Posts Tagged With: evolution

Bring peace to the Middle East! 23: about terrorism 3 : the background 1

中東に平和を! 23: テロについて3: その背景 1




We again look at the internal conditions of Egypt, and the background for intensification of the armed struggle in the Middle East.


What was Egypt’s next move?
In 1970, Sadat of the same officer corps took office as the President after sudden death of Nasser.
At the time, Egypt had suffered economically as a result of the complete defeat in the Middle East war of six years ago, and the North Yemen civil war that Egypt sent most troops became bogged down, and it was the worst.
Therefore, he made ready careful and waged the fourth Middle East war in 1973, and he could take advantage during the beginning of the war.
However, as Israel recovered before long, the war reached a cease-fire by the mediation of United Nations and U.S.
Until this time, Sadat had a strategy victory.



< 2. Camp David Accord. From the left side, delegates of Israel, the U.S., and Egypt  >
< 2. キャンプ・デービッド合意、左からイスラエル、米国、エジプトの代表 >

And he first concluded a peace treaty with Israel in Arab by Camp David Accord in 1978, and won Nobel Peace prize with the Israel prime minister.
This was impossible without the effort of the U.S. President, but became just like speculation of Israel that provoked it.
With this, he recovered Sinai Peninsula and the Suez Canal, but forsook the Palestinian independence that was an earnest desire of Arab.
Sadat aroused an antipathy of people, the Arabic countries sent a letter breaking off to him, and he was assassinated at last.



< 3.  Israeli military >
< 3.イスラエル軍 >

In this time, what was taking place in the Middle East?
The repeated Middle East war caused a vast cost of war burden and internal trouble, and Egypt and the neighboring Arabic countries became weakened.
On the other hand, Israel became more and more great power.
Furthermore, the modernization and the socialist state construction that Nasser promoted caused autocracy and corruption.
Thus, the secularization of Nasser who aimed at the pan-Arabism (unification of Arab) and the complete independence from colony was considered failure.
The fall of leader Egypt showed that armed forces of the Arabic countries could not beat Israel anymore.
Extremists who already fought for liberation in Palestine had to depend on themselves alone.




< 4. Conference of the Non-Aligned Countries  >
< 4. 非同盟諸国会議 >
Why did Egypt dig itself into a hole?
Nasser regained the rule of Egypt in their own race after 2300 years, abolished a landlord system that was a corrupt practice and pushed forward the modernization daringly.
Furthermore, he repelled the intervention of suzerain Britain and France alone, supported the independence of each Arabic country and fought against Israel for Palestine.

But Nasser was decisively disadvantageous.
His supporting independent movements of the Arabic countries and having nonalignment policy was so obtrusive behavior for the U.S. that wanted to contain Soviet Union, and for Britain and France that had regrets about the Middle East.
Therefore, they not only bother him, but also the financial support and the military aid to Egypt were outrageous even if he wanted.
This let Nasser be nearer to the Soviet Union.
On the other hand, they enough supported Israel with arms supplies and atomic energy, because the Britain and France wanted to suppress Egypt and the U.S. could not go against a Jewish lobby group.
And world Jewish wealth was poured for supporting Israel.
Egypt did not have the prospects of success, because the Industry was undeveloped and only had a small amount of oil production.
Still, Nasser and Sadat fought alone.

Nasser performed the report of the war results being further from the truth in the Third Middle Eastern War in desperation.
He announced that the cause of the defeat was an assistance of the U.S. and hidden strategy.
There was arms supplies from the U.S. , but the hidden strategy was groundless.
This not only dishonored Nasser but also rose more a hatred for the Europe and America.

This continues the next time.




Categories: culture+society, history+evolution, <english language, <japanese language, opinion, politics, Series: Bring peace to the Middle East | Tags: , , , , , , , , | Leave a comment

Went around Croatia and Slovenia 16:  The wonder of Dubrovnik 2

クロアチア・スロベニアを巡って 16: ドゥブロブニクの不思議 2


< 1. Venice of the 18th century >

< 1. 18世紀のベネチア >


Today, I introduce the vicissitudes of Maritime republics around Italy in the medieval Mediterranean Sea.

We can see the nations tossed about by history, and the big undulation there.





