苦痛のために逃げ出すのを目的としたものもある。

第二項には、草で作った人形などを使用した。

 

3,藁人形, Doll of straw

< 3. Doll of straw used for a curse in Japan >

< 3. 日本で呪詛のために使われた藁人形 >

 

When empirical science advanced in medical art, for the diagnosis, there was observation, observation with stethoscope, interview, pulse diagnosis, and palpation was adopted in some cases.

After, the pulse diagnosis was regarded as important, it was done in three places, and it was said that it was able to catch hundreds of characteristics.

Treatment measure was five methods of psychotherapy, dietary cure, drug therapy, whole body therapy, Acupuncture Moxibustion therapy.

Dental therapy was limited to being coated with medicines or drinking.

In the 2nd century B.C., a doctor left the first medical record.

Tua Tuo is a doctor who played an active part in the private sector in the 2nd century A.D. and he did open surgery with using anesthetic.

The anatomy did not develop, because Confucius forbade the profanity of the body.

 

 

経験科学による医術が進むと、診断に、観察、聴診、問診、脈診、場合により触診も取り入れられた。

後には脈診が重要視され、三箇所で脈拍が見られ、何百という特徴を捉えることが出来るとされた。

治療法には、精神療法、食養生、薬剤療法、全身療法、鍼灸療法の五つの方法があった。

歯の治療は薬を塗るか、飲むかに限られていた。

紀元前2世紀始めの医師・淳于意は初のカルテを残している。

外科では紀元2世紀に活躍した民間医の華陀(カダ)が麻酔薬を用いて開腹手術を手がけている。

孔子は体の冒涜を禁じていたので解剖学は発達しなかった。

 

4,華佗, Tua Tuo is a surgeon

< 4. Tua Tuo is a surgeon >

< 4.外科医、華陀 >

 

5経路図, Human body meridians

< 5. “Human body meridians” shows the points that are stabbed with needle >

< 5.経路図は針を刺す位置を示している >

 

 

The history of peculiar Acupuncture of China is old, and acute bone for Acupuncture was excavated from remains of 5th millennium B.C.

At first, man broke a pustule with the sharp part of a stone, and emptied pus and blood.

From this treatment reducing swelling, the Acupuncture was developed.

Moxibustion seems to have been developed from the accidental healing experience of burn injury.

 

中国独特の針治療の歴史は古く、骨針が紀元前5千年紀の遺跡から出土している。

最初、石の尖った部分で膿疱を破り、膿と血を出し、腫れをひかせる処置から針治療が発展した。

灸は火傷跡の偶然の治癒経験から発展したのだろう。

 

The purpose of this therapy is to discharge surplus yin and yang, it is to bring appropriate balance, and then it is said that can flow the outside energy into the body.

In Acupuncture therapy, the curer pricks the skin with a long needle till the constant depth at a certain place.

The curer pricks 365 energy centers along the meridians running on the surface of the body with the needle.

Human body meridians cover the body surface, and have a function to carry active vitality called “ Qi”.

For example, pricking a certain point of the earlobe with a needle treats an abdominal disease.

This therapy is said to be good for every sickness, debilitation, symptom, and, after it came to be used for anesthesia, too.

 

 

この治療目的は、過剰な陰と陽を排出し、適切なバランスをもたらすことにあるが、外部のエネルギーを体内に導入することも可能とされた。

鍼は、皮膚に長い針を場所によって決まった深さまで刺す。

針は体表を走る経路に沿って存在する365のツボに刺す。

経路は全身を巡り、「気」と呼ばれる活性の生命力を運ぶ役目がある。

例えば、耳たぶのある点に針を刺すことで、腹部の病気を治療する。

あらゆる病気、衰弱状態、症状に効くとされ、のちには麻酔にも使用されるようになった。

 

Moxibustion therapy is a cure to make a blister, by putting moxa (dried leaves of wormwood) on the skin small at energy centers same as the Acupuncture therapy and burning it.

Acupuncture Moxibustion therapy developed, but the development of the surgery is late, and drug treatment drinking as a decoction became central part of medical art.

 

灸は、モグサを鍼と同じツボで皮膚の上に小さく盛り上げて燃やし、水ぶくれを作る治療法である。

鍼灸は発達したが外科の発達は遅れ、煎じて飲む薬物療法が中心であった。

 

6太極拳,Tai chi chuan

< 5. Tai chi chuan is performed in the morning in Chinese park >

< 5. 太極拳は中国の公園で早朝よく行われている >

 

In the Christian Era, Anma( Japanese massage) and Tai chi chuan later were born.

In the 11th century, Chinese medical art succeeded in immunity of the smallpox along with India.

It is to pour the dried powder made of a crust of the smallpox into a nostril with using a thin pipe.

 

 

紀元後には按摩、遅れて太極拳などの療法も生まれた。

11世紀には、インドと並んで天然痘の免疫に成功していた。

それは乾いて粉状になつた天然痘の外皮を細い管を使って鼻孔に注入して行った。

 

 

Categories: history+evolution, <english language, <japanese language, science, Series: History of sickness and medical art | Tags: , , , , | 2 Comments

History of sickness and medical art 28: China 3


 medical book “Huangdi Neijing”

<1. medical book “Huangdi Neijing”>

 

This time, I look at how people recognized the sickness in those days.

 今回は、当時の人々が病をどのように認識していたかを見ます。

 

 Restored instruments of acupuncture in “Huangdi Neijing” 

< 2. Restored instruments of acupuncture in “Huangdi Neijing” >

 

The oldest medical book “Huangdi Neijing”

This Chinese oldest medical book is written in the form that legendary Yellow Emperor discusses with a subject.

It was written in the first century B.C.

This form resembles the pattern that a legendary wizard had a dialogue with a king in ” Caraka Sanhita” of India.

It consists of pathology, general remarks of physiology, and clinical medicine including diagnosis, treatment, acupuncture and moxibustion.

 

“ People are kept alive by life energy ( Qi ) of nature, and is controlled with the rule of four seasons”

From ancient times, in China (East Asia), people think people being harmonize with nature, and it becomes sickness when balance collapses.

 

最古の医書「黄帝内経」

この中国最古の医書は伝説上の黄帝が臣下と問答する形で著されている。

前1世紀頃に集成された。

この形式は、インドの「チュンカラ・サンヒター」に出てくる聖仙と王の問答に似ている。

病理学、生理学の総論と診断、治療、鍼灸など臨床篇からなっている。

 

「人は天地の気をもって生じ、春夏秋冬の四季の法をもて成る」

古来より中国(東アジア)では、人間は自然と調和しているものであり、バランスが崩れると病になると考えている。

 

this Classic Taoist Taijitu shows “Yin and Yang” 

< 3. this Classic Taoist Taijitu shows “Yin and Yang” >

 

The fundamental theory is in Confucian doctrine” I Ching”.

It is said that people take birth with life energy ( Qi ) of “ Yin and Yang”, and people get sick if the harmony in the body was lost.

Furthermore, it was assumed that the human body is made of wood, fire, soil, gold, and water.

The basic elements of every phenomena and things were assigned to five.

There was 4 body fluid theory in Greece medicine, but there was 5 body fluid theory in China.

Moreover, people recognized that all blood was under rule of the heart, circulated through it continuously, and didn’t stop.

 

 

根本理論は儒教の教説「易」であり、人間は陰陽の気を呼吸しており、体内でこの両者が調和を失えば病気になるという。

さらに人体は木、火、土、金、水から出来ているとし、あらゆる現象と事物を5要素に割り当てた。

ギリシャ医学では4体液説だが、中国では5体液説であった。

また血液はすべて心臓の支配下にあり、絶えず循環し、留まることがないと認識していた。

 

Meridian of “Huangdi Neijing” 

< 4.   Meridian of “Huangdi Neijing” >

 

Moreover, there is the 12 principal meridians in body, and life energy ( Qi ) circulates through this course.

It presupposed that health can be maintained by keeping this circulation normal, and the sickness is treated by giving acupuncture and moxibustion.

Moreover, it presupposed the sickness was divided into two, one of it depended on external factor such as wind, chill, dryness, humidity, and other depended on inner factor of joy, pathos, anger, fear, etc.

 

また体内には12本の経脈と支脈といえる無数の絡脈があり、気はこの経路を循環する。この経路を正常に保つことによって健康が保持できるとし、ここに鍼灸を施すことによって治療するとした。

また、病気は二つに分けられ、風・寒気・乾燥・湿気などの外的影響によるものと、喜び・哀しみ・怒り・恐れなどの内的影響によるとした。

 

     Zhang Zhongling

< 5. Zhang Zhongling >

 

The oldest clinical medical book “Shanghan Lun”

This book was written by Zhang Zhongling of good doctor at the end of the Han dynasty, and was a monument that told the birth of experience medicine.

He was called Hippocrates.

In a preface, he wrote his families had died in large quantities in a short term and 70 percent of it was “Shanghan”, and indicated the motive of writing the book.

He systematically explained the treatment of “Shanghan” from the onset of a disease to the death, and medical treatment was explained mainly by medicines only, but the etiology was not explained.

 

最古の臨床医学書「傷寒論」

後漢時代の名医・張仲景によって著されたこの本は、経験医学の誕生を告げる記念碑であり、彼はヒポクラテスと並び称された。

序文で、彼の一族が短期間に大量死し、その7割が傷寒の病とし、本を書く動機を書いている。

傷寒(腸チフスを含む急性熱病)の治療を発病から死亡まで系統的に述べ、治療は薬物が中心で病因論には触れていない。

彼は臨床医としても優れ、広く各医家の長所を吸収し、経験と知識を統合し独創的な治療法を試みた。

 

 

 

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History of sickness and medical art 27: China 2


Medical treatment scene of doctor Bian que

< 1. Medical treatment scene of doctor Bian que >

 

This time, I look at the change of medicine through the activity of the doctor.

 今回は、医者の活躍を通して医術の変遷を見ます。

 

.  Capital's remain of Yin dynasty 

< 2. Capital’s remain of Yin dynasty >

 

Doctor

In the entire world, the medical treatment by fortune telling or prayer was in the mainstream in ancient times.

Similarly, medicine man (witch doctor) was most valued in the royal palace of Yin that occurred in the 16th century B.C.

However, a portent of experience medicine was seen also in Yin dynasty, and, in Western Zhou Dynasty in the 8th-11th century B.C., the tendency further was progressing more.

 

医 師

どこの世界でも、古くは占いや祈祷による治療が中心であったが、前16世紀に始まる殷・周時代の王宮でも巫医(ふい)が最重視されていた。

しかしその殷王朝でも経験医学の萌芽が見られ、前11~前8世紀の西周ともなると、その傾向はさらに進んだ。

 

.  Duke of Zhou is a Prime Minster of Yin dynasty and seemed to have written ”Rites of Zhou”

< 3. Duke of Zhou is a Prime Minster of Yin dynasty and seemed to have written ”Rites of Zhou” >

 

According to ”Rites of Zhou” in which the administrative organization of Western Zhou Dynasty is described, there was a medical special department that separated from magic and religion.

It included the disease prevention, the treatment, the management about medicine and medical appliances, and the accountancy.

The ranking of medical person was indicated in that order: the doctor (he collected medicine and superintended inferior doctors), food doctor (he prescribed food and drink), internist, surgeon, and veterinarian.

The doctor had been classified by the results and was obliged to report his failure or his success as the judgment data.

