Posts Tagged With: anthropology

History of sickness and medical art 7 : in preliterate society 4


A Mask dancing of Dogon( agricultural tribes) in the Middle West Africa

< A Mask dancing of Dogon( agricultural tribes) in the Middle West Africa  >

 

An etiology: Recognition of the world

 Although native’s recognition about the sickness and the medical art is unscientific and superstitious, the base of it is a thinking that gives on to modern society.

First, they have caught logically the principle of cause and effect about the sickness in their own way.

For example, they thought that a swelling of hand and foot originated in an abnormality of the internal organs, or when a sickness prevailed in a village, it was carried with insect or the wind, or an epilepsy began from temporary cutting of a brain.

Although they did not need explanation beyond it, and could not make the exact medical treatment, they always have tried a certain understanding and explanation for it.

They think that most of mental diseases depend on the supernatural causes (evil spirit).

 

In order for people to advocate a general etiology with physical element (body fluid and blood, etc.), we had to wait for the city civilization birth.

Medicinal herb use and magic of medical treatment was still the main thing.

 

 Her diseased part is purifying with leaves in Mexico. 

< Her diseased part is purifying with leaves in Mexico. >

 

病因論:世界の認識

先住民の病と医術に関する認識は、非科学的で迷信が目につきますが、現代に通じる思考が見られます。

先ず、彼らは病の因果論を彼らなりに論理的に捉えています。

例えば、彼らは手足のむくみが内臓の異常に起因し、村に病気が流行ると虫や風が媒介し、てんかんは脳の一時的な切断と見なしています。

彼らはそれ以上の説明を必要としませんし、的確な治療も出来ていないと言えますが、必ず何らかの理解と説明を試みます。

精神病の多くは、超自然的な原因(悪霊)と考えられている。

人々が物資的な要素(体液、血など)によって汎用的な病因論を唱えるには、都市文明誕生を待たなければなりません。

それでも治療はまだ薬草利用や呪術が主でした。

 

 

Medical treatment and magic:  Animism

To think that the magic and the evil spirits are causes of the disease are that they are thinking with separating the soul from the body, and moreover assume that the natural world have human nature.

Possibly you might have thought, “While clouds come out and it is raining, the sun is escaping to want not to get wet to rain.”

 

Bushman living in Kalahari Desert may cure a poor bag of hunting.

First, the root of certain plant and the hoof of certain game animal are burned, and it becomes powder.

Subsequently, the droppings of the animal are mixed with it and it becomes a mash.

Several body surfaces of a hunter are injured with a razor, and the powder is rubbed in.

I guess that this is a courtesy to control misfortune by the indirect contact to the object, and the dirty things (impurity).

Thus, all medical treatment and the courtesy will develop from abundant experiences and the analogy.

 

Bushman

< Bushman >

 

治療と呪術 : アニミズム

呪術や悪霊が病因になると考えることは、身体から精神(魂)を分離し、さらに自然界に人間性(魂)を仮託することです。

自然現象を人間のように説明することは我々幼児期の自然な姿です。

「雲が出て雨が降っているとき、お日様は雨に濡れたくないから逃げているのよ」と幼児の頃にあなたは思ったかも知れない。

カラハリ砂漠に住むブッシュマンは弓矢不猟を治療することがある。

最初に、ある植物の根とある狩猟動物の蹄を焼き、粉にする。

次いでその動物の糞をそれに混ぜてすり潰す。

狩人の体表面数カ所を剃刀で傷つけ、その粉を擦り込む。

これは汚いもの(不浄)と対象への間接的な接触によって災いを制する儀礼と推測出来る。

このようにして豊富な経験と類推からあらゆる治療と儀礼が発展していくのだろう。

 

a dancing to cure

< a dancing to cure >

 

Magic, science, and religion   

The anatomy of the animal might deepen understanding to the physiology and the sickness.

Therefore pastoral people would be able to escape easily from a conception of magic more than agricultural people.

This may be one reason that pastoral people have little mask culture (where the magic is thought as important in).

I think that this had made a difference of scientific development, along with the growth of the city civilization.

Moreover, by ethnic group, the ultimate responsibility contracting a disease included a difference in whether it was caused by self or outside.

These might have given a big influence on religion that was born in ancient civilization.

 

 

呪術と科学と宗教

動物の解剖は生理や病気への理解を深め、牧畜民は農耕民より呪術的な発想から脱しやすかったのだろう。

これが牧畜民に仮面文化(呪術を重視する)が少ないことの一つの理由かもしれない。

このことが都市文明の発展と相俟って科学発展への差異を生じたのかもしれない。

また民族によって、病気の最終責任は自己か外部に帰すかの差異もあった。

これらのことが古代文明に誕生する宗教に大きな影響を与えた可能性がある。

 

 

 

Categories: culture+society, history+evolution, <english language, <japanese language, Series: History of sickness and medical art | Tags: , , , , , | 6 Comments

History of sickness and medical art 4: in preliterate society 2


sweat lodge, a steam room of North American First Nations 

< sweat lodge, a steam room of North American First Nations >

 

We look at how shaman treats some medical arts.

 

Medical art of the easy illness

As for an injury or a stomachache, people do not request shaman.

In the case of a stomachache, Tasmania indigenous people bite and drink some asteracea plant.

In the case of constipation, Pygmy people in Africa give liquid medicine into his body through a hollow stem of vine for an enema.

Each indigenous people use many medicinal herbs.

If injured, a surgical operation will also be performed, and a medicinal herb with a hemostatic effect is used.

American Indians give man the melted fat, when he is deficient in meat, before becoming atrocious or man-eating fantasy

A steam room is used for medical treatment in northern Eurasia and the North American Continent.

 

シャーマン(呪医)が治療にどのように関わるのかを見ます。

 

簡単な病の治療

人々は怪我や腹痛などではシャーマンに依頼しない。

タスマニア先住民は、腹痛の場合、下剤になるキク科植物を咬んで飲む。

ピグミーは、便秘の場合、茎が空洞の蔓で水薬を浣腸した。

それぞれの先住民は多くの薬用植物を利用している。

怪我をすれば外科手術も行い、止血効果のある薬草が使われる。

北米インディアンは、肉が欠乏し、人食い幻想や凶暴になる前に、溶けた脂肪を飲ませる。

ユーラシア北部と北米大陸では、治療に蒸し風呂が利用される。

 

in Malaysia, a shaman is treating a medical art

< in Malaysia, a shaman is treating a medical art >

 

Treatment to depend on shaman

 

Diagnosis

An illness wasn’t cured by easy method, and his physical strength declined gradually and he became thin.

In this instance, the people considered the evil spirit and magic to be the cause of it.

Shaman gives a patient the diagnosis and the treatment.

Diagnosis is to find a supernatural cause of a disease.

Was a soul of the patient pulled out? Someone who bore him a grudge shot a kiss of death to his body?

He clarifies the taboo and the crime that the patient perpetrated, and the spirit that brings an evil.

He identifies the cause by hearing an oracle in a possessed state, by interview, or by a fortune telling.

 

 

シャーマンに依頼する治療

診断

簡単な方法で治らず、次第に体力が衰え、痩せ細る病は、悪霊や呪術が原因と考えられた。

治療するシャーマンは患者に診断と処置を行う。

診断は、超自然的な病因を見つけることです。

患者の魂が抜き取られたのか? 恨みを抱く者が呪って災いの種を身体に射込んだのか?

彼は患者の犯したタブーや罪、悪さをしている精霊を明らかにする。

問診や占い、または憑依状態で神託を聞き原因を特定する。

 

in Borneo island, people dance throughout the night, and a shaman removes a soul from her head or puts in it. 

< in Borneo island, people dance throughout the night, and a shaman removes a soul from her head or puts in it. >

 

Disposal

The disposal is whether a soul is returned or an evil spirit is driven out or a risked place is removed.

Many methods are performed with a ceremony, mystic words, and the fetish.

Occasionally, people will continue to dance and to cry several days, and send away evil spirit or calm down an angry spirit.

Holding up a rat near patient’s head of headache, the shaman of Andes moves evil thing from the head to the rat, kills it, and finds out evil part by fortune telling of internal organs of the rat.

The act of shaman that takes out diseased internal organs only with fingers from outside of patient’s body is widely seen, too.

For the cause of disease, they may suck out directly and may use a phlebotomy, a smoking process, and a steam room.

A lot of medicinal herbs are employed with mystic words, giving the droppings of an animal for driving out an evil spirit is also seen all over the world.

 

 

 

処置

処置は、魂を元に戻すか、悪霊を追い出すか、あるいは冒された所を取り除くかになる。

多くは儀式や呪文、呪物を伴い行われる。

時には数日間も踊り、叫び続け、悪霊を追い払うか、怒れる神をなだめる。

アンデスの呪医は頭痛の患者に、頭にかざした鼠に禍を移し、それを殺し鼠の内臓占いでさらに悪い患部を見いだす。

体外から指だけで悪い内臓患部を取り出す、奇術のような行為も広く見られる。

病因に対して、直接的に吸い出し、瀉血、燻煙法、蒸し風呂を使うこともある。

薬草も多く使われるが呪文を伴う、場合によっては動物の糞を飲ませて悪魔を追い払うことも世界中に見られる。

 

a shaman sells several medical herb in Peru

< a shaman sells several medical herb in Peru >

 

Shaman has full knowledge of cultivation, extraction, process, and effect of medicinal herb, and properly uses it to alleviation of fever, painkilling, urination, purgative, etc. 

Especially, when a ceremony was held, the hallucinogen was necessary for not only shaman but also families other than the patient.

 

Next time, I look at the life of pastoral tribe of Kenya.