2 期間


< 2. The periods that these Maritime republics flourished in >

< 2. 海洋都市国家の活躍年代 >

Maritime republics flourished

These are Amalfi, Pisa, Ancona, Genoa, Venice, and Ragusa.



It had participated actively first because it had belonged to the Byzantine Empire (Eastern Empire) from old times.

It played an active part in East-West trade by way of Egypt or Constantinople from the 9th to 10th century.

They first used a maritime law and a magnet in Europe.

However, in the 12th century, it was conquered by Norman that came from the north and finished.












It was an important military base and a trade place in the Rome Empire times.

It droved Islam power in the beginning of the 11th century and went into the west Mediterranean Sea and became a Maritime republic.

It participated in the Crusades later, expanded its territory, and got wealth by East-West trade.

However, it was beaten by Genoa that had competed for hegemony in the 13th century, subsequently was conquered by Firenze, and finished.









It was an important naval port facing the Adriatic Sea, and continued being ruled by many peoples.

After that, it belonged to the Byzantine Empire and became a Maritime republic since the 11th century.

It often conflicted with Venice, was always concluded an alliance to the Byzantine Empire and Ragusa, and participated in the Crusade.

In the 16th century, it was incorporated in the Rome Papal domain and lost the autonomy.


At this point in time, the remaining marine republics became Venice, Genoa, and Ragusa.












< 3. A power relationships of Genoa >

< 3.ジェノバの勢力図 >



It prospered as a seaport town from the ancient times, went into the west Mediterranean Sea along with fighting against the Islam navy, and became a Maritime republic since the 11th century.

By participating in the Crusade, since the late half of the 13th century, it extended its influence in the Black Sea, the Aegean Sea and the east Mediterranean Sea, and built closely the relations with Spain, North Africa, and the northwest Europe.

For one century from the middle of the 16th century, Genoese moneylenders became bankers of Spanish kings, and they achieved the height of prosperity.

Their activity led the Age of Discovery like Columbus from Genoa.

Before long, it became a French possession, and finished at the beginning of 19th century.










< 4. A power relationships of Venice >

< 4.ベネチアの勢力図 >



It continued being exposed to invasions of other ethnic group, and it avoided the menace of Franks in the beginning of the 9th century, and started building towns in the coast wetlands zone.

It performed the naval buildup, and took control of the Adriatic Sea (Dalmatian seashore).

By sending reinforcements to the Byzantine Empire, it was given a tax exemption privilege by the Byzantine Empire, and firmly established the superiority in the trade of the east Mediterranean Sea.

It won by sea fights in Genoa that it conflicted at the end of the 14th century, and attained the supremacy of the east Mediterranean Sea.

Furthermore, it got the wealth by expeditions of the Crusade, grasped fully East-West trade between Europe and orient from the 13th century to the 15th century, and got vast wealth.

However, when the Ottoman Empire gained power, it was robbed of the territory of Venice, and was not able to stop own fall even if it won to the Ottoman by the Battle of Lepanto with the union of Spain in the end of the 16th century.

At last, it closed the history with Napoleon occupation in the end of the 18th century.











< 5. A power relationships of Ragusa >

< 5. ラグーザの勢力図 >


Ragusa (Dubrovnik)

I omit this history because I introduced it last time.


After all, three countries terminated in the Napoleon occupation together.


We will notice something here

The Activity of the three countries was restricted by the Byzantine Empire, Islam power, the Crusade, the East-West trade, and the Ottoman Empire mainly.

When we understand it, we can look at the skillfulness in the way of life of Dubrovnik.


This continues next time.















Categories: culture+society, economy, history+evolution, <english language, <japanese language, Series: Went around Croatia and Slovenia, travel+photo | Tags: , , , , , , , | Leave a comment

The society and the information 46: news media has fought 3

社会と情報 46: 戦った報道 3

1 治安維持法

< 1. the Public Order and Police Law was established in 1925 >

< 1. 治安維持法、1925年成立 >


This time, we look at an overview of those days that public opinion became uniformly a mood of war because the newspapers had remained silent on the truth.




 2 満州事変

< 2. Manchurian Incident in 1931 >

< 2. 満州事変、1931年勃発 >


Since 1930

A Japanese detached unit acted arbitrarily on site, and Manchurian Incident broke out in 1931.