In the middle of next chun qiu Zhan guo shi dai (end of the 8th-3rd century B.C.), the change appeared furthermore.

As we had looked a famous physician of the King of Qin last time, doctors like Bian Que (the 5th century B.C.) came to play an active part among many thinkers (Hundred Schools of Thought) that went around feudal lords of each country.

 

西周の行政組織が記されている「周礼」(前3世紀頃)によると、呪術や宗教から分離した医療専門部署があり、病気予防、治療、薬剤と医療器具管理、会計事務が設置されていた。

その治療を担当する医師には医博士(薬を集め、医師を監督)、食医(食物と飲料を処方)、医師、傷医(外科医)、獣医の順で記載されていた。

医師は成績により格付けされ、その判断資料として、失敗成功の報告が義務づけられていた。

続く春秋戦国時代(前8~3世紀末)の中期になるとさらに変化が現れた。

前回に見た秦王の侍医医爰は傑出していたが、諸侯の間を遊説して渡り歩く諸子百家に混じって遍歴医、扁鵲(へんじゃく、前5世紀)などが活躍するようになる。

 

a relief engraving(hua xiang shi) in the 2nd century A.D. showed Bian Que carrying out acupuncture. 

< 4. a relief engraving(hua xiang shi) in the 2nd century A.D. showed Bian Que carrying out acupuncture. >

 

The bird expresses the doctor, and his name means the magpie of a wise bird.

He visited main five countries of those days.

He was skillful at pulse diagnosis and also was excellent in internal medicine, surgery, gynecology, pediatrics, five senses (eye, ear, nose, mouth, and tongue), acupuncture and moxibustion.

He was dealt with in “Records of the Grand Historian”, and it was written that he cured the diseases of from feudal lords till common people of each country.

In his words, there was “there are six cureless sickness”, and one of that was ” a person believes pythoness and does not believe medical art.”

This shows a firm belief in medical art of those days, and it shares similarity with Hippocrates of Greece of the same period.

However, the experience medicine did not replace magic medicine.

In the preceding paragraph story of the famous physician of the King of Qin last time, the King was divined by pythoness as “King was cursed as that king had killed two men by his hand, therefore he must die.”

 

扁鵲は鳥で表現されているが、名前の鵲は賢い鳥のカササギを意味している。

この扁鵲は、当時の主要5ヶ国を巡り、東西両端の地を訪れた。

彼は脈診が巧みで、内科、外科、婦人科、小児科、目・耳・鼻・口・舌の五感、鍼灸科の医術全般にわたって優れていた。

後の淳于意(ジュンウイ)と共に「史記・列伝」(前1世紀)に取り上げられおり、各地の王侯・官吏から庶民までを治療した事が書かれている。

扁鵲の言葉に、「病気には六つの不治が有り」、その一つに「巫女を信じて医を信じない」がある。

これは当時の医術への確信を示しており、ギリシャの同時代人ヒッポクラテスに通じる。

しかし経験医学が呪術に取って代わったわけではない。

前述の医爰逸話の前段階において、晋王は巫によって占われており、「自らの手で二人の大夫を殺害した祟りであり、・・・、帝の死は避けられない。」と宣告されていた。

“Shennong Ben Cao Jing” is a Chinese book on agriculture and medicinal plants

< 5.  “Shennong Ben Cao Jing” is a Chinese book on agriculture and medicinal plants >

 

Sickness

The sick classification was hardly based on cause of disease, but was based on “proof” of the condition or pulse diagnosis.

Therefore, the ancient name of disease is uncertain.

As for the oldest specialized book ofmateria medica, there is “Shennong Ben Cao Jing”(the 1st century B.C.).

The disease names being written in this book covered 170 different types including jaundice, malignant tumor, cold, etc.

And it explained each disease of internal medicine, surgery, gynecology, ophthalmology, otolaryngology, and dentistry.

 

病気

病気の分類はほとんど病因によらず、もっぱら症状や脈診による「証」によった。

したがって古代の病名は判然としない。

最古の薬物学の専門書に「神農本草経」(前1世紀、後漢以降の編纂)がある。

ここに出てくる病気は黄疸、悪性腫瘍、風邪などを含む170種に及び、内科・外科・婦人科・眼科・耳鼻咽喉科・歯科の各疾患にわたっている。

 

 

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History of sickness and medical art 26: China 1


Bronze ware

< 1. Bronze ware, the 6th century B.C. >

 

I look at the medical art of China in the first millennium B.C.

This time, I survey Chinese medical art of those days.

 

紀元前1千年紀頃の中国の医術を見ます。

今回は、当時の中国医学を概観します。

 

 Terracotta Army in Mausoleum of the First Qin Emperor

< 2. Terracotta Army in Mausoleum of the First Qin Emperor, the 3rd century B.C. >

 

The Chinese civilization began from a large number of city-states that was born in the Yellow River middle region.

The oldest dynasty is “Xia” in about 2070 B.C.

In the wake of the large conflict of “ Chun qiu Zhan guo shi dai”(770B.C.~221B.C.), Qin Dynasty accomplished first unification, then Han Dynasty (202B.C.~220A.D.) took it.

From these days, China was the supreme ruler of East Asia and was the most advanced civilized country.

 

 

中国文明は黄河中流域に誕生した多数の都市国家から始まりました。

最古の王朝は紀元前2070年頃の「夏」です。

春秋戦国時代(前770~前221年)の大争乱の果てに、秦帝国が統一を成し、それを漢(前202~後220年)が奪った。

この頃から、中国は東アジアの覇者であり、先進文明国であった。

 

Chinese drama "Confucius"

< 3. Chinese drama “Confucius” >

 

For us, China was a great teacher and a cultural superpower that had abundant classics.

Although the birth of a character would be in about the 16th century B.C., it became popular for writing to a strip of wood card and a silk cloth.

The contents became various from about the 8th century, and it were written about a myth, poetry, the history, accounts of war, the thought, and the medical art.

Such as Confucius, the thinker’s birth that began from about the 6th century B.C. became a landmark event of culture.

 

 

我々にとって中国は偉大な師匠であり、豊富な古典を有する文化大国でした。

文字の誕生は前16世紀頃ですが、普及したのは木の札や絹布に書かれるようになってからです。

その内容は前8世紀頃から多様になり、神話、詩歌、歴史、戦記、思想、医術も著された。

前6世紀頃から始まった、孔子などの諸子百家と呼ばれる思想家の誕生が文化の画期となった。

 

Chinese medicine drugstore street

< 4. Chinese medicine drugstore street in Guangzhou >

 

The old medical art of China is called Chinese medicine and is contributing by the drug and health management method still today.

It includes Chinese herb, massage, and a food therapy meaning that foods are medicines.

And especially acupuncture, moxa cautery, and a therapy by life energy are peculiar.

The medical art of China was tied to much God and black art in the first stage in common with other civilization.

 

 

中国の医術は漢方と呼ばれ、現在でも薬剤や健康法で貢献しています。

それには漢方薬、医食同源、按摩などがあり、特に鍼、灸、気は独特なものです。

中国の医術も他の文明と同様に初期は多くの神や呪術と結びついていました。

この特徴は、大陸の端にあって他文明から隔絶し、広大な地域に多数の民族がいたことにあるのでしょう。

5甲骨文

< 5. Inscriptions on bones and tortoise carapaces, the 13 –11th century B.C. >

I introduce two stories.

“ Policymaker uses the doctor who performs fortune-telling by a tortoise shell and bamboo sticks.” (the 2nd century B.C.- the 2nd A.D.)

 

“ This sickness cannot get cured. The moxa cautery does not work because that it is located at the lower side of your heart and upper side of your diaphragm. And the acupuncture does not reach it. Medicines also do not work additionally.” (About the 4th century B.C. time)  

 

The former shows that they depended on treatment of witch doctor performing a fortune-telling and a prayer.

The latter shows that famous physician in ordinary to King of Qin was invited to Jin, and he diagnosed the King of Jin.

In those times, there was a doctor who won fame by medicine.

He had known three kinds of cures and diagnosed for medical problem.

 

I look at how the empirical science-like medical art including the magical factor has changed, from the first millennium B.C. to the 3rd century A.D.

 

 

二つの話を紹介します。

「為政者、亀甲と筮竹(ぜいちく)による占いをたのみ、好みて巫医(ふい)を用いる。」(管子より、紀元前後に集成)

 

「この病気は治療できない、横隔膜の上、心臓下部の下は灸治もできず、刺鍼も届かず、さらに、薬も効きません。」(左伝より、紀元前4世紀頃に集成)

 

前者は、占いや祈祷を行う巫(みこ)の治療に頼っていたことを示す。

後者は、前6世紀末、有名な秦王の侍医・医爰(イエン)が晋に招かれて王を診断し、既に手遅れと述べたところです。

この時、王は自ら病が絶望的であると指摘されたにもかかわらず、その診断の確かさを褒めた。

この時代、医術で名声を博した医者がおり、内科的な病に対して診断を行い、3種類の治療法を有していたことがわかる。

 

このように呪術と経験科学的な医術が、紀元前1千年から紀元3世紀頃までにどのように変化していったかを見ます。

 

 

 

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History of sickness and medical art 25: India 5


Yoga

< 1. Yoga >

 

This time, I introduce Yoga and summarize the medical art of ancient India, end it.

今回、ヨーガを説明し、まとめを行い、古代インドの医術を終わります。

 

Yoga

Yoga is known as a thing increasing health enhancement now.

On the other hand, deity statue performing Zen (meditation) around the world will be only Buddha statue.

Long history is concerned with this.

 

ヨーガ

現在、ヨーガは健康増進を図るものとして知られています。

一方、世界の神像で座禅(瞑想)しているものは仏像だけでしょう。

これには長い歴史が関わっています。

 

a seal of Indus civilization: a Yoga ascetic sits while wearing a crown of horn 

< 2. a seal of Indus civilization: a Yoga ascetic sits while wearing a crown of horn >

 

The oldest image that is sitting is in the seal of Indus civilization.

The oldest description about Yoga was in an Upanishad of about the fourth century B.C.

Following sentence teaches an ascetic training of Yoga.

“Recognize Atman of an absolute hiding in depth of our existence by introspectiveness”

In India, it was idealized that people had been absorbed quietly in meditation under forest tree from time immemorial (ashrama).

Caraka sanhita that became medical knowledge of Buddha makes reference to yoga a lot.

 

座禅をしている最古の図はインダス文明の印章にあります。

ヨーガの最古の記述は紀元前4世紀頃のウパニシャドにあります。

「我々の存在の奥底にひそむ絶対者アートマンを内観によって認識せよ!」

とヨーガの修行を教えています。

インドでは、古くから森林樹下において静座瞑想に耽ることは理想とされてきた(四住期)。

釈迦の医学知識になったチャラカ・サンヒター(医学書)もヨーガについて多く触れています。

 

 Bhagavad Gita is part of the Hindu epic Mahabharata, and a sacred text of the Hindus. 

< 3. Bhagavad Gita is part of the Hindu epic Mahabharata, and a sacred text of the Hindus. >

 

Yoga developed in the first millennium B.C. as the religious self-training method (enlightenment or nirvana) or moral culture, and Buddhism took in it.

The system of the Yoga was completed at about the fourth century, and at about the twelfth century, mystical yoga was born and adopted physical movement.

This spreads now all over the world.