 

 

呪医は薬草の栽培、採取、製法、効能を熟知しており、解熱、鎮痛、利尿、下剤などを使い分けている。

特に幻覚剤は儀式を行う際、患者以外の呪医や家族にも必要だった。

 

次回は、ケニアの牧畜民の生活に密着します。

 

 

 

 

Categories: culture+society, <english language, <japanese language, Series: History of sickness and medical art | Tags: , , , | 2 Comments

History of sickness and medical art 4: in preliterate society


 a shaman of Orochon in Northeast Asia 

< a shaman of Orochon in Northeast Asia >

 

We watch sickness and medicine of the preliterate society several times from now on.

From their simple life, the consciousness of the sickness which not to be affected by the civilization is seen.

This is helpful for understanding the medicine of ancient civilization.

 

The indigenous people of a remote place had been living like refusing civilization.

Many of them escaped the conqueror, or wanted the new world, and stayed at the remote place.

They did not necessarily preserve the primordial society that traced back to 10,000 years before.

 

 

これから数回、無文字社会の病と医術を見ます。

彼らの素朴な暮らしから、文明の影響を受けない病に対する素朴な意識が見られます。

これは古代文明の医術を理解するのに役に立ちます。

 

僻地の先住民は文明を拒絶するように暮らして来ました。

彼らの多くは征服者から逃れ、または新天地を求めて、その地に閉じ籠もった。

彼らは必ずしも1万年を遡る原初の社会を保存しているわけではありません。

Nomad of the south Sudan

< Nomad of the south Sudan    >

 

The sickness

How are the indigenous people in the world looking at the sickness?

Many people distinguished the ordinary sickness (cold, fatigue) and the sickness which an evil spirit caused, and requested a medicine man in the latter case.

They thought that spirits and devils, magic and black art caused the sickness.

When anybody was cursed, the people believed that it caused the sickness and death, even if it was a great distance, or when a foreign matter (animal) invaded the body too.

There are good and evil spirits, and if they offend a spirit, it will become an evil spirit.

The dead became the spirit and loitered around, and people feared to be possessed by an evil spirit.

 

世界中の先住民は病をどのように見ているのだろうか?

多くは、普通の病(風邪、疲労)と霊等が引き起こす病を区別し、後者を呪医に依頼する。

病は、霊や悪魔、魔術や呪術により起こると考えられていた。

呪いがかけられると、遠く離れていても病や死に至り、または異物(動物)が体内に侵入しも起こると人々は信じた。

霊には善悪があり、喜ばすと善霊に、怒らせると悪霊になる。

死者が霊になってうろつき、人々は霊に取り憑かれたりすることを恐れた。

American Indian    

< American Indian    >

 

The correspondence to a sick person changed by various ethnic groups.

In the American Indian, he was treated kindly.

Furthermore one who recovered serious sickness was revered as the owner of unusual power.

By an ethnic group, a disability person was murdered, and when the starvation visited their area, a suicide and a desertion were performed.

The madman (mental patient) was thought that an evil spirit clungs to person, and he was kept away, and was maltreated or was murdered.

The psychotic behavior was considered to have shaman’s qualification in Eskimos etc.

病人や不具者への対応は民族によって異なった。

北米インディアンでは親切に扱われ、重い病気から回復した者は尋常ならぬ力の持ち主と畏敬された。

ある民族では障害者は殺され、飢餓に瀕した場合は自殺や置き去りがおこなわれた。

狂人(精神病)は悪霊が取り付いたと見られ、遠ざけられ虐待、あるいは殺された。

エスキモーなどでは、精神病的な行動はシャーマンの資格が   あると見なされた。

a mask of medicine man in Congo, this mask have a purpose of threatening an evil spirit.

< a mask of medicine man in Congo, this mask have a purpose of threatening an evil spirit.  >

 

Medicine man

Medicine man is shaman.

His main role prevented a disaster such as bad crops by a prayer and was to decide a schedule of the village by divination.

It is said that he had the ability that can communicate with spirits.

He be respected in a village, but may be murdered if he fail.

If a tribe is big, the specialty in charge was divided among the accident, and the sickness etc.

One using medicinal herb take part ordinary sickness, and he pray still at using medicinal herb.

 

Continue to the next time.

呪 医    

呪医は呪術師(シャーマン)である。

彼の主な役割は、祈祷により凶作などの災厄を防ぎ、占いにより村の予定を決めることであった。

彼らは霊と交信可能な能力を持っているとされた。

彼らは部落内で尊敬を受けることになるが、失敗すれば殺されることもある。

大きい部族であれば、災厄や病いに専門が別れ、普通の病には薬草家があたり、それでも投薬時に供儀祈祷が行われた。

 

次回は治療方法を見ていきます。

 

 

 

Categories: culture+society, history+evolution, <english language, <japanese language, Series: History of sickness and medical art | Tags: , , , | Leave a comment

History of sickness and medical art 2:  Start of the cure 1


象の心臓

< a heart was pictured in an elephant’s picture, 25000 years ago, Cueva del Pindal in spain >

 

Since the creation of life, there were the sicknesses together with creatures.

On the other hand, the cure and the care developed together with the evolution of the creatures.

We look at the process of older period than modern humans.

 

Neanderthal also was taking care of fellows.

 

A male human bone of nearly 40 years old of only one eye and one hand was found in Shanidar cave of 30000 years ago in Iraq.

Probably, these obstacles were things from young times.

Therefore, if there were not care and offer of food from his family or fellow, he was not able to live.

In addition, about 1.7 million years ago in Kenya of Africa, though a Homo erectus had suffered from the excessive vitamin A syndrome, he was alive for a while.

This also had the possibility of caring for the sickness.

The example of curing the man ape is not found.

 

 

病は生命誕生後、生物と共に有り続けた。

一方、治療・介護は生物の進化と共に発展して来た。

現世人類よりも古い時代の過程を見ます。

 

ネアンデルタール人も介護をしていた。

 

イラクのシャニダール洞窟で、3万年前の片目、片腕の約40歳の男性人骨が見つかった。

この障害は若い頃からか生まれつきのもので、おそらく家族や周囲からの介護と食料提供がなければ生きていけなかった。

さらに170万年前のホモ・エレクトゥスが、アフリカのケニヤでビタミンA過剰症を患いながらもしばらく生きていた。これも介護の可能性がある。

化石人類の治療例は見つかっていない。

 

シャニダール洞窟

< a burial by Neanderthal in Shanidar cave >

 

The chimpanzee in the jungle of Africa cures the sickness.

 

Occasionally, they chew at the stem of a very bitter grass that they don’t eat always, and drink the sap.

His diarrhea and stomachache will disappear within two days after the feeding.

According to an inspection of the plant, it has become clear that it has an antibacterial action and an intestinal parasite has an effect.

 

アフリカのジャングルに暮らすチンパンジーは治療を行っている。

 

彼らは常食しない、強烈な苦みのあるキク科の茎を噛み砕き、樹液を呑むことがある。

その摂食後、2日以内に彼の下痢・腹痛は消えることになる。

その植物の成分検査によると、抗菌作用があり腸内寄生虫に効果があることが判明している。

 

茎の髄

< He is chewing at a stem of the grass to get rid of the parasitic worms. >

 

Moreover, occasionally, they swallow slowly without biting about tens of scabrous leaves.

Living parasitic worms were found in his defecation after several hours.

They have noticed the abnormality in their intestines, and they select and are executing an appropriate therapeutic procedure.

 

As they get into line with several fellows and face each other, they perform each other’s grooming.

This mainly is to remove parasitic worms or its eggs that adhered to their hair and skin.

They repair itchy places that are beyond the reach of a partner by using the finger and the mouth.

The repaired person seems pleasant, and may show the beginning of the healing.

 

また彼らは表面がザラザラした幾種類かの葉を1から100枚まで噛まずに1枚1枚ゆっくり飲み込むことがある。

数時間後の排便を見ると、生きた寄生虫が排泄されている。

彼らは腸内の異常に気づき、適切な治療手段を選択実行しているのです。

 

彼らは数頭が集まって1列に並んだり、対面したりして互いの毛づくろいを行います。

これは主に毛や皮膚に付いた寄生虫やその卵を除去しているのです。

指や口を使って、本人の手の届かない痒い所や問題箇所を繕ってあげるのです。

されている方は気持ちよさそうにしています、癒しの始まりかもしれません。

 

グルーミング

< grooming >

 

It sometimes happens that they lick to take the dust of partner’s eye with a tongue.

They mutually guess other party’s health and are giving care and cure.

Such behavior plays a big role in the appeasement of the group.

 

Please don’t miss the next article!

 

目についたゴミを舌で舐めて取ることもあります。

彼らは互いに相手の健康状態と気持ちを察し養生と治療を施しているのです。

こうした行動は仲間の宥和に大きな役割を果たしています。

 

次回も続きます。

 

 

 

 

 

 

Categories: history+evolution, <english language, <japanese language, opinion, science, Series: History of sickness and medical art | Tags: , , , , , , , | Leave a comment

Birth of primitive art :  A table of contents and abstract


I show the list of a series ” Birth of primitive art”.

please look at  page of ” Birth of primitive art “.

1  2 3 4  5  67  8 9 10 11 12 13  14   15 16 17       

 

 

Categories: culture+society, history+evolution, <english language, <japanese language, Series: Birth of primitive art | Tags: , , , , , , , , , | 2 Comments

Birth of primitive art 16: What did precede the primitive art? Part2


 

The Himba woman in northern Namibia 

< The Himba woman in northern Namibia >

 Last time, we looked at the oldest fine arts and the ocher that were used abundantly over the world.

Using the red selectively has concerned with the creation of fine arts.

This time, I will consider this.

 

The Himba woman has covered their body and hair with red ocher that dissolved with oil.

This is not only sunscreen, but also the female beauty that has symbolized blood color of life.