On the other hand, in Japan, military coups happened in succession such as 5.15 incident in 1932 and 2.26 incident in 1936.

From long ago, there was that important persons of the government and business community were assassinated by lone murderer, but many assassinations by armed forces that rose in revolt happened at last.

This backdrop to this is that there was people’s despair due to a gap between the rich and the poor and a political corruption that accelerated in 1930s of a financial crisis.









3 グラフ

< 3. In those days, the income gap increased remarkably in Japan. by “Capital in Twenty-First Century” >

< 3. 当時、日本で所得格差が著しく高まった。ピケティ「21世紀の資本」より >


4 2・26事件

< 4.  2.26 incident in 1936 >

< 4. 2・26事件、1936年 >


After this, the military authorities led Japan by the bayonet and the regulation, and continued to rush until the war defeat.

There wasn’t a dictator in this military dictatorship, but this was caused by a more Japanese style of political culture, and remains ingrained still in now.

In simple terms, the fate of Japan was decided without anyone taking responsibility in the name of Imperial Japan.


Many newspapers still had criticized the reckless war, but went down to the pressure of the government at last, and they not only did not convey to people the truth, but also encouraged the people after that.

This treachery of newspapers was same as other journalism.











5 御前会議

< 5. the Imperial Council and an announcement of the military government >

< 5. 御前会議と大本営発表 >


In this way, the people took part in the expansion of the war without doubting about the war accomplishment due to the disinformation and the brainwashing by the military authority’s leadership and furthermore the chain of hatred added it.

We had to wait the end of the announcement of disinformation till the war defeat.





About the treachery of newspapers

This treachery of newspapers was not at all simple.


The biggest factor that newspapers didn’t convey the truth was the pressure of the government, but people could not know it because of the very skillful measures.

The factor of the treachery was not only external pressure such as political pressure and oppression, and the violence of right wing.

There was also own turnabout.

Newspaper company was sensitive about the tastes of readers and the management stability, and as the result of some company overly concerned with the politics, it often chose a wrong path.

Reporter animated by a patriotic spirit may lose his own because he also is a son of man.

This was seen among war correspondents of the United States in the Vietnam War.















An important thing is the treachery of newspapers is common to every society of the world as well as Japan of those days.

We should think that it is not one-off incident and is repeated many times.

It is important that we understand this process.

This is a main theme of this serialization ” The society and the information”.


On the next time, I describe the thing to note about the society after the Meiji Restoration.












Categories: culture+society, economy, history+evolution, <english language, <japanese language, Series: The society and the information | Tags: , , , , , , , | Leave a comment

私達の戦争 29: 摩訶不思議な解釈


  • * 1









2~15 : アジア・太平洋戦争の実情を日本側からと侵攻を受けた国からみました。

17~22: 銃の普及が国や社会にどのような被害を与えているかをみました。

23   : 戦争がどのようにして始まるかを簡単にみました。

24~28: 戦争がどのように膨大な被害をもたらすかをみました。



連載「戦争の誤謬1~23」   : 人類の戦争を多角的に取り上げました。

連載「人類の歩みと憲法1~17」: 人類が生みだした憲法と戦争防止の役割をみました。

「本の紹介『戦争と罪責』1~3」: 数人の日本兵による残虐行為の実態と心理をみました。

「図解ヒトラー総統の誕生」   : 15年間で一国を牛耳る過程を要約しました。

連載「社会と情報8~21」   : ベトナム戦争の舞台裏を米国中心にみました。






  • * 3






















  • * 4







  • * 5











Categories: history+evolution, <japanese language, opinion, Series : 私達の戦争 | Tags: , , , , , | 2 Comments

The society and the information 26: Wonder of brain and nerves 4

1褒められたFMRI   brain when parson was praised, a image of fMRI 

< 1.  brain when parson was praised, a image of fMRI >

 I look at a brain function that makes our action and thought most human. 

We do not notice that usually.



Please imagine a little

Emotion-feelings:  your heart beat intensely as soon as you watched a cobra in front. However, if you noticed a glass being in between you and it, the heartbeat would quiet down immediately.


Memory:  Can you remember the pattern of your dinner bowl using every day?  On the other hand, you will be able to remember like that of yesterday about the memory of early childhood.


Motivation:  You have to restrict delicious between-meal eating, in order to wear favorite swimming suit. Every day, controlling your appetite involves appreciable pain.