 

ヨーガは、紀元前一千年紀に宗教的な修行法(悟り、解脱)や精神修養として発展し、仏教にも取り入れられた。

紀元4世紀頃に、ヨーガの体系が完成し、12世紀頃、神秘主義的なヨーガが誕生し、身体的な動きを取り入れた。

これが現在世界中に普及している。

 

Alexander the Great : a scene of the movie  

< 4. Alexander the Great : a scene of the movie  >

    

Ancient medical system of India advanced

Emperor Ashoka built hospital for people in the third century B.C.

In Europe, similar thing is built in the fourth century.

When a Greek doctor was not able to cure a soldier who was bitten by a snake, Alexander the Great commanded Indian doctor to cure him.

The medical treatment was successful, and Alexander the Great who was impressed with it employed Indian doctors in his army.

 

Summary

The characteristic of the medical art in India seemed to attach importance to more the cure for a patient than the etiology.

New doctors escaped from religious bondage, and participated actively in the cure.

As seen in Yoga, there was an Indian culture that attached importance to the cultivation of mind, and this affected religion, medical art, and health care.

 

From next time, I introduce ancient medical art of China.

 

古代インドの医療体制や医術は進んでいた

紀元前3世紀のアショーカ王は人々の為に病院を建設していた。

同様のものはヨーロッパにおいて4世紀以降になる。

アレキサンダー大王は、蛇に咬まれた兵士をギリシャ人医師が治療出来なかったとき、インド人医師に見てもらえと、命じた。

その治療は成功し、感銘を受けた王はインド人医師らを軍隊に雇い入れ従軍させた。

 

まとめ

インド医術の特徴は、病因論よりも患者を治すことに重き置いたように思える。

新興の医師達が宗教のしがらみから抜け出し活躍していた。

ヨーガで見たように精神統御を重視する文化があり、これが宗教や医術、健康管理に影響を与えた。

 

次回から、古代中国の医術を見ます。

 

 

 

 

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History of sickness and medical art 24: India 4


Buddha

< 1. Buddha >

 

How did Buddha who participated actively around the 6th century B.C. face the illness?

We will see new breath in it.

 

紀元前6世紀頃に活躍した釈迦は病とどのように向きあったのか?

そこには新しい息吹が見える。

 

About Buddha of the day

Brahmanism that was mainstream of the day was mainly role to provide offering and ceremony for God.

Buddha who wanted new path to the salvation preached the teachings along with doing communal living with many pupils and traveling over villages.

This priest group involved the participation of all classes, man andwoman.

They didn’t work, accepted charity, didn’t have goods, and lived equal and simple life.

Acceding to the rule that Buddha decided was a single condition that the members can belong to the group.

During several hundred years, the pupils had carried on the tradition of these rules, and then these became the Scripture being calling Vinaya-Pitaka.

 

 

当時の釈迦について

当時、主流であったバラモン教は神への帰依-供物と儀式―が中心であった。

新しい救い求めた釈迦は、多くの弟子と共に集団生活をしながら村々を巡り、教えを説いた。

この出家者集団は、あらゆる階層、男女が参加し、働かず、乞食(こつじき)し、財を持たない質素で平等の生活を行った。

釈迦が決めた規則を守ることが、集団に帰属出来る唯一の条件だった。

この規則が、弟子達に数百年の間、口頭伝承され、教典となったのが律蔵です。

 

Turmeric: medicines and curry powder 

< 2.  Turmeric: medicines and curry powder >

 

From Vinaya-Pitaka, below are an extract and a summary.

 

“A priest suffered from a sickness. Everybody nursed him, but he didn’t recover. He went to a slaughterhouse of pig, and ate the uncooked meat and drank the blood. His disease thereby recovered. Buddha said, “ I forgive the sick person for eating uncooked the meat and drinking the blood.””

 

“ I allow use of roots-root of turmeric, ginger, and iris, etc.- as medicines. Although these are appetizing and add a flavor, healthy person must not eat it. You will commit a crime, if you eat them though these are not necessary.”

 

“ Ananda, because I am out of condition, I want to drink a purgative. Ananda consulted Jivaka. The doctor ordered Ananda that he must paint fats the body of Buddha for a few days, and then the doctor gave him a light purgative. The doctor said to Buddha that you should refrain from liquid meal until you completely recovered. And Buddha recovered.”

 

Buddha knew the medical art of the time, and applied it actively.

He hadn’t the idea of the sickness that was caused by the violation of taboo or the punishment by God.

In addition, he was a friend with skilled physician Jivaka.

 

 

律蔵から当時の様子が覗える。抜粋・要約です。

 

「ある出家者は非人病を患った。色々、皆が彼を看病したけれども直らなかった。彼は豚の屠殺場に往き、生肉を食べ、血を飲んだ。それによって彼の病気は和らいだ。釈迦は言った、『私は、非人の病気には、生肉やその血の食用を許す』」

 

「私は医薬として根類(ウコン、生姜、菖蒲の根等)の使用を許す。これらは食欲をそそり風味を添えるが、それを健康な者が食べてはならない。もし必要もないのに食べるなら罪を犯すことになる。」

 

「アーナンダーよ、私は不調なので下剤を飲みたい。アーナンダーは、ジーヴァカに相談した。その医者は釈迦の体に数日間脂肪を塗りなさいと指示し、軽い下剤を与えた。医者は釈迦に、完全に回復するまで、流動食を控えた方が良いと言った。そして回復した。」

 

釈迦は、当時の進んだ医術を知っており、積極的に取り入れた。

彼には、病はタブー違反や神罰によると言う観念はなかった。

また名医ジーヴァカと親交があったことがわかる。

 

Turmeric: medicines and curry powder 

<  3.  Map >

 

 Taxila ruins, after the 6th century B.C.

< 4.  Taxila ruins, after the 6th century B.C. >

    

About legendary doctor Jivaka.

He was a skilled physician that participated actively in the capital of Magadha country, cured the king and was also Buddha’s court physician.

Although he was of low birth, he become a pupil of a doctor in Taxila, learned the medical art of Caraka samhita, and then he went back.

Why did he go to the far-off Gandharan capital?

At the time, Gandhara in the northwest was under the influence of the Persia civilization.

On the other hand, he probably thought that learning of new medical art was difficult in Magadha country where Brahmanism’s ideology had permeated in.  

 

 

伝説の医者ジーヴァカについて

彼はマガタ国の首都で活躍した名医で、王の治療にもあたり、釈迦の侍医でもあった。

彼の出自は低かったが、タキシラの医師に弟子入りし、チャラカ・サンヒター医学を学んで帰国した。

彼はなぜ遠いガンダーラの首都に行ったのか。

当時、西北にあるガンダーラはペルシャ文明の影響下にあった。

一方、バラモンのイデオロギーが浸透しているマガタ国では、新しい医術の修得は困難だと彼は考えたのだろう。

 

 

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History of sickness and medical art 23: India 3


Caraka was a famous ancient doctor 

< 1.  Caraka was a famous ancient doctor >

I look at the activity of doctors and the medical groups.

 医者や医学派の活躍を見ます。

 

Two red points show Taxila and Varanasi

< 2.  Two red points show Taxila and Varanasi >

 Appearance of the doctor

Ayurveda includes two major medical books of Caraka samhita and Susruta samhita.

This title originates in each doctor’s name.

Caraka was a court physician of Kanishka King of the 2nd century B.C.

Susruta was a surgeon of several centuries B.C.

These medical books came into existence after the 3rd century A.D., but the schools of medical thought that brought about those had been born around the 6th century B.C.

The school of medical thought of Caraca was active in Taxila of Pakistan(Gandhara), and it of Susruta was active in Varanasi(a holy place of Hinduism and Buddhism).

The former adopted the medical treatment and the latter had also adopted surgery treatment.

 

医者の出現

アーユル・ベーダに二大医書のチャラカ・サンヒターとスシュルタ・サンヒターがある。

この書名は医者の名に由来し、チャラカは2世紀のカニシカ王の侍医、スシュルタは紀元数世紀の外科医です。

これら医学書が成立したのは紀元後3世紀以降ですが、それらを生みだした医学派は紀元前6世紀頃から存在しており、その知見が集成されたものです。

チャラカの学派はパキスタンのタキシラ(ガンダーラ)、スシュルタの学派は東インドのベナレス(ヒンドゥー教・仏教の聖地)を中心に活躍した。

前者は内科療法、後者は多くの外科療法も採用していた。

 

Orthopedic surgery of a nose

< 3. Orthopedic surgery of a nose   >

A world’s first orthopedic surgical operation was in ancient India.

 

It is orthopedic surgery of ear and nose, which was explained in detail by Susruta samhita.

In the upper class of Hindu society, they had a custom of making a hole in their earlobe and also outspreading it.

Moreover, as there was punishment that sliced off a nose, the recovery surgery was required.

The epoch-making method of this surgery was slicing off a skin of patient’s jaw or the forehead, and transplanting to the patient’s affected part.

Probably, it was carried out in several centuries B.C.

This operation becomes about 1500 years earlier than Europe.

The Indian orthopedic surgery and surgical instrument advanced very much.

However, the anatomy seems to have not advanced, because the dissection was prohibited by Manusmriti (Indian ancient social norm).

 

 

古代インドに世界初の外科手術がある。

それはスシュルタに詳述されている耳と鼻の整形手術です。

ヒンドゥー社会の上流階層では耳たぶに穴を開け、伸ばす習慣があった。

また鼻を削ぐ刑罰があったので、それらの回復手術が必要であった。

この手術の画期的な所は、患者の顎や額の皮膚を削ぎ取り、患部に移植することでした。

おそらく紀元前数世紀には行われていたのだろう。

これはヨーロッパより1500年近く早い手術になる。

インドの整形手術と手術器具は非常に進んでいた。

しかしマヌ法典(インドの古代法典)により解剖が禁止されていたので、解剖学は進んでいなかったようです。

marma

< 4.  marma >

In India, there also is marma of body points resembling acupuncture points of China.

However, marma was not connected directly with organ and nerve, and the moxibustion or acupuncture was not provided.

インドにも中国の「つぼ」に似た体表面の点「マルマ」がある。

しかしマルマは臓器や神経と直結せず、お灸や針治療などは行われなかった。

 

The status of doctor

Early time, the doctors were only Brahman, later were able to be even from the low-ranking hierarchy.

If even a low hierarchy person became doctor, he was ranked the high rank, and tax was exempted from him.

The doctor at Imperial Court had achieved successful career, and he was able to become the important person of the country like Caraka.

The criminal punishments with unsuitable medical treatment by the doctor have been written in Manusmriti.

The cost of treatment was no charge for Brahman and poor, and others were charged according to the economic conditions.

Those who want to become doctor became pupil of teacher, recited Ayurveda, learned the treatment of medicinal herb, received training of the action method, etc.

The pupil had been recognized by the teacher, subsequently had the authorization of king, and became the full-fledged doctor.

 

 

医者の立場

初期の医者はバラモンであったが、後に下位の階層からでもなれるようになった。

低い階層出身者でも医者となれば、高位にランクされ、税金を免除されもした。

宮廷医師は出生街道を登りつめ、チャラカのように国の重要人物になり得た。

マヌ法典には、医師が不適切な治療による罰則が書かれている。

治療費はバラモン、貧困者などで無料であり、他は経済状態に応じて請求された。

医師になりたい者は教師に弟子入りし、アーユル・ベーダを暗唱し、薬草の扱い、処置法の訓練など受けた。

教師に認められた弟子は、次いで国王の認可をいただき、一人前の医者となった。

 

 

 

 

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History of sickness and medical art 22: India 2


God of India

< 1. God of India >

We look at the medical art of ancient India from this time.