 

前回、地球最古の美術とオーカーが多用されたことを見ました。

赤色を選択的に使うことは、「美術の創出」に関わりがあります。

今回、これを考察します。

 

ヒンバ族の女性は油で溶いた赤色オーカーを体と髪に塗ります。

これは日焼け防止もあるが、血の色が生命を象徴する女性の美しさなのです。

 

   the ancient architecture in China, Japan, and South Korea

< the ancient architecture in China, Japan, and South Korea >

The ancient architecture in East Asia was almost red color.

Fig. A is the oldest Buddhist temple in Luoyang, China (the 1st century).

Fig. B is a gate of Heian Jingu in Kyoto and was reproduce a part of Heiankyo of the 8th century.

Fig. C is a tower of the Buddhist temple in Koyasan, Japan.

Fig. D is a gate of the detached palace of the 15th century in Seoul, South Korean.

 

At present, although many of temples of the ancient city were fading, they were shining with vermilion at when they were built.

Since ancient times, the appearance of the king’s palace, the shrine, and the temple in East Asia was applied red.

 

東アジアの古代建築は赤一色。

Aは洛陽にある中国最古の仏教寺院(白馬寺)です(1世紀)。

Bは京都の平安神宮の門で、8世紀の平安京を一部再現したものです。

Cは日本、高野山の仏教寺院の塔です。

Dは韓国ソウルにある15世紀の離宮の門です。

 

現在、古都の寺院の多くは色褪せているが創建当時は朱色に輝いていた。

古来、東アジアの王宮、神殿、寺院の外観は赤く塗られていた。

 

a Ryukyu king is standing in front Shuri Castle. Buddha Amida was painted in Tibet.

< Left side, a Ryukyu king is standing in front Shuri Castle. Right Side, Buddha Amida was painted in Tibet. >

In Asia, the red had an important meaning.

Ryukyu Dynasty was the style of China as same as Korean Peninsula.

The dress for courtesy in three nations was the same crimson.

In Buddhism, the body color of the highest Buddha Amida was red.

The red color symbolizes authority and dignity。And it gives people an idea of great benefit.

 

 アジアにおいて、赤は重要な意味を持っていた。

琉球王朝は朝鮮半島と同様に中国風でした。その儀礼用装束は三カ国同じ真っ赤でした。

大乗仏教の最高仏阿弥陀如来の身色は赤で表された。

赤色は権威と尊厳を象徴し、人々に絶大な恩恵をイメージさせた。

 

Red color in Europe, Egypt, and South America 

< Red color in Europe, Egypt, and South America >

 On other continents, what is the red role?

Fig. A is a room of the Palace of Knossos in Crete (around the BC 19th century).

It was rare to apply red color to building in Europe.

Fig. B is Seth God in ancient Egypt, and its body color is red that means the calamity.

Fig. C is a Mass of martyrdom by the priest with red vestment.

In Christianity, although the red color meant the love, yet it more meant the evil and the sacrifice.

Fig. D is the female doll that was decorated with red for sacrifice in Inca Empire.

Probably, latter three were emphasized the minus images of the scorching sun or blood.

 

他の大陸において、赤色の役割は・・・

Aはクレタ島のクノッソス宮殿の一室です(BC19世紀頃)。ヨーロッパの建物が赤で塗られることは少ない。

Bは古代エジプトのセト神で、この邪神の身色は災厄を意味した赤でした。

Cは赤い祭服の司祭による殉教のミサです。キリスト教で、赤は愛を示すこともあるが、悪魔や生け贄をより意味した。

Dはインカ帝国の赤で飾られた生け贄用の女性人形です。

後の三つは、灼熱の太陽や血のマイナスイメージが強調されたのだろう。

 

What do the red color mean?

Since ancient times, the red color was strongly concerned with good luck, disaster, love, and authority (sacredness) around the world.

It changed by the cultural sphere or the religion little by little.

The meaning of red was probably separated to two, because the people that lived in Middle East of dry climate or in Asia of moistness climate had the difference in the consciousness to the sun.

Even so, because it has a meaning that originates a long time ago, the red color has still continued to give strong impact.

 

赤色の意味するもの

古来、赤色は世界各地で吉兆、厄災、愛、権威(神聖)などと強く結びついていた。

それは文化圏や宗教によって異なっていた。

赤色イメージは、湿潤なアジアと乾燥した中東とで、太陽への意識の違いにより、二つに別れたのだろう。

それでも赤色が強いインパクトを与え続けてきたのは、赤色に遙かに時代を遡る意味があったからだろう。

 

We look back the evolution a little.

All from insect to primates, when it has been born, it has the smell (sexual pheromone), taste, and vision image (snake) that stir up a feeling of likes and dislikes.

A scholar says, “the reason that human beings have feeling special to red originates in having asked for fruits ripe of red color on tree.” 

The period from birth of the primates is 60 million years.

 

少し進化を振り返ろう。

昆虫に始まり霊長類は生まれながらにして、好悪の感情を呼び覚ます臭い(性フェロモン)、味、視覚イメージ(蛇)がある。

ある進化学者は、人類が赤色に特別な感情を持つのは、霊長類の誕生から始まる6千万年間の樹上生活において、赤く熟した果実を求めたことに起因すると言う。

What is art?

The primitive man came to use the red color selectively, probably, because it had satisfied their comfortable feelings.

The revolutionary change occurred in that time, because the ability of associating some imagery and expressing the imagery was being born in their brain.

They had associated some imagery with the law of causality that they thought. Then they expressed it. It will give them a pleasant sensation and a sense of relief, and might had induced art.

At that time, if there was dense group society, the art was born at a breath, and the culture grew.

 It produced the necklace, the Venus, the statues of lion man, flutes, and many rock arts of game animal.

 

Next time, I look at other mysteries hidden in primitive fine arts.

 

 

芸術とは何か?

原人が赤色を重宝し始めたのは、それが良好な感情を満足させたからでしょう。

画期が生まれたのは、彼らの脳に、イメージの連想と、表現力が誕生しつつあったからでしょう。

彼らは考えた因果律と心象を関連づけ、それを表現することで、快感や安堵感を覚え、芸術を生むことになった。

もし、この時に密な集団社会があれば、その芸術は一気呵成に花が開き、文化が生まれた。

 このことが首飾りに始まり、ビーナスやライオンマンの像、フルート、狩猟動物の岩絵を生みだした。

 

次回は、原初美術に秘められた他の謎を追います。

 

 

 

 

 

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Birth of primitive art 15 : What did precede the primitive art ? part1


 1 ブロンボス洞窟

< Blombos Cave in South Africa. A cave entrance is right-hand mountain side.  modern human beings lived 100,000 years ago. >

Till last time, we looked at the primitive fine arts since 35000 years ago in the world.

Didn’t human beings make fine arts during 5 million?

This time, I will approach this mystery.

 

 前回まで、35000年前以降の世界の原初美術を見て来ました。

 それ以前の500万年の間、人類は美術を作らなかったのでしょうか。

 今回は、この謎に迫ります。

 

The oldest figure

< The oldest figure >

Fig. A, the figure was found in Israel, was made of a red stone between 700000 and 230000 years ago, and was 4 cm in height.

 Fig. B, the figure was found in Morocco, was made of a quartz between 500000 and 300000 years ago, and was 6 cm in height. 

Red ocher had adhered to the surface.

Both are considered that primitive man made.

 

Ages ago, primitive man on the way of evolution was performing fine arts creation.

Aはイスラエルで見つかった23~70万年前の高さ4cmの赤い岩製人物像です。

Bはモロッコで見つかった30~50万年前の高さ6cmの石英製人物像です。その表面に赤いオーカーが付着していた。

両方共、原人が作ったと考えられる。

遙か昔、現世人類への進化途上の原人が美術創作を行っていたのです。

The oldest painting in Africa

< The oldest painting in Africa >

This painting found at the Apollo 11 cave in Namibia is estimated to date from approximately 25,000–27,000 years ago. It is an animal figure drawn on the slate.

 

At the south end of Africa, the creation was performed nearly in parallel to the Europe glacial epoch fine arts.

 

これはナミビアのアポロ11洞窟で見つかった約25000~27000年前の動物図です。

アフリカ南端で、ヨーロッパ氷河期美術とほぼ並行して創作が行われていたのです。

something like fine arts  

< something like fine arts  >

Fig. A are the oldest bead made of many shells between 140000 and 100000 years ago, and were found in the cave in Israel.

Fig. B is an ocher found at Blombos Cave in South Africa. On its surface was the straight line pattern engraved, and it was made 75000 years ago.

In the cave where modern human beings were living, 8000 pieces and 12 sharpened crayons of ocher were found.

There were also brown and yellow colors of ocher, but the red was the most.

Ocher with the oldest used marks was found in Zambia in Africa, and was thing of 250,000 years ago.

Fig. C is a plate was found at Neanderthal ruins in Hungary, it was made of ivory at 250000 years ago. Red ocher had adhered to the surface.

It is considered that people was using at the ceremony over a long period of time.

What does the appearance of the bead, the plate, and the ocher mean?

This is concerned with “what is fine art?” deeply

 

The answer will be concerned with the relation of red color of ocher and human beings.

 

Aはイスラエルの洞窟(Skhūl),で見つかった10~14万年前の最古の貝殻製ビーズです。

Bは南アフリカのブロンボスで見つかった75000年以上前の直線模様が刻まれたオーカー(黄土)の一つです。この現世人類が生活していた洞窟からは8千点のオーカーと先端を尖らせたクレヨンが12本見つかった。オーカーの色は黄色と茶色もあったが、赤が最も多かった。

最も古い使用痕のあるオーカーはアフリカのザンビアで見つかり、25万年前のものです。

Cはハンガリーのネアンデルタール人遺跡(タタ)で見つかった象牙製プレートで、赤いオーカーが塗られていた。これは入念に作られ、長期間繰り返し儀式などに使われたと推測される。

このビーズやプレート、オーカーの出現は何を意味するのでしょうか?