情動(感情): あなたは目の前のコブラを見たとたん、心臓が激しく鼓動します。しかし、前面にガラスがあることが分かれば、心臓の鼓動はすぐ収まるでしょう。

記憶: あなたは毎日使っているお茶碗の絵柄を思い出せますか。一方、幼い頃の思い出を昨日のように思い出すことがあるはずです。

動機付け: あなたは好きな水着を着る為に、美味しい間食を制限しなければならない。日々、食欲を抑えることはかなりの苦痛が伴います。


3英文脳 Secretion of the neurotransmitter

< 2.  Secretion of the neurotransmitter >

Emotion affects these all

The basic information processing of brain of the human is performing in huge network where 100 billion nerves convey information one by one.

However, if the emotion rouses up once, a wide area of the brain becomes active situation or inhibited situation for a certain period of time, and then it affect the usual information processing.

It is because neurotransmitter was secreted from the cerebral inside – limbic system- as shown above figure.

The main substance is Dopamine, Serotonin and Noradrenalin, etc.

These produce emotions, such as fear, sadness, joy, anger, and dislike.

The function resembles that the fighting spirit and muscularity of a sport player becomes enlarged, because he continues injecting male hormone.










2英文脳内ホルモン Neurotransmitter is mixed and complicated emotions are born

< 3.  Neurotransmitter is mixed and complicated emotions are born >



  1. There is a part that strongly reacts to fearful things – snake etc. – in brain, and this immediately produces the feeling expression and the body reaction.
  2. In memory or cautions, the emotion – danger, comfortableness etc.- determines the necessity of a lot of those.
  3.  The emotion – avoiding fear or uneasiness, demanding for pleasure etc.- affects the action and the judgment. It means intuition.







What I want you to know.

  1. Do you feel loathsomeness about the sexual act of the homosexual?
  2. Will you be glad if you hear that a rich person suffered heavy losses?
  3. When the player of opponent country fails in an international match, are you pleased?

The emotion affects all these reactions  

The emotion is influenced by not only heredity but also growth environment and social environment.

The problem means that human is hardly able to recognize the real identity of the emotion by oneself.

Human have experienced adolescence, and then they come to be able to control their emotion so that there is no trouble in their life.

However, the understanding and sympathy to others, other groups, and different things are quite difficult.

I treat another theme from next time.


1.             あなたは同性愛者のセックスに嫌悪感を抱きますか。

2.             あなたはある金持ちが大損したと聞いたら嬉しいですか。

3.             あなたは国際試合で、対戦相手国が失敗すると喜びますか。









Categories: <english language, <japanese language, science, Series: The society and the information | Tags: , | Leave a comment

The society and the information 25: Wonder of brain and nerves 3

.  a Renoir picture    

< 1.  a Renoir picture    >

Our vision has a splendid image-processing function.

The astonishing skillful processing coexists with an optical illusion arising from it in our brain.





an Utamaro Kitagawa picture 

< 2.  an Utamaro Kitagawa picture >

The color was important to the picture of Renoir of impressionist art.

On the other hand, the outline was important to the Ukiyoe print of Utamaro.

For example, I assume there is a white plate on a white table.

For us, high cognitive capacity is necessary to recognize this plate is different from the table.

I introduce two kinds of image processing functions of helping it.

Now, it is always working in your brain, also while you are reading this blog.









.  Structure of eyes and the retina

< 3.  Structure of eyes and the retina  >


 optical illusion by lateral inhibition of retinal cell

< 4.  optical illusion by lateral inhibition of retinal cell  >

Please see the monochrome gradation of Fig. 4.

You seem to see that there are belts at the part of four arrows.

It does not really exist, but the retinal cell automatically emphasizes the boundary (a change of brightness) as shown in Fig. 3 and the right of Fig. 4.

This extracts a boundary and a characteristic from miscellaneous external world information and raises our cognitive ability.

Furthermore, we can recognize a figuration of the thing that presses our skin, and hear voice from within noise.









.  Which women is fair complexion?

< 5.  Which women is fair complexion? >

You would choose a left person because appearing white more.

This is an optical illusion.

This vision capability that was obtained in evolution plays an important role.






.  I put a picture that was cut from the left into the right 

< 6.  I put a picture that was cut from the left into the right >

After all, left and right was same complexion.