 

Atharvaveda

This was established in about 1000 years B.C., was a sacred book for the private sectors, and had a relationship with medical treatment most.

This excluded disaster by magic, prayed for beatification, and aimed for medical treatment, love, victory, good luck, and expiation.

The object of disease treatment was diarrhea, heart disease, skin disease, tumor, fracture, intestinal worm, and poison of snake, and eye disease etc.

And it also included energy reinforcement and long life.

For example, the treatments were that a patient caught the hand of a magician, and made an incantation.

The treatment of fever was to transmit it to a woman of Sudra (slave), and the treatment of headache and coughs was to transmit it to the trees of hill and forest

For constipation, the patient was made to drink the soil of a rat hole along with singing a devotional song.

 

今回から古代インドの治療を見ていきます。

 

アタルバ・ベーダ(バラモン教典) 

これは前1千年頃に成立し、最も治療に関わりを持つ民間向けの聖典でした。

これは呪術により災厄を祓い、招福を祈願し、治療、恋愛、戦勝、開運、贖罪などを目的とした。

病気治療の対象は下痢、心臓病、皮膚病、腫瘍、骨折、回虫、蛇の毒、眼病などがあり、精力増強、長生きも含まれていた。

例えば、治療は患者が呪術師の手を掴み呪文を唱え、熱病はシュードラ(slave)の女に、頭痛と咳は丘と森の木々に感染させることであった。

便秘に対しては、賛歌の詠唱と共に、患者は鼠穴の土などを呑まされた。

 

The spice of curry was based on Ayurveda 

< 2. The spice of curry was based on Ayurveda >

 

Birth of Ayurveda

In the early stages, Brahmin (flamen) doubled also as doctor, and mainly treated sickness by means of using magic.

Before long, the experience and the knowledge about sickness or medicinal herb had been accumulated, and two medical schools that specialized in the internal medicine and the surgery treatment appeared in the 6th century.

These had been integrated into a system of Ayurveda (knowledge of the life) during several centuries A.D., and moreover it adopted yoga and developed.

 

アーユル・ベーダの誕生

初期は、バラモン(祭官)が医者を兼ねて、主に呪法を用いて治療を行っていた。

やがて病気や薬草に関する経験と知識が蓄積され、前6世紀には、内科治療を専門とする学派と外科治療も取り入れた学派が出現していた。

これらが紀元後数世紀の間にアーユル・ベーダ(生命の学問)の体系に集成され、さらにヨーガを取り入れ発展していった。

 

 

16 major nations: The first city-states were born.

< 3. 16 major nations: The first city-states were born.  >

When it came at the 7th century B.C., rice cropping and trade became popular in Ganges basin, and many city-states were born.

This pushed the society toward the birth of freethinker, Sakyamuni, and medical school.

 

前7世紀になると、ガンジス川流域で稲作と交易が盛んになり幾多の都市国家が誕生した。

このことが自由思想家、釈迦、医学学派の誕生へと向かわせた。

 

Change of the medical treatment

According to typical etiology of Ayurveda, the sickness was that the equilibrium among yellow bile, viscous liquid, winds, and blood collapsed.

In order to regain this equilibrium, patients must eat and drink sweet, acid, bitter, salt, and astringent depending on his condition.

For example, it is said that the acid is effective in the increase of digestion or mental function.

There are many medicines to treat, and they consist of minerals, animals, and 1000 or more kinds of medical herbs, and the purpose and the usage are classified.

Some medicines were the Egypt origin and the curative medicines of skin disease reached 100 kinds.

There were many medicines with clear effect and they used opium, ginger, cinnamon, wolfsbane, castor oil, alum, mercury, etc.

The mainstream of medical treatment was emetic method, enemas, nasal drops method, and phlebotomy method (bloods are drained).

 

 

治療方法の変化

アーユル・ベーダの代表的な病因論では、胆汁、粘液、風、(血液)の平衡が崩れた状態が病気と考えられている。

この平衡を取り戻すには甘・酸・苦・辛・塩・渋の六味を症状に応じて飲食させる。

例えば酸は消化力増大・精神機能増進に効果があるとされている。

扱う薬物は多く、鉱物、動物、一千種類以上の薬草があり、目的と用法が分類されている。

薬物にはエジプト由来もあり、皮膚病の治療薬は百種類に達した。

効能が明確な薬物は多く、アヘン、ショウガ、シナモン、トリカブト、ヒマシ油、明礬、水銀などを用いた。

治療法は吐法、浣腸法、点鼻法、瀉血法(血液を一部抜く)が中心である。

 

.  a relief engraving of a tooth extraction  

< 4.  a relief engraving of a tooth extraction  >

The name of diseases of internal medicine exceeds 300 kinds, and hiccups, the illness of head, and insanity are also included.

There were surgical operations of anal fistula, fracture, tooth extraction, renal calculus, cataract, and nose job, etc. 

The doctor did auscultation of patient, observed the state of his skin or his tongue, and judged diabetes with tasting his urine.

 

In this way, the conversion to medical art of empirical science from it of only past magic happened.

 

内科の病名は300種類を越え、シャックリ、頭の病、狂気も含まれている。

外科手術には痔瘻、骨折、抜歯、結石、白内障、鼻の整形などであった。

医者は聴診、皮膚や舌の状態を観察し、患者の尿を味見し糖尿病を判断した。

 

こうして過去の呪術一辺倒から経験科学の医術への転換が起こった。

 

 

 

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History of sickness and medical art 21: India 1


Brahman God

< 1. Brahman God >

We look at medicine of India at about the first millennium B.C.

There was a medical system called Ayurveda in I    ndia.

Before looking at it, we survey Indian culture and religion of the day.

 

As for the ancient record of India, the time when it was written is ambiguous, and the contents are almost the scripture and the myths.

The spread of writing began around the 5th century B.C. by rule class.

There are few ruins that tell the history of the time vividly except some king’s epitaphs.

 

 

紀元前1千年紀頃のインドの医術を見ます。

インドにはアーユル・ベーダと呼ばれる医学体系がありました。

その前に、当時のインドの文化と宗教を概観します。

 

古代インドの記録は作成時期が不明瞭で、内容も教典や神話がほとんどです。

文字の普及が前5世紀頃から支配階層で始まった。

若干の王の碑文以外、この時期の歴史を如実に語る建築遺物は少ない。

 

Kausanmbi: a city remains at the 7th century B.C. 

< 2. Kausanmbi: a city remains at the 7th century B.C. >

The Aryan who came in northwest India from about 1500 years B.C. ruled the indigenous people.

Then they produced Brahmanism, and established the sacred book (Veda).

The contents of this Veda were mainly the songs praising for gods and religious service, and were inherited with the word-of-mouth between teachers and students.

The beginning of Veda was considerably old, and many myths and the Scriptures were produced over long years.  

Brahmanism managed the festival of the royal family, and was also concerned with the religious service of village after village.

The Brahman who has monopolized the festival had very big power and privilege.

 

 

前1500年頃から北西インドに進入したアーリア人は先住民を支配し、バラモン教を生み出し、経典(ベーダ)を成立させました。

このベーダの内容は神々への賛歌と祭祀が主であり、師弟間の口頭伝承によって伝えられた。

ベーダの始まりはかなり古く、長い年月をかけて数多くの神話や教典類が生まれました。

この頃のバラモン教は王家の祭儀を司り、村々の祭祀にも関わりました。

その祭司を独占したバラモンは非常に大きな力と特権を有していた。

 

The civilization area at the first millennium B.C. 

< The civilization area at the first millennium B.C. >

From around 500 years B.C., a new breath arose in the religious world.

It is that esoteric books (Upanishad) making up for Veda was produced.

Soon the freethinkers who criticized Brahmanism began activity.

From among them, people appeared who dived into public and created a new religion.

In this way, Buddhism and Jainism were born.

The center of the civilization and the religion at the time is middle basin of Ganges.

 

紀元前500年前後から、宗教界に新たな息吹が生じました。

それはベーダを補う奥義書(ウパニシャッド)が制作されたことです。

やがてバラモン教を批判する自由思想家達が活躍を始めます。

その中から、民衆の中に跳び込み、新しい宗教を興す人が現れます。

こうして仏教(釈迦)とジャイナ教が誕生しました。

この時代の文明や宗教の中心地はガンジス河中流域です。

 

Atharvaveda 

< 4. Atharvaveda >

I quote two phrases from Atharvaveda (this sacred book including many incantations was established at about 1000 years B.C.).

“A thing in thee, a thing in thy body, and it are fearful things.

A thing in hair and a thing in thy eyes.

I will beat the all things by my words.

As with Savitr God may encourage thou.”

 

“As wind, as thinking power, and as a bird.

A child of October!  Let you fly along with childbirth.

You give a birth and must descend from it.”

 

Lower phrases are the incantation for avoiding a miscarriage.

 

アタルバ・ベーダ(呪文が多い聖典、前1千年頃成立)から二つの句を引用します。

 

「汝自身の中にあるもの、汝の身体の中にあるもの、それは恐るべきものである。髪の中にあるもの、さてはまなざしの中にあるもの。そのすべてを言葉によって打ち負かそう。サヴィトリ神が汝を鼓舞するように! 」

「風のように思考力のように鳥が飛ぶように、おお十月の子よ、出産とともに飛べ、出産をして降下せしめよ!」

 

下の句は流産の難を避けるための呪文です。

 

a ceremony of the modern Hinduism

< 5.  a ceremony of the modern Hinduism >

The important duty of Brahman was to remove accident and illness by religious service (altarage) and incantations.

 

We look at the medicine of India from the next time.

 

バラモンの重要な役目は、祭祀(供物、供儀)と呪文によって災厄や病を取り除くことでした。

 

次回より、インドの医術を見て行きます。

 

 

 

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History of sickness and medical art 20:  Table of contents and abstract of the articles 1~19


1

I wrote the article of 19 episodes, and about 1/3 was over until now.

I make a table of contents and the abstract of the past article a list.

これまで19話の記事を書き、約1/3が終わりました。

これまでの記事の目次と要約を一覧にします。

 

A table of contents and abstract 目次と要約

 

1Introduction  / はじめに

2.  Start of the cure 1  / 治療の始まり 1

 2

 Neanderthal man has supported a disabled person for a long time.

Chimpanzees cured a diarrhea by itself and performed the care of health or healing each other.

ネアンデルタール人は障害者を長期に養って来た。

チンパンジーは下痢などの治療を自分で行い、仲間の養生や癒しを行っていた。

 

3.  Start of the cure 2治療の始まり 2

3

The animal is performing various kinds of pediculicidal measures.

It may be said that the most primitive curing of others is the behavior of the cleaner fish of the coral reef.

Can the mouse feel the pain of others?

動物は種々のシラミ対策を行っていた。

最も原始的な他者への養生は、珊瑚礁の掃除魚かもしれない。

マウスは他者の痛みを感じることが出来るのか。

 

4. In preliterate society  /  無文字社会では 1

4

The recognition for the disease of indigenous people resembles that of ancient civilization.

The appearance was varied in accordance with the peoples, but the magician and medicinal herb were important in everything. 