これは「美術とは何か」と深く関わっています。

 

オーカーの赤色と人類の関わりにその答えがありそうです。

 

Burial and red color 

< Burial and red color >

Fig.A is two small children’s burial at 27000 years ago in Austria. Many red ochers was scattered there.   

In burial of Cro-Magnon after 37000 years ago, accessories attached to the dead and ocher was scattered on it.

Although Neanderthal was burying after 70,000 years ago, the dead that was painted with red pigments is seen in various area of Europe.

Ocher was used also with many pictures in every area of the earth.

Fig.B is the inner room of an ancient tomb in Japan at 5th century, and it is also painted in red.

This red was made from mercury and sulfur.

     Since time began, the red color had an important meaning in every corner of the earth.

 

Next time, I want to explain this meaning.

Aはオーストリアで見つかった27000年前の幼児2体の埋葬で、赤いオーカーが撒かれている。37000年前以降のクロマニヨン人の埋葬では、死者はオーカーが撒かれていることがある。ネアンデルタール人は7万年前以降、埋葬を行っていたが、赤色顔料を塗った遺体がヨーロッパ各地で見られる。世界各地の絵画にもオーカーは使用されていた。

Bは5世紀、日本の亀山古墳の墓室も赤く塗られていた。この赤は水銀と硫黄から作られた。

 遙か昔から世界各地で赤色は重要な意味を持っていた。

 

次回、この意味を説き明かしたいと思います。

 

 

 

 

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Birth of primitive art 14 : People who made first fine arts 3


 Rock-Art、Four hunters and a leader、south-eastern Spain、8000 years ago

< Rock-Art、Four hunters and a leader、south-eastern Spain、8000 years ago >

 This time, the change that occurred in Cro-Magnons heart is evident from the burial and the fine arts.

I examine the thing that the change brought, and also the cause.

 

Last time, although we looked at the influence of their settlement, it is more important that rich contacts increased into the family or the group.

Influence good for child rearing must have come out first.

When they gathered together, they probably enjoyed a long talk like present-day hunter-gatherers.

This probably grew their intelligence, language, and their culture.

Probably, this is one of the reasons in which Neanderthal who used fire and had language functions (cerebral language field and throat structure) lost battles with Cro-Magnon.

今回は、クロマニヨン人の心に起きた変化を埋葬と美術から読み取ります。

 その変化がもたらしたもの、さらに原因について考察します。

 

前回、定住の影響を見ましたが、さらに重要なのは、家族や集団に濃密な時間が増えたことです。先ず育児に良い影響が出たはずです。また現代の狩猟採集民のように、集えば長話を楽しんだことだろう。これは知能と言語を発達させ、文化発展を促しただろう。火を扱い言語機能(脳の言語野と喉構造)を有したネアンデルタール人が、クロマニヨン人との生存競争に負けた理由の一つがここにあるのだろう。

reconstruction of a burial, a ruins in Russia, 28000~20000 years ago

< reconstruction of a burial, a ruins in Russia, 28000~20000 years ago, by Don’s Maps >

What happened to Cro-Magnons family?

A 13-year-old boy lies on the left of the figure, and an 8-year-old girl lies on the right.

They dressed with protections against the cold from head to tip of foot entirely.

Splendid spears made of ivory and the necklace of beads, etc. were added in large quantities.

 

This burial clarifies the difference between Neanderthal and Cro-Magnon.

 Although Neanderthal also buried one person, they didn’t bury small child or more than one person.

Cro-Magnon performed a burial of mother and child for the first time in the cave in Israel at 90,000 years ago.

After that, the burial examples such as two small children and three adults increased in Eurasia from 40,000 years ago.

They began to be strongly conscious of the bonds of mother and child, a family, and a group.

Probably, respecting for maternity added on prayer of fertility, and it led to Venus statue and next mother goddess worship.

クロマニヨン人の家族に何が起きたのか。

図の右に8歳の少女と左に13歳の少年が横たわっている。彼らは頭から足先まで防寒具を着せられ、象牙製の立派な槍やビーズのネックレスなどが大量に副葬されていた。

この埋葬にネアンデルタール人とクロマニヨン人と違いが明瞭に出ている。

ネアンデルタール人も埋葬を行っていたが幼児や複数葬はほとんどなかった。クロマニヨン人は9万年前のイスラエルのカフゼー洞窟で母子二体の埋葬を初めて行い、その後、幼児二体、成人三体などの組合せ例がユーラシアで4万年前以降増加する。彼らは母子や家族、集団の絆を強く意識し始めた。母性への敬いが豊穣への祈りに加わり、ビーナス像、後の地母神崇拝へと繋がったのだろう。

Originally, because hunter-gatherers have several problems in life with a lot of people, they dispersed easily. Similarly, they are hesitant to settle down.

Something that controls this minus feeling and advances must have happened in their heart.

Although advanced technology and intelligence were indispensable to adaptation to arctic cold, unless the bonds of family or group arose strongly, the epoch would not have happen.

 

But, gradually woman and magician are expressed carefully, and group behavior such as the hunting that was shown a prefatory picture came to be drawn in the last stage.

Furthermore, mother and child and the women who danced were also drawn.

On the other hand, drawing carefully game animals decreased.

元来、狩猟採集民は、大勢での生活は問題が多く離散しやすく、定住も同様に抵抗がある。この感情を抑制し前進させる何かが彼らの心に起こったはずである。極寒への適応には高度な技術と知能が不可欠だが、家族や集団を結びつける感情が強く沸き上がらないと画期は起こらなかった。

ヨーロッパの氷河期美術を概観すると、最初、人間、特に男は稚拙(丸に点)に描かれていた。しかし徐々に女性と魔術師が丁寧に表現され、末期には巻頭図のような狩りなどの集団行動が描かれるようになった。さらに母子や踊る女性達も描かれた。一方で狩猟動物を丁寧に描くことは減っていった。

 

Brain of modern humans, a red maker is group of neurons A10(VTA)

< Brain of modern humans, a red mark  is group of neurons A10(VTA)、by CMAJ >

What happened to Cro-Magnons brain?

Neurotransmitter dopamine is widely secreted from A10 for a long time in large quantities, especially to the frontal lobe.

Although neurotransmitters are tens of kinds, a dopamine is called a pleasure substance, and have a role to maintain a feeling of happiness and romantic feeling strongly.

A10 is like the big faucet that only human beings have.

 

The frontal lobe takes the central role on planning, conforming to a social norm, controlling feelings, and the consciousness is in it.

When dopamine is secreted into it, people continue to have strong motivation.

In this way, the epoch happened, didn’t it?

The background in which primitive fine arts arose in Europe was the interaction of global environment and human-beings evolution, and the interaction of their intelligence and the settlement in a group.

Furthermore the brain and the gene were deeply concerned with it.

Next time, we will look at some mystery of primitive fine arts.  

 脳に何が起きたのか?

A10から神経伝達物質ドーパミンが広範囲、特に前頭葉に大量かつ長時間分泌される。神経伝達物質は数十種類あるが、ドーパミンは快楽物質と呼ばれ、幸福感や恋愛感情を強く持続させる働きがある。このA10は人類だけが持っている大きな蛇口のようなものです。

前頭葉は、計画、社会規範遵守、感情抑制などの働きを担い、意識もここにあります。ここにドーパミンが分泌されると、長期的で強い動機付けが行われます。このようにして画期は起こったのでしょうね。

ヨーロッパで原初美術が誕生した背景には、地球環境と人類進化、集団による定住と知能の相互作用、さらに脳と遺伝子が深く関わっていたのです。

次回からは、まだ解明されていない原初美術の謎に迫ります。

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Birth of primitive art 13 : People who made first fine arts 2


left side is modern human, right side is Neanderthal

< left side is modern human, right side is Neanderthal、by Wikipedia >

 Last time, we looked at the situation in which human beings had gone into Europe.

 Why did the Cro-Magnon begin first fine arts?

 The reason is explored together with readers.

 

前回は現世人類がヨーロッパに進出した状況を見ました。

なぜクロマニヨン人が原初美術を始めたのだろうか?

 その理由を読者と一緒に探ります。

 

Tools of Neanderthal and Cro-Magnon in Europe is compared

<  Tools of Neanderthal and Cro-Magnon in Europe is compared. >

 Fig. A shows the stone tool that Neanderthal made from 70000 to 50000 years ago. Figs. B and C show what the Cro-Magnon man made.

The stone tools were made from 20000 to 12000, and a harpoon was made of bone from 17000 to 11000 years ago.

The bone or horn implement rapidly developed since Cro-Magnon has appeared.

 Stone tools of Cro-Magnon became sharp edged tool. These and spear thrower enabled them to do efficient hunting. Moreover, they made the extreme clothes that matched their body with sharp cutlery and thin needle. These enabled the lives of extreme cold.

 

図Aはネアンデルタール人が70~50千年前に作った石器です。図BとCはクロマニヨン人が作ったもので、石器は20~12千年前、骨角器の銛は17~11千年前のものです。骨角器はクロマニヨン人になってから急速に発達した。

クロマニヨン人の石器は精緻で鋭い刃物になっている。これらと槍投器が効率の良い狩猟を可能にした。また鋭い刃物と細い針で体に合う極寒服を作った。これらが極寒の生活を可能にした。

 

On the other hand, the reindeer and horse of the large animal traveled in large herds in this cold. They were waiting for them in a ravine etc. and they hunted them in a group.  Furthermore, extreme cold enabled preservation of a lot of meat. In this way, they became to settle down on ideal place one season in a group.

 

Which route does group of animals pass through?  Can a few mammoths be discovered?  

This was their big anxiety. Probably, when they were not able to predict, they wanted to depend on the prayer or the curse like indigenous people.

 

In this way, they worshipped the skull of game animal, and the mural painting of the animal.

A statue of lion man and several figure of magician suggest later idol worship.