For example, it seems that you are asked to take a white coffee cup.

Probably, without vision capability described above, you would overlook a gray cup in a gloomy cupboard.

In practice, the cup appears gray because it is in the faint light, but looks whiter with being emphasized.

Our brain automatically rectifies the light and shade difference in the field of vision to enable the constant recognition.

It seems that the image processing is performed in V4 of Fig. 7.











.  role allotment of visual cortex in cerebral rear 

< 7.  role allotment of visual cortex in cerebral rear >

The visual information of an object that came from retina goes into V1 first.

Subsequently, the information of the space and the movement of the object are processed in order of a blue arrow in upper part.

On the other hand, the information of the shape (silhouette) and the color of the object are processed in order of a dark blue arrow in bottom part.

In this way, the visual information is divided into each element and it is performed hierarchically.

In every hierarchy, it is processed under the influence of memorized pictures (ball etc.), languages (apple etc.), and also consciousness or sentiment (hunger etc.).









a picture of optical illusion

< 8.  a picture of optical illusion >       

What do you associate with this figure?

Is it a jar or two faces?

 Our cognition is carried out under the influence of preconception and sentiment in addition to cognitive function (image processing) that we are not conscious of.

We look at the sentiment next time.


あなたはこの図から何を連想するだろうか? 壺か顔か。






Categories: <english language, <japanese language, science, Series: The society and the information | Tags: , | Leave a comment

History of sickness and medical art 10: ancient Mesopotamia 2



< myrrh: Painkiller, preservative of the mummy  >


We look at Mesopotamia from B.C. 3 millennium of the civilization birth to the middle of B.C. 1 millennium.




 Fertile Crescent    

< Fertile Crescent    >

 Great Ziggurat of Ur: a ruin of shrine at about the 21st century BC

< Great Ziggurat of Ur: a ruin of shrine at about the 21st century BC >


A nation managed the medical care, and the healer served the royal palace and the nation.

The classes of the healer were three grades, and their assigning tasks were fixed.

The top cleric diagnoses the patient, subsequently the exorcist drives off an evil spirit, and finally the doctor gives medicine.

The healer received education in a shrine and learned medicine from the clay tablet document.



医 師






a monster and a sun god of ancient Mesopotamia

< a monster and a sun god of ancient Mesopotamia >

The recognition of sickness

Although there was also the empiricism side, it was considered that most causes of sickness were the punishments of God or an evil spirit.

As for the medical treatment, incantations and prayers occupied important role.

People thought that there was a magical power to the medicine.

As for the important sickness, the plague or an epidemic was called by the name of each God.

The devil of epidemic had a form of a fly, because people recognized that the fly carry the sickness that roused violently in summer.










< cure >


The healer used the longtime medicine manual for diagnosis of tuberculosis, jaundice, etc., and was able to do it exactly.

However, in many cases, the healer diagnosed it by internal organs divination of the animal rather than examining a sick person.

The fortune-teller judged the patient’s sickness from the appearance of the liver of the slaughtered sheep.

The liver model of this photo is a priest’s guidance document.

The liver was full of blood and was considered to be the center of a life or a soul.

A model of the liver divination of the sheep: in Babylonia, the 19th century BC, made of clay

< A model of the liver divination of the sheep: in Babylonia, the 19th century BC, made of clay >


治 療








As general treatment, there were inunction, massage, tub bath, wet pack, enema, etc.

As for the surgical operation, they used it for an injury, a bone fracture, a cataract, a calculus, and an abscess.

Those days, for an operation, there were a scalpel of bronze, a saw, and a drill.

The dental treatment was prosperous; there were tooth extraction, anodyne for a toothache, and false tooth.







a dedication of sacrifice beast: in ruin of a shrine of Mali, about 2500 years BC 

< a dedication of sacrifice beast: in ruin of a shrine of Mali, about 2500 years BC >



As for medicine, they used 250 kinds of medicinal herbs, such as a decoction, powdered medicine, a fumigant, an enema, and a purgative, and 120 kinds of mineral medicine, such as an alum, copper, clay, and magnetic iron.

In many cases, the medicine was given at each time when was determined by the race of stars.

The best-known drug is a laurel, aloe, cannabis, cinnamon, castor oil, myrrh, mustard, and an olive etc.