先住民の病気に対する認識は、古代文明のそれと似ている。

その様子は民族によって異なるが、すべてにおいて呪術師と薬草は重要であった。

 

5. In preliterate society 2  /  無文字社会では 2

5

I look at the role and the treatment of magicians (shaman) of the world. 

世界中の呪術師(シャーマン)の役割と治療を見ます。

 

6. In preliterate society 3 無文字社会では 3

 6

 I look at how a pastoral tribe in Kenya deals with the disease.

They have some recognition that is slightly different from others.

ケニヤの牧畜民の病気への対処を見ます。

彼らは他と少し異なる認識を持っている。

 

7. In preliterate society 4 無文字社会では 4

 

 7

 The sickness and medical treatment of the nonliterate society are summarized.

There was an intersection of early religion and science.

無文字社会の病気と治療について、まとめます。

そこには原初的な宗教と科学の交わりがあります。

 

8.  Modern humans, the oldest medical art  / 人類最古の医術

 

8

I look at the oldest medical art that was performed in ancient civilization.

It exists surprisingly from time immemorial.

古代文明が行っていた最古の医術を見ます。

それは驚くほど古くから存在します。

 

9.  Mesopotamia 2 メソポタミア 1

9

I look at what kind of medical art have spread in the oldest civilization.

最古の文明ではどのような医術が普及していたのかを見ます。

 

10. Ancient Mesopotamia 2 古代メソポタミア 2

 10

The flamen and the doctor performed medical treatment and the medicines and a prayer were important means.

Even so, the medical art advanced markedly, and the medical system was made, too.

治療は神官と医者が行い、薬剤と祈祷が重要な手段だった。

それでも格段に医術は進み、医療システムも出来ていた。

 

11. Ancient Egypt 1 古代エジプト 1

 

11

Egypt left a lot of oldest medical books.

エジプトは最も古い医学書を数多く残していた。

 

12. Ancient Egypt 2  /  古代エジプト 2

12

They had the many names of the disease and the prescription thanks to the record of an abundant papyrus.

彼らは豊富なパピルスの記録のおかげで、数多くの病名と処方を持っていた。

 

13. Ancient Egypt 3  /  古代エジプト 3

 13

They used some versatile theory for the understanding of the sickness, and considered that a specific internal organ is important.

In Egypt, some skilled physicians have left the name to the history.

彼らは病気に理解に汎用的な理論を用い、特定の内臓を重視した。

エジプトでは名医が歴史に名を残している。

 

14. It originated in ancient Egypt 古代エジプトにはじまるもの

14

I seek an origin of the religious precepts of a circumcision and the pork evasion, and the mandragora of medicinal herb.

薬草のマンドラゴラ、戒律になっている割礼と豚肉忌避の起源を追います.

 

15. Ancient Israel 1 古代イスラエル 1

15

I survey the Israeli history and look at the characteristic.

The Bible is the only one of source of medical information.

ここではイスラエルの歴史を概観し、その特徴を見ておきます。

聖書が唯一の医術の情報源です。

 

16. Ancient Israel 2 古代イスラエル 2

16

I look at the situation of the doctor, and the trust for medical treatment.

医者の立場、医術への信頼がどのようなものだったかを見ます。

17. Ancient Israel 3  古代イスラエル 3

17

About medical treatment and medicines, I look concretely.

医術と薬剤について、少し具体的に見ます。

 

18.  Ancient Israel 4 古代イスラエル 4

18

The medical treatment was not important in the Bible, but the miracle of Jesus played a big role.

This was a great transformation in respect of the recognition to sickness, and about the religion too.

治療は聖書で重視されていないが、イエスの奇蹟が大きな役割を果たす。

これは宗教的にも、病気への認識の点でも大転換だった。

 

19. Ancient Israel 5 古代イスラエル 5

19

In this land, I see the disease was recognized very much religiously.

Thank you and please let me know if you have any questions.

この地では非常に病気が宗教的に認識されていたことを見ます。

今後もよろしくお願いします。

 

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History of sickness and medical art 19: Ancient Israel 5


One scene of Exodus of the Torah (commandment)

< One scene of Exodus of the Torah (commandment) >

This time, it becomes a conclusion of ancient Israel.

Although there was no explanation of systematic structure of human body in the Bible, there was a thinking of dividing into three of soul, life principle, and flesh.

The name of organs was borrowed from Egypt, and heart was thought important similarly.

The law of rest day is coincident with a custom of Assyria that severely restricted the activity of the 7th day of a week.

In the Mesopotamia or Egypt, the cause of sickness that is not cured easily was a punishment of Gods, or work of various devil.

On the other hand, in Israel, it hinges on only absolute God all.

The foulness was considered to be a punishment of God by having violated the prohibition that you must not touch, instead of work of the devil that was reason of it.

The taboo of Mesopotamia to tell not to approach a sick person was considered to be punishment and foulness in the Old Testament, and the sick person came to be isolated strictly.

In due course, rather than depending on a punishment necessarily, the sickness came to be realized to be a trial that God gave. (From Job to the New Testament)

 

今回、古代イスラエルのまとめになります。

聖書には体系的な人体構造の説明はないが、魂と生命原理と肉体の三つに分けて考えられていた。

諸器官の名称はエジプトから借用され、同様に心臓が重視されていた。

安息日の定めは、週の7日目の活動を厳しく制限したアッシリアの慣習と一致する。

メソポタミアやエジプトにおいて、容易に治らない病気の原因は、様々な神の懲罰か悪魔の仕業だった。

一方、イスラエルにおいて、その総べては唯一絶対の神によるものだった。

穢れは、悪魔のせいではなく、触れてはならない禁制を犯したことによる神の罰と考えられた。

病人に近づくなと言うメソポタミアのタブーは、旧約では罰や穢れと見なされ、病人は厳格に隔離されるようになった。

やがて病は必ずしも懲罰によるもではなく神の与えた試練と捉えられるようになった(ヨブ記から新約へ)。

 

a miracle of Jesus

< a miracle of Jesus >

I look how the Bible has dealt in a skin disease.

 

“And the priest shall look on him, and behold, the scab hath spread in the skin; then the priest shall pronounce him unclean: it is leprosy.”  Lev.13:8

 

“And he put forth his hand, and touched him, saying, I will be thou clean. And immediately the leprosy departed from him.”  Luke 5:13

 

“The person who watched lepers says, the true judgment of god comes to be celebrated. ” the Talmud

 

Between Judaism (the Old Testament, the Talmud) and Christianity (the New Testament), the recognition to skin disease (a punishment of God) has a large difference.

 

 

聖書が、皮膚病を如何に扱っているかを見ます。

「祭司が調べて、確かに発疹が皮膚に広がっているならば、その人に『あなたは汚れている』と言い渡す。それは思い皮膚病である。」レビ記、13.08

 

「イエスが手を差し伸べその人に触れ、『よろしい。清くなれ』と言われると、たちまち黒い皮膚病は去った。」ルカ福音書、05.13

 

「ライ患者を見た者は『真の裁きが祝福されるように』と言う」タルムード。

 

ユダヤ教(旧約、タルムード)とキリスト教(新約)の間には、皮膚病(神の罰)への認識に大きな隔たりがある。

 

 Gospel of Luke

< Gospel of Luke >

According to the Talmud, the cause of disease depends on the imbalance of four body fluids, and it is based on a theory of Greece.

This will depend on having been a Jewish medical school in Alexandria city in the 4th century B.C.

 

タルムードによると、病因は四つの体液のアンバランスとされ、ギリシャの説に依拠している。

これは紀元前4世紀、学問都市アレクサンドリアにユダヤ人の医学学派がいたことによるのだろう。

 

Jews hold the Torah

< Jews hold the Torah  >

The rule of health had to be conformed with the commandments rather than medical reason.

It had extended to every action, including a time and a place of the burial, the isolation of the sick person, the cleansing before the meal, the slaughter of the animal, and the cooking of the food.

There were many regulations to putrilage, fungus, skin disease, and especially blood.

In this way, the regulation of foulness and contraindications permeated widely.

 

 

衛生の決まりは、医学的よりも、戒律的な理由から守らなければならなかった。

それは、病人の隔離、埋葬の時刻や場所、食事前の洗浄、動物の屠殺、食品の調理など、あらゆる行動に及んでいた。

腐敗物やカビ、皮膚病、特に血液に対しては多くの規定があった。

こうして浄・不浄、禁忌の規定が広く浸透した。

 

 

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History of sickness and medical art 18: Ancient Israel 4


Michelangelo's David

< Michelangelo’s David  >

Sickness

About 50 sorts of sicknesses are looked at in the Old Testament.   

In surgical sickness, there was a giant’s malformation, a weakening of hand and foot of the muscle atrophy or the paralytic nerve, a defect of hand and foot, blindness, and deafness.

There were many cases of swelling or skin disease and there were smallpox, black plague, and leprosy.

In the circulatory organ, there were a heart attack, cerebral hemorrhage, and the headache that was thought to be the subarachnoid hemorrhage, too.

In other cases, there were lung disease, fever, gout, peritonitis, woman’s illness, malaria, and dysentery, and then the eye disease are regarded as endemic disease.

In the psychiatry, there were the mental derangement and deafness that were possessed by an evil spirit.

 

病 気

旧約には約50種の病気が見られる。

外科では、巨人の奇形、筋萎縮性か神経麻痺性の手足の萎え、手足の不具、盲目、聾唖があった。

腫れ物や皮膚病の症例は多く、天然痘、線ペスト、ライ病がある。

循環器では、心臓発作や脳出血、クモ膜下出血と考えられる頭痛もある。

他に肺病や熱病、痛風や腹膜炎、婦人病があり、マラリヤや赤痢、眼病は風土病と考えられる。

精神科として、悪霊に憑かれた精神錯乱や唖があった。 

 

Talmud

< Talmud >

Medical treatment

The treatment of the doctor was doubtful, and the medical treatment with medicine appears in the Old Testament only 12 times.

Except the circumcision as the ceremony, the Bible hardly has referred to the surgery.

The midwife only encouraged and attended a pregnant woman.

Although Talmud had descriptions of medical treatment, most of them were based on a superstition.

I introduce a treatment of fever from Talmud.

“A sick person is sat on a crossroads. If the ant that is carrying the heavy burden on its back is seen, he catches and shakes the ant, and he shouts, “Your heavy burden is imposed on me and my heavy burden (fever) is imposed on you.” “

 

治 療

医者の治療はおぼつかなく、薬による治療は旧約に12回しか出てこない。

儀式としての割礼を除けば、聖書は外科についてほとんど触れていない。

助産婦は励まし、妊婦に付きそうだけであった。

タルムードに治療の記述はあるが、迷信に基づいているものが多い。

発熱の対処法を紹介する。

「病人を十字路に座らせる。重荷を背負っている蟻を見たら、その蟻を捉え、『お前の重荷をわたしに課し、わたしの重荷(発熱)がお前に課せられるように』と叫びながら振りなさい。」とある。

a miracle of Jesus

< a miracle of Jesus  >

However, there was revolutionary change in medical treatment.

Although it is called a miracle, it may be able to say that a psychological treatment started.

 

“ for I Jehovah thy God am a jealous God, visiting the iniquity of the fathers upon the children, upon the third and upon the fourth generation of them that hate me.” Exodus 20:5

“If thou, Jehovah, shouldest mark iniquities, O Lord, who could stand?” Psalm 130:3

“Then shall the lame man leap as a hart, and the tongue of the dumb shall sing.” Isaiah 35:6

“And he took him aside from the multitude privately, and put his fingers into his ears, and he spat, and touched his tongue.”