 

一方、この寒さの中、大型のトナカイや馬が大群で移動していた。彼らは渓谷などでそれらを待ち伏せ, 集団で狩りをした。さらに極寒は大量の肉の保存を可能にした。こうして彼らは好適地に、集団で1シーズン定住を行うようになった。

 

動物の群れはどのルートを通るのか、数少ないマンモスを発見することが出来るのか、これは彼らの大きな懸念であった。彼らは予測出来ない時は、先住民と同様に祈りや呪いに託したのだろう。

 

こうして狩猟動物の頭骨や自ら描いた動物の壁画を拝んだのだろう。

ライオンマンの像や魔術師の図は、後の偶像崇拝を想わせる。

 

Comparison of the dwelling 

< Comparison of the dwelling >

 Neanderthal made Fig. A, and Cro-Magnon made Figs. B and C.

 Fig. A is an imaginary picture of a shelter at a ruin in France, is about 15 m in length, and was made about 400,000 years ago.

It was built standing trees to holes and fixing these with stones.

Although it is the first construction dwelling in Europe, the oldest dwelling at 1.8 million years ago is found in Africa, and was very small.

 

Fig. B shows the restoration of a dwelling at the ruins in Ukraine, is about 6 m in diameter, and about 18,000 years ago.

It was built assembling trees, covering with furs, using bones of the mammoth as a weight for these.

 

Fig. C is an imaginary picture of dwelling at Gonnersdorf ruin in Germany, is about 6 m in diameter, and was made about 15,000 years ago.

It was built assembling trees, and stretching furs of horse on its frame.

In it, there were a cooking device that made with bones of the mammoth, and a cooking hole.

They lived on several dwellings like this during winter months in a group.

Probably, except this period, they went in quest of game animal, and lived life on the move.

 

 

図Aはネアンデルタール人が、図B,Cはクロマニヨン人が作った。

図Aはフランスの遺跡にある避難所の想像図で、長さ約15m、約40万年前のものです。これは穴に木を立て石で固定し建てられた。これはヨーロッパで最初の築造住居跡ですが、アフリカでは180万年前の最古の小さな住居跡が見つかっている。

 

図Bはウクライナのメジリチ遺跡の復元で、直径約6m、約18千年前のものです。木で枠組みし、毛皮で覆い、マンモスの骨を重しにした。

 

図Cはドイツのゲナスドルフ遺跡の復元図で、直系約6m、約15千年前のものです。木で枠組みし、馬の皮を張って作られた。その中にはマンモスの骨を組んだ調理器と調理穴がある。この数棟に冬の数ヶ月間、集団で生活していた。この時期以外は狩猟動物を求めて移動生活をしていたのだろう。

 

Although the existence of a furnace was common in them, Figs. B and C were firm and adapted to extreme cold.

Originally, since hunter-gatherers move frequently, they carry neither a tool nor materials.

Therefore, a shelter becomes very simple as shown in Fig. A.

 

People that drew cave mural paintings lived in the entrance of cave and on rock shadow.

There, wind was interrupted, low tree have grown, and the water place was near.

 

炉の存在は共通するが、図B,Cは強固で極寒に適応している。元来、狩猟採集民は頻繁に移動するので、道具や資材を持ち運ばない。したがって図Aのように避難所は非常に簡便となる。

 

洞窟壁画を描いた人々は深い河谷にある洞窟の入口や岩陰  で暮らした。そこは風が遮られ、低木も茂り、水場も近かった。

 

This settlement of a glacial epoch brought about fundamental changes to people.

They were able to been having Venus statues that were sculptured and made of clay near themselves.

The settlement by large group also became to enable the allocation of tasks, and entrust mural painting to skillful person.

These led to development of fine arts and technology.

 Since they repeatedly have grouped together and have broken up, it promoted the exchange of knowledge and goods.

 The acquisition range of stone tool spread from a few kilometers to a few hundred kilometers.

 In this way, Cro-Magnon created the primitive fine arts in the extreme cold.

 

Next time, we will look at the important impact that the settlement caused further.

 

この氷河期の定住は、人々に変化をもたらした。

彼らは素焼きや彫刻のビーナス像を作って、身近に持つことを可能にした。集住は作業分担を可能にし、壁画を巧みな者に任すことにもなった。これらが美術や技術の発展につながった。繰り返す離散と集住は、知識や情報、物資の交換を促進した。石器材料の入手範囲は、それまでの数十kmから数百kmに広がった。

こうしてクロマニヨン人が氷雪の極寒の中、原初美術を生むことになった。

 

次回は、さらに定住が引き起こした重要なインパクトを探ります。

 

 

 

 

Categories: culture+society, history+evolution, <english language, <japanese language, Series: Birth of primitive art | Tags: , , , , , , | 2 Comments

Birth of primitive art 8: primitive arts other than Europe 1


  rock arts in Tassili-n-Ajjer       

< rock arts in Tassili-n-Ajjer  >

The first fine arts of the human beings were born in Europe of the glacial epoch, and eventually were lost.

 However, primitive fine arts were born in different parts of the world after that.

We look at the arts in different parts simply.

  

人類最初の美術が氷河期のヨーロッパで誕生し、やがて廃れた。

 しかしその後、世界各地で美術が誕生することになる。

 各地の原初美術を簡単に見ます。

a map of primitive fine arts、fine arts of glacial epoch were born in a red part, other primitive fine arts were born in No. 1~7.

< a map of primitive fine arts、fine arts of glacial epoch were born in a red part, other primitive fine arts were born in No. 1~7. >

The primitive fine arts in Africa 1 and 2, India 3, Australia 4, and America 6 and 7 were rock arts.

 They are reflecting a life of hunting and gathering life. The indigenous people are continuing drawing them in some locations until recently. For this reason, establishing inaugural year of drawing pictures is difficult.

 Japan made many Venus image out of clay, but didn’t make rock arts.  japan is only special.

アフリカ1,2、インド3、オーストラリア4、アメリカ6,7の原初美術は岩絵であった。

それらは狩猟採集生活を反映しており、場所によっては先住民が最近まで描き続けていた。このために年代確定が困難になっている。

日本だけは岩絵を作らず、多くのビーナス像(土偶)を作った、これは特殊である。

map No.1,  Tassili n'Ajjer,  Algeria  

< map No.1,  Tassili n’Ajjer,  Algeria  >

 Although there is in the middle in Sahara Desert here now, was in rich green those days.

 The rock arts on cliffs began to be drawn from 8000 years ago, and stopped by advance of desertification before long.

 Although at first they have lived a life of hunting and gathering, the paintings show that their lives changed from cow breeding to the trade on a horse.

The painting place is near once the water place, and will be in which religious service and ceremony were performed.

 

ここは現在、サハラ砂漠の真ん中であるが、当時は緑豊かであった。

8000年前頃から壁画が描かれ始め、やがて砂漠化の進行で、それは途絶えた。

始めは狩猟採集生活であったが、牛飼養から馬による交易へと変化していったことが絵からわかる。

壁画が描かれた場所はかつての水場近くであり、祭祀や儀礼が行われていたことだろう。

Tassili n'Ajjer,  a rock art in times of hunting and gathering  

< Tassili n’Ajjer,  a rock art in times of hunting and gathering  >

 Upper two persons wear some decorations to head, neck, and arm, and the scares in sequence of white points are on the body.

 This scar is a custom that has continued in Central Africa still.

 On the lower side, there are a goat, several playing children, a visionary animal, and tent like jellyfish.

 Each is no relation, the observing point is freedom, and they painted it by priority of how important.

 There isn’t sacredness on it, but I feel pleasure and familiarity to it.

上部の二人は頭や首、腕に飾りを着け、体に白い点列の瘢痕がある。

この傷痕は現在も中央アフリカに続く風習である。

下部には山羊、遊ぶ子供達、空想上の動物、クラゲに似たテントが描かれている。

それぞれがバラバラで、描く視点が自由で、重要度によって描き分けられている。

そこに神聖さはなく楽しさと親しみを感じる。

Tassili n'Ajjer,  a rock art in times of cattle breeding 

< Tassili n’Ajjer,  a rock art in times of cattle breeding > 

Hunter that have an uplifting feeling, curved ships, and a herd of cattle that was made distinction of sex, these are painted in it.

Dancing, war, home life, carriage, religious rite, etc. were painted on rock arts of this time.

Brown is a basic tone of the painting, green and white also are added.

躍動感のある狩人、湾曲した船、雌雄の牛の群れが描かれている。

この時代の絵には、踊り、戦争、家庭生活、馬車、宗教儀式なども描かれていた。

絵は茶色を基調に、緑と白が加えられ描かれている。

map No.2,Tsodilo Hills, Botswana, phot by Jaap Sikkema

< map No.2,Tsodilo Hills, Botswana, phot by Jaap Sikkema >

Bushman (Sun) is continuing a traditional life of hunting and gathering in the Kalahari Desert in Botswana.

In the north direction, there are mountains that they called Tsodilo Hills and regard as sacred.

Several thousands of the rock arts that have been painted by them from 2500 years ago remain here.

One theory is it began at 20000 years ago.

ブッシュマン(サン人)はボツワナのカラハリ砂漠で昔ながらの狩猟採集生活を続けている。

その北方にツォディロ・ヒルと呼ばれる彼らが神聖視する山があり、そこに2500年前から描かれ続けた数千の岩壁画が残っている。一説には20000年前からとも言われている。

Tsodilo Hills,  rock arts by Bushman

Tsodilo Hills,  rock arts by Bushman

< Tsodilo Hills,  rock arts by Bushman > 

The image above is seen painting of ox and rhinoceros, and a Bushman. The image below is seen eland and giraffe. 

The theme of the paintings is mainly wild animal, hunting, and fishing.

Additionally, there are Dancing, war, rain-making rituals, musical instrument performance, and religion ceremony with wearing mask and with dancing.

When it becomes hundreds of years ago, impressive paintings appear. 

There are vast amounts of rock arts in Southern Africa. Bushman paints these from about 6000 years ago to until the 19th century.