The doctor used sulfur for sterilization of a skin disease, and the hemp for depression or neuralgia.


薬 剤






three wise man devoted myrrh, gold, and frankincense to Jesus.

< three wise man devoted myrrh, gold, and frankincense to Jesus.  >



Although the medical art of ancient Mesopotamia still had the limitations of a prayer and magic, there is accumulation of huge knowledge and it had arrived at the practical use region.

It affected the medicine of Egypt and Israel, Greece, India.

However, it will be delayed with the collapse of Assyria and the Babylonia Empire at the 6th century BC.

When the medicine of this ground came under the spotlight again, it was the birth of Arabic medicine after 1,000 years of it.












Categories: history+evolution, <english language, <japanese language, science, Series: History of sickness and medical art | Tags: , , , | 2 Comments

Something is strange. 24 : Whose is the patent? 3

Edison and light bulb

< Edison and light bulb >


I consider what role the patent right should play for the economic activation.


The hint was in an economic history of the world.

 Having observed an economic tide, the economic development became possible just when civic rights were secured.

The personal proprietary rights, such as land ownership, property right, patent right, are the examples.

Some personal proprietary rights have advanced from ancient Roman times.

The Industrial Revolution of Britain is a fine example that patent right acted on effectively.

Conversely, it may be said that the communist state collapsed by depriving the people of personal proprietary rights.












Moscow citizens who confront coup d'etat in 1991

< Moscow citizens who confront coup d’etat in 1991 >

In Europe of the 19th century, previous privileged industrial restrictions were abolished, liberalized incorporated company became popular, and accomplished industrialization.

In the Edo Period of Japan, merchant guilds were similarly abolished to decrease prices.

The upgrading of legal systems is indispensable for the activation of economy and industry like this.


The conclusion: Completely taking the patent rights from the employees is sure to move the economic activation backward.


Japan is still eager in the preservation of the vested interest and the existing system.

The tendency moves the government backward.

Through the accumulation of these policies, Japan’s economy has stagnated more and more.



19 世紀のヨーロッパは、それまでの特権的な産業規制を廃止し、自由化された株式会社が定着し、工業化を成し遂げた。










I show how the patent leads to economic activation.


In order for Japanese economy to escape from a long slump, current reflationary policy is also required, but the rise of new industry is more indispensable.

“The exit strategy and the fiscal reconstruction are necessary,” this phrase that was pointed out with this G8 mean that the reflationary policy is a temporary policy.









G8 summit 

< G8 summit >

 Major manufacturing industry in Japan became the de-industrialization, and Japan is changing to development center.

All the developed countries reduced the ratio of the manufacturing industry, and Japan will not be able to overturn it by temporary weak yen.

Therefore, Japan government makes a system that gives employees the distribution of revenue from the patent, and it should rouse the invention will.

Moreover, it is necessary to leave the individual the patent rights, and to promote the birth of the venture company.


This is very backward in Japan.

 Next time is the last of the patent.













Categories: economy, <english language, <japanese language, opinion, politics, Series: Something is strange | Tags: , , , , , | 4 Comments

History of sickness and medical art 2:  Start of the cure 1


< a heart was pictured in an elephant’s picture, 25000 years ago, Cueva del Pindal in spain >


Since the creation of life, there were the sicknesses together with creatures.

On the other hand, the cure and the care developed together with the evolution of the creatures.

We look at the process of older period than modern humans.


Neanderthal also was taking care of fellows.


A male human bone of nearly 40 years old of only one eye and one hand was found in Shanidar cave of 30000 years ago in Iraq.

Probably, these obstacles were things from young times.

Therefore, if there were not care and offer of food from his family or fellow, he was not able to live.

In addition, about 1.7 million years ago in Kenya of Africa, though a Homo erectus had suffered from the excessive vitamin A syndrome, he was alive for a while.

This also had the possibility of caring for the sickness.

The example of curing the man ape is not found.















< a burial by Neanderthal in Shanidar cave >


The chimpanzee in the jungle of Africa cures the sickness.


Occasionally, they chew at the stem of a very bitter grass that they don’t eat always, and drink the sap.

His diarrhea and stomachache will disappear within two days after the feeding.