“And his ears were opened, and the bond of his tongue was loosed, and he spoke plain.” Mark 7:33,35

 

 しかし治療に大きな画期が現れた。

それは奇蹟と呼ばれるが、それを精神治療の発露と言えるかもしれない。

 

「ヤハヴェは、嫉む神であり、私を憎む者には、父の罪を子に罰し、三代四代の世代に罰を与える。」出エジプト記、20.5

「主よ、あなたが不正の記憶を保存するならば、誰が生き残ることが出来ましょうか?」詩編、130.3

「その時、足萎えは鹿のように飛び去り、おしの舌は歓喜で叫ぶであろう。」イザヤ書、35.6

「そこで、イエスはこの人だけを群衆の中から連れ出し、指をその両耳に差し入れ、それから唾をつけてその舌に触れられた。」

「すると、たちまち耳が開き、舌のもつれが解け、はっきり話すことが出来るようになった。」マルコ福音書、07.33、35

 

a expiation: Sacrifice of the lamb 

< a expiation: Sacrifice of the lamb >

Into this undercurrent, I can read a change from God that gives a punishment (sickness) to God that gives a blessing (healing).

By repenting its sins, that is to say, because each person faces one’s mind, they will be freed from their sickness.

Jesus rather gave a sinner (sick person) a blessing.

Although Gautama Buddha of India denied the expiation and the miracle also, the thing that he aimed was the same.

Many of ancient civilization developed the ceremony of the expiation, and the sin was not forgiven without the expiation.

 

この底流に、罰(病)を与える神から、恵み(癒し)を与える神への変化が読み取れる。

罪を悔いることにより、つまり各人が自分の心に向き合うことで病から解放されることになる。

イエスは、むしろ罪ある人(病人)にこそ恵みを与えている。

インドの釈迦は贖罪を否定し、奇蹟も否定したが、目指すものは同じだった。

古代文明の多くは、贖罪の儀式を発展させ、罪はそれ無しには赦してもらえなかった。

 

 

 

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History of sickness and medical art 17: Ancient Israel 3


a trepanation evidence in an ancient Jewish city of Lachish

< a trepanation evidence in an ancient Jewish city of Lachish  >

From now on, we look at medical art until about the first century A.D. from the first millennium B.C.

 

これから紀元前2千年期末から紀元1世紀ぐらいまでを医術を見て行きます。

 

The epidemic of an ancient city of Philistine : it described black plague in the eleventh century B.C.

< The epidemic of an ancient city of Philistine : it described black plague

in the eleventh century B.C. >

 

The Doctor

The Israeli flamen performed medical care in the same way as them of Mesopotamia and Egypt, and also performed magic and exorcism.

The flamen distinguished a sickness according to a rule of religious uncleanliness.

Although this differential diagnosis included the thing based on medical basis, there were many superstitious things.

About skin disease, the flamen determined whether or not it was an epidemic, and after that, he decided the medical treatment method.

The patient of leprosy (Hansen’s disease) was isolated.

In ancient times, prophets took the place of the doctor; Elisha was curing the skin disease of a general in Syria.

Isaiah attached a dried fig to a swelling of dying Jewish King.

Becoming the doctor was restricted to the Levite, and it was forbidden that the defective person of eyesight performs medical care.

It was not permitted that the doctor inspects patient, in evening, on a cloudy day, or the dusky room.

 

 

医 師

イスラエルもメソポタミアやエジプトと同じように祭司が医療に当たり、呪術や悪魔払いを行っていた。

祭司が宗教的な浄・不浄の法則に従って病気を鑑別した。

この鑑別法は医学的な根拠に基づくものもあったが、迷信的なものが多かった。

皮膚病については、祭司が伝染病かどうかを識別し、治療方法を決めた。

ライ病(ハンセン病)の患者は隔離された。

古くは預言者が医者の代わりをしていて、エリシャはシリヤの将軍の皮膚病を治療している。

イザヤも死にかかっていたユダヤ王の腫れ物に、干しいちじくのかたまりをつけさせた。

医師になるのは、聖職を司るレビ族に限られ、視力に欠陥のある者は、医療を行うことを禁じられた。

夕暮れや、曇りの日、あるいは薄暗い室内で検査を行うことも許されなかった。

 

prophet Isaiah: a picture by Michelangelo in Sistine Chapel

< prophet Isaiah: a picture by Michelangelo in Sistine Chapel >

Barbers etc. might have performed bloodletting (phlebotomy) and the simple physical therapy that was not approved generally, but the doctor came to gradually make a specialty of the medical care.

Although it seemed that the doctor performed both internal medicine and surgery, there also was the surgery specialty.

The brain surgery (trepanation) of Lachish in the 9th century B.C. shows the existence of the expert clearly.

“The doctor”of Hebrew word in the Old Testament meant the repairman.

It was despised with “a useless doctor” in the Book of Job.

Talmud (establishment in the 4th century) described the doctor was ingredients essential for the community life.

Moreover, it also described, “unless one pays a suitable charge, one cannot receive good medical treatment. “

 

理髪師などが、一般に認められない瀉血や簡単な物理療法を行うことがあったかもしれないが、徐々に医療は専門の医師が行うようになった。

医者は内科、外科いずれも行ったと思われるが、外科専門もいた。

前9世紀のラキシュの脳外科手術は明らかに専門家の存在を示す。

旧約のヘブライ語の医者は修繕屋を意味しており、ヨブ記では「無益な医者」と侮蔑されていた。

タルムード(4世紀成立)では医者は共同体生活には欠くことが出来ないと記されている。

また相応の料金を払わないと良い治療を受けられないともある。

 

 

The excavation of a wine cellar at about B.C. 1700 in Canaan  

< The excavation of a wine cellar at about B.C. 1700 in Canaan  >

 

Medicines

Olive oil or wine was used for external medicine of a wound, dried fig was used for medicine of a swelling, and a marjoram (mint family) and sour wine were used for a painkiller.

Peppermint or cumin were used for a cold medicine, almond were used for a love potion, myrrh was used for a preservative and a painkiller, and frankincense was used for a body preservative

There were a lot of medicines of Mandrake (hallucinogenic drug), Balsam (plaster), resin, a spice, oil, and narcotic etc.

However, the number was few as compared with the medicines of the Mesopotamia or Egypt.

 

薬 剤

オリーブ油やブドウ酒が傷のための外用薬、干しいちじくが腫物薬、マヨラナ(シソ科)や酸いブドウ酒が鎮痛剤に使われた。

乳香が死体防腐剤、没薬(もつやく)が防腐剤や鎮痛剤、ハッカやクミンが風邪薬、アーモンドは媚薬に使用された。

他にマンドレーク(幻覚薬)、バルサム(膏薬)、樹脂、スパイス、油、それに麻薬など多数の薬がある。

しかしメソポタミアやエジプトの薬剤に比較するとその数は限られていた。

 

 

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History of sickness and medical art 16: Ancient Israel 2


 

Jesus turns merchants out of the shrine.

< Jesus turns merchants out of the shrine. >

We watch ancient medical art of Israel from now on.

First, let’s see some descriptions of the doctor in the Bible.

 これから古代イスラエルの医術を見ていきます。

最初に、聖書にある医者の記述を見てみましょう。

 

Construction of the second shrine 

< Construction of the second shrine >

A. “And in the thirty and ninth year of his reign Asa was diseased in his feet; his disease was exceeding great: yet in his disease he sought not to Jehovah, but to the physicians.”

“And Asa slept with his fathers, and died in the one and fortieth year of his reign.”

2Chron 16:12,13

Although this describes the king of the Judah kingdom in 868 BC, it was edited in the 4th century BC.

 A.「アサはその治世第三十九年に足の病にかかり、その病は極めて重かった。その病の中にあっても、彼は主を求めず、医者に頼った。」

「 アサはその治世第四十一年に先祖と共に眠りにつき、死んだ。」

歴代誌下、16章、12と13節

これは前868年のユダ王国の王を述べているが、編纂されたのは前4世紀です。

Alexandria library: an academic city that Alexander the Great built 

< Alexandria library: an academic city that Alexander the Great built >

 

B. “Honor a physician according to your need of him with the honors due to him:

For verily the Lord has created him.”

“The skill of the physician shall lift up his head; And in the sight of great men he shall be admired.”

Sirach 38:1,3

This was edited at the end of the 2th century BC.

 

B.「医者をその仕事のゆえに敬え。主が医者を造られたのだから。」

「 医者はその博識によって高い身分を与えられ、/権勢ある人々の前で驚嘆される。」

シラ書、38章、1と3節

これは前2世紀末に編纂された。

C. “And Jesus having heard [it] says to them, they that are strong have not need of a physician, but those who are ill. I have not come to call righteous [men], but sinners.”

Mark 2:17

C.「イエスはこれを聞いて言われた。『医者を必要とするのは、丈夫な人ではなく病人である。わたしが来たのは、正しい人を招くためではなく、罪人を招くためである。』」

マルコの福音書、2章、17節

the Roma forces destroyed Jerusalem

< the Roma forces destroyed Jerusalem >

I chose the above sentences among ten books of the bible that included descriptions of the doctor, along chronological order of establishment.

In the Old Testament, the doctor was positioned in the low rank than God.

In A, the person who ignored God paid the penalty, but in B, the position of the doctor improved.

In other section of the New Testament, although there were the complaints about not being cured by the doctor, in C, it is recognized that the doctor is the healer of the sick person.

The doctor in Egypt and Mesopotamia also was ranked lower than the flamen .

In this way, the recognition to “the sickness and the doctor” seems to have changed during about 400 years.

 

The established time of these books was tumultuous time for the people of Judea.

Time of A:  the people were released from the Babylonian captivity, and returned to Jerusalem.

Then they rebuilt the shrine, and were riding high for the reconstruction.

Time of B: After invasion of Alexander the Great, while the people had been subject to Greek civilization (Hellenism), they gained the independence of Palestine to aim at racial self-determination.

Time of C: After an internal fighting, division of small country occurred, and the Roman Empire ruled it.

Judaism was preserved, but had become emasculation.

Jesus lived in this time.

 

医者の記述がある聖書の10書から、成立年代順に選びました。

旧約において、医者は神より下位に位置づけられていた。

Aでは神を無視した者は報いを受けましたが、Bでは医者の立場が向上している。

新約の他の節において、医者によって治らない苦情は記されているが、Cで、医者は病人の治療者であることが認識されている。

エジプトやメソポタミでも医者は神官より下位だった。

このように、約400年に間に、「病と医者」への認識は変化したように思える。

 

この聖書の成立時期は、ユダヤの民にとって激動の時期でした。

Aの時期: 人々はバビロンの捕囚から解放され、エルサレムに戻り、神殿を再建し、復興の意気盛んな時代でした。

Bの時期: アレクサンドロス大王の侵略後、ギリシャ文明(ヘレニズム)の影響を受ける中で、民族自決を目指しパレスチナの独立を勝ち取った時代でした。

Cの時期: 内乱、小国分裂の後、ローマ帝国が支配し、ユダヤ教は温存され形骸化していた。イエスはこの時代を生きた。

 

 

 

 

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History of sickness and medical art 15: Ancient Israel 1


Jerusalem was destroyed in the sixth century B.C. and the peoples were transported to Babylon.