People in Africa also had painted rock arts from 8000 years ago.

Next time, we look at primitive fine arts in other continents. 

 

上の写真には牛と犀とブッシュマン、下にはエランド(ウシ科)とキリン、その横に手形が添えられている。

絵の主題は、野生動物と狩猟や漁労が主で、舞踊、戦争、雨乞い、楽器演奏、仮面を被って踊る宗教儀礼などの場面もある。

数百年前になると、見応えのある絵も出現する。

南部アフリカには膨大な岩壁画遺跡があるが、これらはブッシュマンによって約6000年前から19世紀まで描かれたものです。

アフリカの人々も、8000年前から岩絵を描いていた。

次回は、他の大陸の原初美術を見ます。

Categories: culture+society, history+evolution, <english language, <japanese language, Series: Birth of primitive art | Tags: , , ,

Misunderstanding of war 10: Uncivilized war


 アフリカの牛牧畜民,cattle herder of Africa

< cattle herder of Africa、They are not the people of this article. >

We have so far seen a large-scale war.

There, soldiers’ face cannot be seen, and complicated social circumstances twined around the war

We are hard to see the actual condition of war.

This time, we look at small-scale war and some uncivilized wars. Feeling and a desire have come out plainly there.

 

これまでに大規模な戦争の流れを見てきました。

そこでは兵士達の顔が見えず、複雑な社会状況が絡まり、戦争の実態が見にくい。

今回は、小規模で未開社会の戦いを見ます。そこでは感情や欲望が露骨に出ています

We look at some Wars of people of a preliterate society who live in the savanna in Africa and the jungle in New Guinea or South America.

The cattle herders of African savanna sometimes cause war of cow pillage.

If serious dryness come every about 20 years, there were that the number of cow in a village will decrease sharply.

Then, the villager asks an attacked village to a shaman and according to the fortune-telling, tens of adult men sortie with a spear.

The village is attacked, all cows in the village are pillaged, and almost all village people are massacred.

アフリカのサバンナ、ニューギニアや南米のジャングルに暮らす無文字社会の人々の戦争を見る。

アフリカ・サバンナのある牛牧畜民は牛略奪の戦争を起こすことがある。

約20年毎に深刻な乾燥が訪れると、村の牛の頭数が激減する。

すると皆は呪術者に襲うべき村を尋ね、その占いに従って数十人の成人男子は槍を持って出撃する。

その村は襲われ、総べての牛が略奪され、村民はほとんど皆殺しにされた。

 

ニューギニア先住民、indigenous people in New Guinea

< indigenous people in New Guinea, They are not the people of this article. >

We look at the War of the Marine people who perform slash-and-burn and breeding of a pig in the New Guinea highland. The scale of a village is hundreds.

Poaching, theft of crops, and a woman’s kidnapping happen between villages, and if the dissatisfaction accumulates, it becomes war soon. 

At first, the men have a pavis and a bow and arrows and gather.

They line up side by side and confront each village’s member within gunshot distance, and the arrow of each other is shot. This is repeated during several weeks.

When they have not a settlement yet, they construct a row with a spear or an ax, and do a duel with one-on-one from the front, and one by one each goes a back of the row.

This may continue several months. And an armistice may be concluded for field labor. 

The stage bring more deaths is an attack. A village is attacked, fire is released and a villager is slaughtered indiscriminately.

The surviving villager flees. The house and field of the village are destroyed thoroughly and a cemetery is soiled.

ニューギニア高地の焼畑農耕と豚の飼養を行うマリン族の戦争を見る。村の規模は数百名である。

集団の間で密猟、作物の窃盗、女性の誘拐が起こり,不満が溜まると戦争を行う。

最初は、約束の場所に大盾と弓矢を持って集まり、射程内に横一列で対峙し、お互い矢を射る。これを数週間繰り返すことになる。

これで解決しない時、投げ槍や斧を持ち縦列を組み、前列から一対一の決闘を行い、順次後方と交代する。

これは数ヶ月続くことがある。畑仕事の為に休戦することもある。

もっとも死者が多い段階は襲撃で、村を襲い、火を放ち、村人を無差別に殺戮する。

生き残った村人は遁走する。その村の家屋と畑を徹底的に破壊し、墓地を汚す。

 

ヤノマミ族,Yanomami people

< Yanomami people >

They live in the jungle with slash-and-burn and hunting and gathering in Brazil.

The village was usually connected with trade.

Occasionally, a banquet is performed and the village in alliance is invited.

A trouble may happen by the dissatisfaction of food or a present, etc., and it may develop into “a duel of striking each breast.”

In front of everybody, each men go an open space from both sides, a man hold both arms behind one’s back, and projected his breast.

A man knocks a rival breast by his fist at full power. This is performed until either falls down. There are not the dead.

Subsequently, there is “battle of a heavy stick.”

Two men alternately knock each head with a heavy stick about 3 m length.

Since one side carries out bloodshed and falls down, both sides start to battle. If there is the death, it will develop into “an attack. 

If it is a case of other villages, about ten persons’ party will waylay on outskirts of the village at midnight. The raiding party kills one person, and withdraws quickly.

War of the last stage is ” a deceptive attack”.  They fake out the enemy and invite them to a banquet.

These indigenous people’s war is old and is not in present time.

彼らはブラジルのジャングルで、焼畑農耕と狩猟採集で暮らしている。村は平時において交易で結ばれている。

時折、饗宴が行われ、同盟関係にある村が招待される。

食物や贈り物への不満などでいざこざが起こり、「胸叩きの決闘」に発展することがある。

皆の前で、双方から男が一人づつ、広場に進み出て、両手を後ろに組んで胸を突き出す。

片方が、拳骨で全力を込めて胸を殴る、これをどちらかが倒れるまで行う。死者が出ることはない。

次いで「棍棒の戦い」がある。順番に、二人が長さ3mほどの棍棒で脳天をなぐりあう。

一方が流血して倒れると、双方を支持する集団どおしの闘いになり、死者が出ると、「襲撃」に発展する。

他村の場合であれば、十数人の襲撃隊が深夜村はずれで待ち伏せする。だれか一人を殺して、すばやく撤退する。

最終戦争は前述の「だまし討ち」で、敵をいつわり饗宴に招き、多数を撲殺し、敵の女性は戦利品として分配する。

これら先住民の戦争は古いもので、現在の話ではありません。

In this way, when we look at war of a primitive society, there are some common features.

  • The beginning war is formalized, and there are little casualties and damage.
  • However, when casualties come out, it may escalate.
  • If it escalates, a brake will not be effective against slaughter or pillage.
  • The men become violent in the society where the battle is becoming commonplace.  

 

Human beings have accumulated the culture that reduces theft, homicide and revenge, etc. leading to a conflict.

We experienced both the great wars in the 20th century, and did we study the devices for reducing the war?

こうして未開社会の戦争を見ると、いくつかの共通点がある。 

  • 初期の戦闘は形式化されており、死傷者や被害が少ないようになっている。
  • しかし、死傷者が出るとエスカレートしてしまうことがある。
  • エスカレートしてしまうと、殺戮や略奪に歯止めが効かない。
  • 戦闘が常態化している社会では、男は暴力的である。

 

人類は、紛争原因になる窃盗、殺人、復讐などを減らす文化を蓄積して来た。 

同様に20世紀の両大戦を踏まえ、戦争を減らす工夫を施している。

 

Categories: culture+society, history+evolution, <english language, <japanese language, opinion, Series: misunderstanding of war | Tags: , , , , | Leave a comment

Origin of mind sir.17 // Humankind’s tragedy and catastrophe


Invasion of Normandy in the movie 、ノルマンデイー上陸作戦

< Invasion of Normandy in the movie >

 This time, it becomes the opposite of the last theme ” humankind’s strength.”

 This theme is the problem that it has occurred frequently and I fear most.

The humankind has the mentality of big defect.

However, I think there is always a road if well aware of it.

 Grooming  グルーミング

< Grooming : it is an important appeasement policy. by Kyoto University>

I think that unification of a social hierarchy and a one male one female system became a key to the development of humankind.

However, this seems not to be researched. Though if possible, I want you to clarify with game theory etc.

The social hierarchy will be a developed type of a mock fitting and does not persist in a land like a territory.

Many animals had the hierarchy mutually accept superiority or inferiority for a limited time only.

By that, they made it possible to avoid conflict and to cooperate.

The social hierarchy of the animal kingdom differs from the class conflict of human society.

The greatest difference is the boss shift in a cycle of several years.

It is determined by a boss individual’s fighting power, and the superiority or inferiority of friend support.

Therefore, although a leader uses violence, he also performs protection of the weak and a female.

If it is not made, a boss will lose at the next conflict (it is the same as an election of human society).

Composition of the Humankind’s tragedy 人類悲劇の構造

< Composition of the Humankind’s tragedy >

The kind of conflict is not exhausted for humankind, a big war, a race slaughter, a slave system, the left wing and the right wing, a man and a woman, etc.

It seems that a chimpanzee society will be have a male massacre in a territorial fight.

Other animals cooperatively don’t slaughter like humankind.

 Why does it happen only to humankind?

At the beginning, please see chimpanzee society (left fig.).

This society is maintained by the social hierarchy and the altruistic behavior, and is strongly connected by the sympathy.

The chimpanzee has the three outstanding abilities except for humankind.

The sympathy becomes conversely hostile to the person of a different territory.

Humankind added two elements than the three abilities that the chimpanzee has.

It is the family and the society had culture and can be accumulated

The former induced the strong love to a family and it became the strongest sympathy in the earth.

The latter develops rapidly from about tens of thousands of years.

It produced various growth possibilities.

When the state was born, accumulation of economy, military affairs, knowledge, and social-related (bonds) took place.

However, the accumulation will make a difference and a wall from all dimensions.