< Jerusalem was destroyed in the sixth century B.C. and the peoples were transported to Babylon. >

From now on, we look at the medical art of ancient Israel.

This time, we look at ancient Israel having the rare history.

 

これから古代イスラエルの医術を見ていきます。

今回は、希有な歴史を持つ古代イスラエルを見ます。

 

 the ruins of a village in Jericho

< the ruins of a village in Jericho   >

What is rare?

This nation was sandwiched between the vast desert and the sea, furthermore between two ancient civilizations of Egypt and Mesopotamia.

World religion was not born of the both ancient civilizations, but Judaism and Christianity were born of this small nation.

Two ancient civilizations of China and India created each world religions.

Furthermore, the peoples lost the hometown and roamed around the world for 2000 years, and they again accomplished the founding of their nation in Palestine.

It was the Jewish nation, and Israel.                        

 

何が希有なのか

この国は砂漠と海、エジプトとメソポタミアの古代文明に挟まれていた。

その両古代文明から世界宗教は生まれなかったが、小さなこの地からユダヤ教、キリスト教が誕生した。

中国とインドの古代文明は世界宗教を生みだした。

さらに一民族が故郷を失い、2000年間も世界を放浪し、再びパレスチナの地に建国を成し遂げた。

実に驚異的なユダヤ民族であり、イスラエルであった。

 

Levant's trade routes    

< Levant’s trade routes    >

What was there in this ground?

It was this hills part of Orient where human beings first settled down to grow crops and to keep animals.

The oldest place was Jericho in Palestine, and it dated back to 10000 years B.C.

Then, the shores of Palestine became the anchorages in where Egypt carries out maritime trade.

In its northern part, Phoenicia (Lebanon) became a base in order for Mesopotamia to go to the Mediterranean.

In this way, this Levant (shore of the eastern Mediterranean Sea) prospered in trade and became a place where many peoples come and go.

Some characters were created in Sinai Peninsula and Canaan at about the 15th century B.C. and it had derived from the hieroglyphic of Egypt.

It spread into Mesopotamia from Levant.

The most of today’s alphabet were derived from this character.

 

 

この地に何があったのか

人類が最初に農耕牧畜を行い、村を作ったのは、オリエントの丘陵部でした。

その最も古いものがパレスチナのエリコで、それは紀元前1万年前まで遡る。

その後、パレスチナの沿岸部はエジプトが海上交易する寄港地となった。

北のフェニキア(現レバノン)は、メソポタミアが地中海に出る拠点となった。

こうして、このレバント(地中海東部沿岸地方)は交易で栄え、幾多の民族が往来する所となった。

紀元前15世紀頃、文字がシナイ半島とカナンの地で生まれ、それはエジプトの象形文字それはレバントを中心にメソポタミアに普及した。

今日のアルファベットのほとんどはこの文字から派生した。

 

Assyria grew up to the huge empire 

< Assyria grew up to the huge empire  >

Though this small nation was bombarded with the both great nations that were antagonistic to each other, this nation was able to survive, because it was bounded by the vast desert and the ridge of the Great Rift Valley.

However, when the national power of Egypt declined, this nation received thorough destruction by Mesopotamia in the 8th century B.C., and Jewish Diaspora began.

Furthermore, in the first century, the Roman Empire conquered the Jewish revolt, and the Jew and the Christian broke up to the west.

The great achievement of Solomon Empire (B.C. 1000) completely was dissipated in this way.

 

この小国は大地溝帯の尾根と砂漠で囲まれていたことにより、拮抗する両大国に翻弄されながらも生き残ることが出来た。

しかしエジプトの国力が衰えた紀元前8世紀には、メソポタミアによって徹底的な破壊を受け、ユダヤ人の離散が始まった。

さらに1世紀、ローマ帝国はユダヤの反乱を制圧し、ユダヤ人とキリスト教徒は西方に離散していった。

こうして輝かしいソロモン帝国(紀元前1千年)の偉業は跡形もなく消え去った。

 

power relationships of Levant in 830 B.C.: Israeli kingdom and Jewish kingdom were divided. There is Jericho at the north of Dead Sea.

< power relationships of Levant in 830 B.C.: Israeli kingdom and Jewish kingdom were divided. There is Jericho at the north of Dead Sea. >

 

What was left?

Palestine received repeated invasion, and the remained things became only ruins and Judaism.

From ancient times, the Jews played an active part in Orient by the culture and the language, and they found their way into Europe before long.

The Christianity that was displaced from Palestine found their way into Rome from Syria and Greece.

Jews who took a lead in Rome observed the doctrine rigidly, and it decided the outcome between Christian before long.

And the Old Testament and the New Testament became what communicate the history and the culture of ancient Israel, and it remained.

 

何が残ったのか

パレスチナの地は、度重なる侵略を受け、残ったのは廃墟とユダヤ教だけとなった。

古代より、ユダヤ人はその文化と言語を武器にオリエントで活躍し、やがてヨーロッパに活路を見出すことになる。

パレスチナを追われたキリスト教は、シリア、ギリシャからローマに活路を見出した。

先行していたユダヤ教徒は、頑なに教義を遵守したこともあり、やがてキリスト教徒と明暗を分けることになる。

そして旧約聖書と新約聖書が、古代イスラエルの歴史と文化を語るものになって残った。

 

 

Categories: history+evolution, <english language, <japanese language, Series: History of sickness and medical art | Tags: , , , , | 2 Comments

History of sickness and medical art 14: It originated in ancient Egypt


A boy hold a mandragora in his hand

< A boy hold a mandragora in his hand. >

 

This time, I pursue three mysterious things: mandragora, a circumcision, and pork evasion.

 

Mandragoramandrake

This is a nightshade that was used as a painkiller in Egypt.

On the movie “Harry Potter”, a mandragora was grown as a miracle drug that break the magic spell.

In “Romeo and Juliet”, it appeared as a medicine that brought suspended animation.

Since this plant had high virulence, it brought about hallucination, and the rhizome resembled a human form, from ancient times, diverse legends was born.

 

 

今回は、三つの不思議なもの、マンドラゴラ、割礼、豚肉忌避の起源を追います。

 

 

マンドラゴラ(マンドレイク)

これはエジプトで鎮痛剤として使われていたナス科の植物です。

映画「ハリ・ポッター」では、マンドラゴラは魔法を解く妙薬として栽培されていた。

「ロミオとジュリエット」では仮死をもたらす薬として登場した。

この植物は強毒性を持ち、幻覚症状をもたらし、さらにその根茎が人型に似ることもあり、古来より様々な伝説を生んでいた。

A art work in the 15 century: a mandragora is visible to the upper left

< A art work in the 15 century: a mandragora is visible to the upper left >

 

Mandragora was regarded as the precious material of a magic medicine, a tonic, and an elixir of life.

But, since it was thought that the harvest was dangerous, they made a dog draw out it, as shown in the picture.

 

 “The mandrakes give forth fragrance. At our doors are all kinds of precious fruits, new and old, which I have stored up for you, my beloved.” the Song of Solomon7-14

It is written as the plant that has the effect of fertilizing in the Old Testament.

 

マンドラゴラは魔法薬、精力剤、不老不死薬の貴重な材料とされていたが、収穫には危険が伴うと考えられ、図のように犬に引き抜かせた。

「恋なすは、かおりを放ち、もろもろの良きくだものは、新しいのも古いのも共にわたしたちの戸の上にある。わが愛する者よ、わたしはこれをあなたのためにたくわえました。」旧約雅歌7章14節

旧約では受胎効果のある植物として書かれている。

 

A circumcision of Christ in a picture of the 17th century 

< A circumcision of Christ in a picture of the 17th century >

 

Circumcision

The circumcision was required for Judaist.

However, the history was old and it has been already drawn on an Egyptian mural in 2300 years B.C.

 

 

割礼

割礼はユダヤ教徒にとって必須だった。

しかしその歴史は古く、紀元前2300年のエジプトの壁画に既に描かれていた。

 

Three flamens are doing two boys a ceremony of a circumcision. 

< Three flamens are doing two boys a ceremony of a circumcision. >

 

In many parts of the world from time immemorial, the circumcision was carried out as a rite of passage to a young man, and it doubled as hygiene.

In Egypt, it was common for the lower class from old times, after 1 millennium B.C., the flamens were obliged to carry out it.

In Judaism, this was caught strictly, and it was preached in Genesis that boys have to perform it on the eighth day after being born.

Although this was taken over to Islam, St. Paul exempted the pagan from it, and Christianity became a better position to spread.

 

古くから世界各地で、衛生も兼ねて青年への通過儀礼として割礼は行われていた。

エジプトでは古くから下層階級でも一般的で、紀元前1千年紀以降、神官には義務付けられた。

ユダヤ教では、これを厳格に捉え、創世記において男子は産まれてから8日目に行うことが説かれた。

これはイスラム教に引き継がれたが、パウロがこれを免除し、キリスト教は異教徒に広まった。

 

Set: the head was expressed in a pig or jackals.

< Set: the head was expressed in a pig or jackals. >

 Evasion of pork

Although pig began to be bred all over the world from old times, since it was not suitable for pasturage, it was restricted to the settlement farmland.

In Egypt, it was often eaten in Nile Delta which agriculture was prosperous in, but was rare in the upstream of Nile.

Some King dedicated several thousand pigs to a shrine.

After Egypt was unified by a King of the upstream, Osiris of its guardian deity gradually became an important God.

Set that was expressed with the head of a pig opposed Osiris.

 

 豚肉の忌避

豚は世界中で古くから飼養され始めたが、放牧に適さなかったので、定住農耕地帯に限られた。

エジプトでも、農耕が盛んなナイル・デルタではよく食べられていたが、上流では希であった。

王が神殿に数千頭の豚を奉納することもあった。

上流の王によってエジプトが統一されると、その守護神オシリスが徐々に重要な神になっていく。

豚の頭で表現されるセト神はオシリスと敵対していた。

 

Set: the head was expressed in a pig or jackals.

< Horus in Horus shrine defeats the enemy of father on Set that was expressed with a pig. >

 

After one millennium B.C., the flamens were prohibited from eating pork, and the nobles begun to evade it.

On the other hand, Israel was also hostile to Ball that was a God of agriculture in Phoenicia.

It led to edible prohibition of pork in Leviticus of the Old Testament

The reason for the prohibition was that the appearance was ugly, gives off a bad smell, was dirty, an animal for meat, and a sacrifice beast of paganism.

This commandment was taken over to Islam of nomadic herders.

 

やがて紀元前1千年紀以降、神官は豚肉を禁じられ、貴族達も忌避し始めた。

一方、イスラエルも、フェニキアの農耕神バアルを敵視していた。

それが旧約レビ記において、豚肉の食用禁止につながった。

禁止の理由は、外観が醜悪、悪臭を放ち、不潔で、食肉用動物、異教の犠牲獣だったからです。

この戒律が遊牧民のイスラム教に取り入れらることになった。

 

 

 

 

Categories: culture+society, history+evolution, <english language, <japanese language, Series: History of sickness and medical art | Tags: , , , , | 2 Comments

History of sickness and medical art 13: Ancient Egypt 3


A spice store in Egypt: The drug knowledge from the ancient times is helpful 

< A spice store in Egypt: The drug knowledge from the ancient times is helpful >

 

 A beer production in Ancient Egypt  

< A beer production in Ancient Egypt  >

 

Drug

At first, the pharmacist of Ancient Egypt was of lower status compared with other ancient civilization and the cleric and the doctor concurrently served as the pharmacist.

But they afterward acquired the special status.

Oil and fats, water, milk, wine, and beer were used as the base for making the ointment.

The raw materials of drug were variously a plant, an animal, the mineral (iron, lead, antimony) etc.

The spice of Crete, China, and Arabia of the distant place were used actively.

Although there were about 900 kinds of medicines, the efficacy of most things is accepted like Senna, Castor oil, Thyme, and Celandine.

Because an efficacy of it was strong, mandragora of painkiller and henbane of anesthetic were dangerous.

The yeast fungus of the beer was used for an enteric disease, or an ulcer of the leg.

Similarly, the mold fungus of the bread was used as an antibiotic.

There were castor oil of laxative, enema of bile of ox, eyewash, and fumigant, too.

However, there were also doubtful curative things, such as fresh dew, mud of Nile, and dirt of a patient’s nail.

Probably, the mental curative effect was better than actual efficacy.

     

 

薬 剤

初期、古代エジプトの薬剤師は他の古代文明に比べ低くみられ、聖職者と医師がそれを兼ねていたが、後には専門的な地位を得た。

軟膏をつくるベースに油脂、水、牛乳、ワイン、ビールが使用された。

薬剤の原料は、植物、動物、鉱物(鉄、鉛、アンチモン)など、さまざまだった。

遠方のクレタ、中国、アラビアの香料なども盛んに利用されていた。

900種類ほどの薬剤があったが、センナ、ヒマシ油、タイム、クサノオウなどのように、多くは効能が認められる。

効能が強力な為、催眠と鎮痛用のマンドラゴラ、麻酔剤のヒヨスは危険であった。

ビールの酵母菌は腸疾患や足の潰瘍などに、黴のはえたパンは抗生物質として使用された。

ヒマシ油を下剤、牡牛の胆汁や油で浣腸も行われ、目薬、燻蒸剤もあった。

しかし新鮮な露、ナイルの泥、患者の爪の垢など怪しげな治療薬もあった。

実効よりも、精神的な治療効果が勝ったのだろう。

 

a dwelling site of the construction worker of a royal tomb: in Deir el-Medina, about the 13th century B.C. 

< a dwelling site of the construction worker of a royal tomb: in Deir el-Medina, about the 13th century B.C. >

 

Hygiene

Handling of excrement and garbage of common people was unsanitary, but there were a restroom and a bathroom in rich house.

As religious precepts, even petty people had the custom of tooth-brushing every day.

Moreover, people were forbidden from eating pork and head of animal, and daily regimen, such as a meal and a nap, was defined.

 

 

衛 生

庶民の排泄物やゴミの扱いは非衛生なものだったが、裕福な家にはトイレや浴室があった。

下層民すら宗教的な戒律として、毎日、歯磨きの習慣があった。

また豚肉と動物の頭部を食べることが禁止され、食事と昼寝など、日々の養生法が定められていた。

 

Hesy-ra:he was a doctor of dentistry and internal medicine, and also an important vassal in the 27th century BC. 

< Hesy-ra:he was a doctor of dentistry and internal medicine, and also an important vassal in the 27th century BC. >

 

Recognition

The heart was a place in which a soul, and a rational mind and an emotion dwelt, and was considered to be a place where the will of God was transmitted.

It was believed that one “pipe” that went around the whole body from heart carried blood, air and all body fluid.

But the circulation was not known.

It was thought that the sickness was because the “pipe” clogged, or a bad food entered the body from the “pipe.”

The method of urging defecation was one of the medical treatments, in order to remove “the polluted body fluid.”

The word “brain” was used first and they understood that paralysis vary according to bruised parts of the head.

About the damage that was looked from outside like an injury or a fracture, many of the causes of it were clear.

However, about the internal disease, the doctor was often at a loss, and irrational existence was considered to be a cause of it.

Usually, it was thought a diabolic act having hostility, or an epidemic disease that God sent as the wrath for the evildoing.

And it also was thought that it happened by the result of the wicked eyes of a jealous neighbor.

 

 

認 識

心臓は魂と理性、感情の宿る場所であり、神の意志が伝達される所と考えられていた。

心臓から体中にいきわたった一つの「管」が血液や空気、すべての体液を運ぶと信じていた(循環は知らなかった)。

病気は「管」が詰まって蓄積したり、悪い食物が「管」から進入したりした為だと考えられた。

「汚染した体液」を除去する為に、排便を促すことも治療の一つだった。

「脳」という言葉が最初に使われ、頭部打撲の箇所により麻痺が異なることを理解していた。

怪我や骨折のように外から見える損傷については、その原因の多くは明白であった。

しかし内的疾患については、医師も途方にくれることが多く、不合理な存在が原因とされた。

普通、それは敵意を持った悪神の仕業か、または神が悪行に対する天罰として疫病を送り込んだと考えられた。

またそれは嫉妬深い隣人の邪悪な目のせいでも起こるとされた。

 

The Dwarf Seneb And His Family: his wife's love will be felt. about the 26th century BC.

< The Dwarf Seneb And His Family: his wife’s love will be felt. about the 26th century BC. >

 

Conclusion

Making full use of medicine and magic, medical treatment was performed broadly.

The surgery was highly progressing compared with other ancient civilization.

It may be said that the total medicine was rational and empirical, however, it declined remarkably after Rome imperial government.

It was fortunate that ancient Greece medicine was able to start from ancient Egyptian medicine.

Of course, adjacent Israel benefited.

 

 

まとめ

医術と呪術を駆使して幅広く治療が行われていた。

外科は他の古代文明とは比較にならないぐらい進歩していた。

医学全体としては合理的であり経験的であったと言える、しかしローマ帝政期以降は著しく衰退した。

紀元後のローマやギリシャ、シリア、イスラエル、ペルシアの薬学はエジプトに由来するものが多い。

古代ギリシャの医学は、エジプト医学から出発出来たことが幸いであった。

当然、隣接していたイスラエルも恩恵に浴した。

 

 

 

Categories: history+evolution, <english language, <japanese language, Series: History of sickness and medical art | Tags: , , | Leave a comment

History of sickness and medical art 12 : Ancient Egypt 2


a mural painting of a doctor's grave in about 2200 BC. Massage of hand and foot. 

< a mural painting of a doctor’s grave in about 2200 BC. Massage of hand and foot. >

 

This time, I write about sickness and medical art of Ancient Egypt.

 

今回は、古代エジプトの病気と治療について書きます。

 

A picture of Job in the Old Testament at the 9-century in Roma. Job was suffered from a skin disease. 

< A picture of Job in the Old Testament at the 9-century in Roma. Job was suffered from a skin disease. >

 

Sickness

Although they knew about 200 kinds of sicknesses, there is no sick description in connection with entrails like lung or liver, etc.

Probably, it was beyond their understanding.

As for medical disease, clear things were only constipation, the inflammation of the rectum, cystitis, and the bloody urine by blood fluke.

However, the description about external lesion and external injury is clear.

Frequent sicknesses are bronchial asthma, erysipelas, gonorrhea, scurvy, epilepsy, polio, and parasitic disease。

Hansen’s disease and smallpox often attacked people.

It seems that the skin disease that Job was suffered from by a mischief of God was Hansen’s disease.

From mummies of the past kings such as Ramses, the remains of an artery disease or an infectious disease of their face were seen.

A lot of mummies of the commoner have pneumoconiosis caused by the dust storm of the desert, and diseases due to the parasitic worm.

Arteriosclerosis was seen in 20% of adults.

 

 

 

病気

彼らは約200種類の病気を認識していたが、肺や肝臓、膵臓、腎臓などの病気に関する記述はない。

彼らの理解を超えていたのだろう。

内科的疾患で明確なのは便秘、直腸の炎症、膀胱炎、住血吸虫による血尿のみである。

しかし外部の病変と外傷についての記述は明瞭である。

よく現れる病気は気管支喘息、丹毒、熱帯性肝炎、淋病、壊血病、てんかん、小児麻痺、寄生虫疾患で、しばしばハンセン病と天然痘に襲われた。

ヨブが神の悪戯で患った病気はハンセン病と推測される。

ラムセスなどの歴代王などのミイラからは動脈疾患や顔面の伝染病跡が見られる。

一般人のミイラから、砂漠の砂塵による塵肺症や寄生虫による病気の多いことが確認され、成年の20%で動脈硬化が見られた。

 

Medical treatment

Prescriptions of the medical disease were 700 kinds and were categorized according to entrails.

As for surgery, treatment of fracture, extraction of calculus, operation of eyes, and removal of external tumor have been performed.

A trepanning of skull, treatment of cavity, and also making a false tooth were performed.

Surgical instruments such as many pins, scissors, and knife were pictured in the mural painting of ruins.

Steam from tar fragments, coriander, powder of carob, and opium were also used for anesthesia.

 

 

治療

内科疾患の処方は700種あり、関係する臓器ごとに分類されていた。

外科は骨折治療、結石の摘出、目の手術、外腫瘍の除去、包皮切開が行われていた。

頭蓋骨の穿孔手術、虫歯治療、ブリッジによる義歯作りも行われた。

遺跡の壁画に数多くのピン、ハサミ、ナイフなどの外科用器具が描かれている。

麻酔にタール破片からの蒸気やコリアンダー、イナゴマメの粉末、アヘンも使用された。

 

Horus : It has a head of falcon and is a God of the sky and the sun.

A charm of Horus's eye

< Horus : It has a head of falcon and is a God of the sky and the sun.

A charm of Horus’s eye >

 

When rational medical arts could not cure it, people relied on magician who was always nearby.

The reason to use feces, urine, and the blood for prescription is because people thought that the demon that is the cause of the disease avoids it and runs away.

In addition, the people demanded help from Amen-Ra, Toto, Horus, Isis of Gods and gave prayer.

Getting on a charm became common, it of Horus’ eyes that protected from snake, scorpion, or crocodile were the most common.

 

The medical treatment was provided at the sanitarium of shrines too.

Patients were isolated in small rooms, and offered prayer.

In addition, while sleeping, they were given the grace in dreams, and were cured.   

Also they took a ritual bath in the shrine.

This resembles the medical treatment of Asklepios’s shrine that prospered in Greece.

 

Next time, I write down drugs etc. of ancient Egypt.

 

 

合理的な医術でうまく行かない場合は、常に身近にいた呪術師の出番となった。

処方に糞、尿、血を使う理由は、病原である魔物が嫌い逃げ出すと考えたからである。

また神々のアメン、トト、ホルス、イシスなどに助けを求め、祈りを捧げたりした。

護符を身に付けることも普及しており、蛇やサソリ、ワニから守ってくれるホルスの目が最も一般的だった。

 

神殿のサナトリウムで治療が行われてもいた。

患者は小部屋に隔離され、祈りを捧げ、眠っている間に夢の中で神の恩寵にあずかり癒され、さらに神殿のプールで沐浴も行った。

これはギリシャで隆盛を極めた治癒神アスクレピオスの神殿治療に似ている。

 

次回は、古代エジプトの最後で、薬剤等を記します。

 

 

 

 

Categories: culture+society, history+evolution, science, Series: History of sickness and medical art | Tags: , , , | 2 Comments

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