A pink’s circle of the right figure is same with a chimpanzee.

The green ring of the outside is shown that the firm unification by society and culture.

This means a family, the village, the tribe, the race, and the state.

This connects every class with the strongest love, and can be said to be the expansion version of a social hierarchy.

The red ring of outside shows that it is very competitive to other society.

After all, the humankind was the strongest and became cruel because it.

Jesus Christ of Israel, mozi (Bokushi ) of China, and Shin ran of Japan said as follows.

Epistle to the Romans 13-9

[…if there be any other commandment, it is summed up in this word, namely, Thou shalt love thy neighbor as thyself. ]

Jian ai (kenai) 3

[ It is accordant to the providence of the universe not to separate each other, to love each other and to help each other. ]

Tan’isho 5

[ Shin ran had chanted the Buddhist invocation once for a deceased father and mother’s memorial service. ]

Next time you will see the symbol which humankind’ mentality and culture induced

Categories: culture+society, history+evolution, <english language, Series: Origin of mind | Tags: , , , , , | Leave a comment

Origin of mind sir.16 // Evolution of mind, and humankind’s strength


 

humankind chimpanzee

< by Nikkei-science >

This time we will focus about the history of humankind and Japanese culture.

I introduce one theory of evolutionary psychology simply and explore the reason of humankind’s strength.

 

 Evolution of mind

< Evolution of mind >

Upper half figure shows how the function of a brain changed along with the development of humankind.

The left is a stage of chimpanzee, the center is primitive man and the right is modern humans.

It is notionally expressed notionally by the method of combination that several functions of a brain ware related to.

This is Steven Mithen’s theory, uses the cognitive archaeology and tries to explain the origin of art, religion, and science.

A fundamental idea of his theory supposes that five uniquely domains of intelligence first generated in a brain, and these were unified under a general intelligence along with evolution.

This has obtained the hint from the child’s development psychology and the stone tools which fossil men left after a few million ago.

 

humankind’s strength 

 

< humankind’s strength >

One of the humankind’s strength is already shown according to “Ser. 13 the family’s origin.”

Why did humankind become the strongest animal on the earth?

I think the point is in constitution of society power。That makes the unity increased

markedly our power and the culture was producing development.

The king chimpanzee of a jungle is “plural male plural female” society and has a strong social hierarchy.

On the other hand, there are many animals which take “one male one female” system.

Fossil men developed the social hierarchy in the large group, and also got “one male one female” system in the middle.

The former enabled a large group to maintain the peaceful order and strengthened the group to the enemy.

The latter produced the unity power led by the family.

The latter produced the strongest unity power connected by the family and contributed to intelligence training and cultural development.

These conjointly raised the fitness of an individual and a group.

In this way, humankind got the foundation of big development.

Next time we consider humankind’s tragedy and catastrophe.

 

Categories: culture+society, history+evolution, <english language, <japanese language, Series: Origin of mind | Tags: , , | Leave a comment

Origin of mind sir.14  // a brain


 

brain 脳
***

Last time we looked at the origin of family.

This time we will see the changes in the brain occur in connection with evolution.

*** 

前回(連載13)は家族の起源を見ました。

今回は、進化に連れて脳がどのように変化したかを見ます。

 

structure and evolution of brain : 脳の進化と構造

 

< structure and evolution of brain : 脳の進化と構造 >

***

As we have seen, our brains obtained the base program of the social behavior by evolution.

The trace is in a cerebral structure.

Brain development is divided into three steps.

It consists of the oldest brain stem, the cerebral limbic system located centrally in brain and the newest cerebrum wrapped them (figure upper right).

This corresponds to evolution of primitive animal, to reptiles, into the mammals.

While three steps of brains respectively react, it has structure adjusted as a whole.

An old brain reacts in an instant, and the last brain synthesizes much information, and judges the last intentionally.

The phylogeny is in the figure upper left.

For humans, a blue cerebrum is large and also outside cerebrum neocortex is the maximum most.

Furthermore, the portions that developed only into human beings’ brain are two language centers.

When we talk and hear, it is always functioning.

The proportion of the brain neocortex in the brain is 80% in the human, it is 35% on the average of the mammal.

***

既に見たように脳には、進化で得た社会行動の基本プログラムが保存されているはずです。

その痕跡が脳の構造にあります。

脳の発達は大きく分けて3段階あり、最古の部分が脊髄に直結している脳幹、次いで中央部(大脳辺縁系)、最後がそれらを包む形の大脳です(図右上)。

これは原初的な動物から爬虫類、最後に哺乳類への進化に対応しています。

三段階の脳がそれぞれ反応しながら、全体として調整する構造になっています。

古い脳は瞬時に反応し、最後の脳は多くの情報を総合し遅れて最後の判断を意識的に行うのです。

そのことが図左上の系統発生に現れています。

ヒトでは青色の大脳が大きく、さらに一番外側の大脳新皮質が最大なのです。

さらに人類の脳だけに発達した部分が二つの言語中枢です(図左下)。

我々が話しをする時、聞く時には必ずここが機能しています。

***

The microphotograph of the neuron network within a brain is upper left figure, and the figure of the junction between nerves is located at the lower right.

If I say one special feature to the brain, it is that nerve connection (synapse) of several 100 trillion is carrying out parallel processing to serve both as memory and operation (a supercomputer is the example).

This is the wonderfulness of the brain of an animal. However, there is also a problem.

It is unable to perform correction of the error simply, by reason that the cerebral control of memory and operation are almost automatic.

***

図左上に脳内の神経細胞網の顕微鏡写真、右下に神経間接合部の図があります。

脳の特徴を一つだけ挙げるとしたら、数百兆の神経接続(シナプス)が記憶と演算を兼ねて、並行処理をしていることだと言えます(スパコンがその例)。

これが動物の脳の凄さです。しかし問題もあります。

それは脳の演算や記憶の制御はほぼ自動的で、複雑で、一度偏りが生じるとプログラム変更のように簡単に再インストールが出来ないのです。

 

growth of brain : 脳の肥大化 

 

< growth of brain  : 脳の肥大化 >

***

Although there are various theories, I can’t assertive it and can say following things in general.

The weight ratio of the brain became large as it evolves into a great ape and human beings from the primates.

Probably, this kept pace with development of tool using, language using, and social behavior.

The proportion of the cerebrum neocortex in the brain is 80% in the human beings.

It is 35% on the average of the mammal.

This part has been growing since the chimpanzee that makes about 100 groups, and is related to the scale of the social grouping.

Furthermore, human beings’ frontal lobe (upper right figure) is carrying out growth near double compared with the chimpanzee.

The frontal lobe is a part demonstrates most human ability.

It is a part that performs to make a long-range plan, to encourage oneself toward a target, controls feeling, and to act intentionally.

Furthermore, this portion is required in order to induce art, and war and a physical theory.

***

色々学説があり、断言は出来ないのですが、概ね以下のことが言えると思います。

先ず霊長類、大型類人猿、そして人類へと進化するにつれ、脳は他と較べて体重比で大きく、増大傾向にあります。

これは道具使用、言語使用、社会行動の発達と並進したのでしょう。

特にヒトの大脳新皮質の脳に占める割合は80%で、哺乳類では35%です。

この部分は約100頭の集団を作るチンパンジーの頃から大きくなっており、社会集団と関係しています。

人類の前頭葉(右上図)がチンパンジーよりも倍近く肥大化しています。

これは最も人間らしい能力、長期計画を立て目標に向かって自分自身を鼓舞し、感情を制御し意識的に行動することを行う部分です。

さらに芸術や戦争、相対性理論を生む為に必要なのでしょう。

***

Why did growth of this brain occur?

Probably, development of the high eyesight of a life on a tree and dexterous fingers became the trigger at first.

After that, the transfer to the savanna by drying stimulated a walk in erect posture from bipedal locomotion like chimpanzee, and the birth canal in a pelvis was reduced.

Then, the female came to give birth to a small prematurely born baby.

A baby’s growth became late and a long period of time late again, and the gigantic brain was attained.

The family was born for child rearing.

The society where a family and a group live together was begun and born on the earth.

Last time, I explained this circumstance.

Strange to say, the time when a stone tool becomes complicated at and a new kind with a big brain is born was a glacial epoch of arctic cold.

Next time (sir.15) we will see the wonder of brain and the Intelligence development of child.

Page [ Origin of mind ] is a table of contents.

***

それではこの脳の肥大化はなぜ起きたのでしょうか?

最初は樹上生活の高い視力と器用な手指の発達が引き金になったのでしょう。

乾燥化による草原への転出が、二足歩行から直立歩行を促し、骨盤の産道縮小が生じます。

そのために小さい未熟児を生むようになりました。

赤ん坊の成長が遅くまた長期間となり、脳の巨大化が可能になりました。

育児の為に家族が生まれ、集団社会との並立という地球上始めての画期が起きたのです。

この間の説明は前回行いました。

不思議なことに石器が複雑になり脳が大きい新しい種が誕生する時期は極寒の氷河期でした。

 

次回(連載15)は、脳の不思議と子供の知能発達を見ます。

頁「心の起源」に目次があります。

Categories: culture+society, history+evolution, <english language, <japanese language, science, Series: Origin of mind | Tags: , , , , , , | 3 Comments

Origin of mind sir.13  /  Origin of family


 

 family 家族

***

Last time we easily looked at the evolution during the preceding 5 million years.

 After a certain incident in during this period, human beings become the strongest animal in the earth.

 This time we will look at this. What was the incident?  What did it bring human beings?

 ***

 

前回(連載12)は500万年間の人類の足跡を足早に見ました。

 この間に人類が地球最強の動物になり得た事件が起きたのです。

 今回はその事件とは何か、それが人類に何をもたらしたかを見ます。

 The origin of the family of humanity : 人類の家族の起源

 

< The origin of the family of humanity : 人類の家族の起源 >

***

The accident occurred in the land of Africa and it was a prologue to the big change.

 It begins to be fossil hominid that he had made a simple hut began 1.8 million years ago.

They place many stones in a circle, made it leaning against a branch in the shape of a cone there.

 The chimpanzee that lives in the jungle moves the bed on the tree every day.

 This is to avoid lice.

***

アフリカの地で異変が起きたのですが、それは大きな変革への序章でした。

それは180万年前に始めて化石人類が簡単な小屋を造ったことに始まります。

それは円形に石を並べ、枝を円錐状に立て掛けた小さなものです。

実は現在のジャングルに暮らすチンパンジーは木の上の寝床を毎日のように移動します。

これはシラミなどの寄生虫を避けるためです。

***

Mankind has been faced with an increase in a childcare period and premature birth of baby by the enlargement of the brain and upright walking.

 If a female gives birth to three children, it must concentrate on childbirth and childcare in about ten years.

This was a big issue.

 Then, the dwelling for childcare in the savanna was needed first.

 For a long time, a male (father) that performed distribution of food and defense from many carnivores on the savanna was needed for a female and a child.

 On the other hand, although the chimpanzee male near an ancestor copulates, they perform neither a child’s childcare nor food distribution.

 The sex solved this big issue.

 A swelling (pink of the hips of a photograph) of a sexual skin like a chimpanzee will be lost, and they will copulate at any time.

 The present family of “one male one male” was born after this.

 Male reduces the struggle between the males and females became able to receive assistance from the male.

 Bonobo began to use sex for appeasement behavior 1 million years ago before us.

 ***

人類は直立歩行と脳の肥大化の為に、育児期間の増大と赤子の早産に直面していました。

雌は数人の子供を生むと、ほとんど出産と育児に専念しなければならなくなりました。

これは大問題です。

そこで先ず必要になったのが育児の為の住居です。

長期間、草原の肉食動物からの防御と食料の配給をしてくれる雄が必要になります。

一方、祖先に近いチンパンジー雄は交尾するが子供の面倒も給餌も一切行いません。

この大問題があることで解消される事になったのですが、それはセックスでした。

チンパンジーのような性皮の腫れ(写真のお尻のピンク色)が無くなり、彼らは恒常的に交尾を行うようになったらしいのです。

このことによりそれまでの複雄複雌から単雄単雌の現在の家族が誕生したのです。

雄は雄間での闘争を減らし、雌は長期に援助を受けることが出来るようになったのです。

我々より100万年前に、セックスによる社会変革を成し遂げたのはボノボなのです。

***

The marks of the change at this time remain also in the man of today.

 The females became lousy by living in the same place for a long time.

 The females with few hairs are more resistant to the skin disease and the epidemic.

 Melamine pigment appeared 1,200,000 years ago, and their skin was protected instead of the hairs.

 Probably, it is the vestiges of this incident that many modern women shave useless hair.

 ***

この時の変化の跡が現代人にも残っています。

当時、長く同じ場所に住むことによりシラミが多く湧くようになりました。

毛の少ない雌の方が皮膚病や伝染病に罹りに難くなります。

120万年前にメラミン色素が出現し、それが毛の変わりに皮膚を守ったのです。

現代女性が無駄毛を剃るのは、この事件の名残、雄が雌の健康と安産を望む反映なのでしょう。

 ***

Abridged sentence.

 Human beings will be connected with the strong bonds called husband and wife.

 The family contributed to cultural formation and succession through childcare, and became the foundation to social development.

  Next time we will see brain.

 ***

以下にまとめます。

    人類は進化途上、突如夫婦と言う強い絆で結ばれることになった。

 夫婦は充分な子育てを通じて文化形成と継承に貢献し、強い絆は次ぎの社会発展への礎となりました。

 次回(連載14)は脳について少し詳しく見ます。

 

Categories: culture+society, history+evolution, <english language, <japanese language, Series: Origin of mind | Tags: , , , , , , | Leave a comment

Origin of mind sir.12 / Evolution during 5 million years


 

cave paintings in Lascaux, 15000 years ago : ラスコーの洞窟壁画

< cave paintings in Lascaux, 15000 years ago : ラスコーの洞窟壁画 >

***

The Last time, we looked at the relation between sex and society and the culture caused by these things.

This time, we will easily find the evolution during the preceding 5 million years since our early ancestors (fossil men) first separated from Chimpanzee.

***
前回(連載11)は進化と文化で育まれた性への欲求・意識と習慣がどのようなものかを見ました。

今回はここ500万年間の人類の祖先(化石人類)の足跡を簡単に見ます。

evolution of fossil men 1 : 化石人類の進化

 

< evolution of fossil men 1 : 化石人類の進化 >

***

The first evolution of fossil man is in fog. It is sure that common ancestors of chimpanzee and us lived in the jungle in Africa.
 
An ape-man separated from the ancestor stepped forward one step in the prairie.

This was the beginning of a great leap.

The posterity soon pushed on to evolve the civilization that covers all the earths.

From 5 million to 2 million years ago, they progressed to erection and cerebral hypertrophy depending on the life and bipedal locomotion in the prairie.

There was a significant change in about 2 million years ago.

A stone tool of left in this figure is the oldest thing, 2.5 million years ago.

A stone tool of right was made about 1 million years after that.

They made hunting in groups, to build the hut, use fire, lost body hair, and also went out of Africa first.

This shows that cerebral development and the situation of social life changed.

***
発端は霧の中ですが、チンパンジーと我々の共通の祖先がアフリカのジャングルにいました。

その祖先から別れた猿人は草原へと一歩を踏み出しました。

これが大躍進の始まりで、やがて地球を覆い尽くす文明へと突き進みます。

500~200万年前の段階における進化のポイントは、草原での生活と二足歩行から直立、脳の肥大化へと進んだことでした。

200万年前の前後に大きな変化がありました。

図中の左の石器は250万年前の最古のもので、右はそれから約100万年後に作られたものです。

彼らは集団で狩りをし、小屋を造り、火を使い、体毛を失い、さらにアフリカを始めて出ました。

上記のことは脳の発達と社会生活のパターンが変化したことを示しています。

evolution of fossil men 2 : 化石人類の進化 

 

< evolution of fossil men 2 : 化石人類の進化 >

***

The speed of evolution rose rapidly tens of thousands of years ago.

Neanderthal was active from about 100,000 years ago.

They became increasingly like modern man.

In extreme cold of the ice age in Europe, they made sharp stone tools (left in fig.), clothes out of fur, build big hut and hunting in big groups by design

They first performed the burial courtesy (ctr. in fig.) and enshrined animal’s bone

They supported a disabled person in a cave for tens of years.

***
数万年前から急激に進化の速度が上昇します。

ネアンデルタール人(旧人)の誕生は古いのですが、活躍が目立つのは10万年前ぐらいからです。

彼らの容姿は現代人に似ており、氷河期の極寒のヨーロッパで、切れ味の良い石器(図、上の左)と衣服を作り、大きな小屋を建て共同作業で狩りをした。

化石人類最初となる埋葬儀礼(図、中央)や祀りを行い、障害者を長期に洞窟で扶養した。

***
At last, the modern man was born to Africa about 10 million years ago and spread to the whole earth.

It is important that Cro-Magnon lived in Europe.

Their hunting, tools (upper right in fig.), clothes and intelligence made more progress.

However, a bigger change is that they first made the cave painting, a bison image (under in fig.), the Venus image, and the flute which they in order to enjoy music.

Since the accessories at the time of burial had a difference, there is that the difference of wealth and poverty arose.

It is found out that the difference between wealth and poverty have occurred.

***

ついに約10万年前、アフリカの地に、現代人が誕生し地球上へと生活範囲を広げていった。

特に画期となったのは最後の氷期をヨーロッパで暮らしたクロマニョン人でした。

彼らの知能は進み、道具(図、上の右)や衣服、集団による狩りが一段と高度になりました。

しかしもっと大きな変化は、洞窟壁画やバイソン像(図、下)、ビーナス像、横笛などを始めて制作したことでした。

さらに手間をかけて作った装飾品を埋葬時に添える例が増え、貧富の差が生じたことでした。

 ***

From 30000 to 15000 years ago, it seems to have suddenly the blossomed in Europe.

What happened to their group then?

Their long seasonal settlement first began and occurred and their trade range also spread.

This can strengthen the bonds of family and friends and would have prompted the development and succession of their culture.

Then the ice age went away and the land of snow and ice changed to the forest.

Farming and stock farming start soon and the city was made.

 ***

この大変化の下地は10万年前からあったのですが、ヨーロッパのほぼ3万~1万5千年前に突如として開花したように見えます。

その時、彼らの集団に何が起きたのでしょうか。

それまでの移動中心から季節的な定住が集団で行われるようになり、また交易範囲も広がりました。

このことが家族や仲間の紐帯を強め、文化の継承や発展を促したのでしょう。

その後、氷河期が去り、氷雪の原野は森林に覆われた山野へと変わりました。

やがて農耕や遊牧が始まり、都市が誕生していくことになりました。

***
Abridged sentence.

l If various fossil men were born and disappeared. And remained man was modern man have slender body and an enlarged brain, and walk with upright posture.

l Our intelligence and social behavior were changed significantly on the last 500 million years.

Human beings became the strongest animal in the earth according to the incident of 180 million years ago.

Next time (sir.13) we will see this.

***
以下にまとめます。

種々の化石人類は生まれては消えていきました。そして残ったのは肥大化した脳と直立歩行をする華奢な体型の現代人でした。 現代人の知能や社会行動は、この500万年の間にも徐々に発達し、さらに200万年前以降と3万年前以降に大きく発展したのです。
次回(連載13)は、人類が地球最強の動物になり得た根源を180万年前に起きたある事件に求めます。

Categories: culture+society, history+evolution, <english language, <japanese language, Series: Origin of mind | Tags: , , , , , , | Leave a comment

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