According to an inspection of the plant, it has become clear that it has an antibacterial action and an intestinal parasite has an effect.









< He is chewing at a stem of the grass to get rid of the parasitic worms. >


Moreover, occasionally, they swallow slowly without biting about tens of scabrous leaves.

Living parasitic worms were found in his defecation after several hours.

They have noticed the abnormality in their intestines, and they select and are executing an appropriate therapeutic procedure.


As they get into line with several fellows and face each other, they perform each other’s grooming.

This mainly is to remove parasitic worms or its eggs that adhered to their hair and skin.

They repair itchy places that are beyond the reach of a partner by using the finger and the mouth.

The repaired person seems pleasant, and may show the beginning of the healing.












< grooming >


It sometimes happens that they lick to take the dust of partner’s eye with a tongue.

They mutually guess other party’s health and are giving care and cure.

Such behavior plays a big role in the appeasement of the group.


Please don’t miss the next article!













Categories: history+evolution, <english language, <japanese language, opinion, science, Series: History of sickness and medical art | Tags: , , , , , , , | Leave a comment

Birth of primitive art :  A table of contents and abstract

I show the list of a series ” Birth of primitive art”.

please look at  page of ” Birth of primitive art “.

1  2 3 4  5  67  8 9 10 11 12 13  14   15 16 17       



Categories: culture+society, history+evolution, <english language, <japanese language, Series: Birth of primitive art | Tags: , , , , , , , , , | 2 Comments

Birth of primitive art 16: What did precede the primitive art? Part2


The Himba woman in northern Namibia 

< The Himba woman in northern Namibia >

 Last time, we looked at the oldest fine arts and the ocher that were used abundantly over the world.

Using the red selectively has concerned with the creation of fine arts.

This time, I will consider this.


The Himba woman has covered their body and hair with red ocher that dissolved with oil.

This is not only sunscreen, but also the female beauty that has symbolized blood color of life.









   the ancient architecture in China, Japan, and South Korea

< the ancient architecture in China, Japan, and South Korea >

The ancient architecture in East Asia was almost red color.

Fig. A is the oldest Buddhist temple in Luoyang, China (the 1st century).

Fig. B is a gate of Heian Jingu in Kyoto and was reproduce a part of Heiankyo of the 8th century.

Fig. C is a tower of the Buddhist temple in Koyasan, Japan.

Fig. D is a gate of the detached palace of the 15th century in Seoul, South Korean.


At present, although many of temples of the ancient city were fading, they were shining with vermilion at when they were built.

Since ancient times, the appearance of the king’s palace, the shrine, and the temple in East Asia was applied red.











a Ryukyu king is standing in front Shuri Castle. Buddha Amida was painted in Tibet.

< Left side, a Ryukyu king is standing in front Shuri Castle. Right Side, Buddha Amida was painted in Tibet. >

In Asia, the red had an important meaning.

Ryukyu Dynasty was the style of China as same as Korean Peninsula.

The dress for courtesy in three nations was the same crimson.

In Buddhism, the body color of the highest Buddha Amida was red.

The red color symbolizes authority and dignity。And it gives people an idea of great benefit.







Red color in Europe, Egypt, and South America 

< Red color in Europe, Egypt, and South America >

 On other continents, what is the red role?

Fig. A is a room of the Palace of Knossos in Crete (around the BC 19th century).

It was rare to apply red color to building in Europe.

Fig. B is Seth God in ancient Egypt, and its body color is red that means the calamity.

Fig. C is a Mass of martyrdom by the priest with red vestment.

In Christianity, although the red color meant the love, yet it more meant the evil and the sacrifice.

Fig. D is the female doll that was decorated with red for sacrifice in Inca Empire.

Probably, latter three were emphasized the minus images of the scorching sun or blood.









What do the red color mean?

Since ancient times, the red color was strongly concerned with good luck, disaster, love, and authority (sacredness) around the world.

It changed by the cultural sphere or the religion little by little.

The meaning of red was probably separated to two, because the people that lived in Middle East of dry climate or in Asia of moistness climate had the difference in the consciousness to the sun.

Even so, because it has a meaning that originates a long time ago, the red color has still continued to give strong impact.








We look back the evolution a little.

All from insect to primates, when it has been born, it has the smell (sexual pheromone), taste, and vision image (snake) that stir up a feeling of likes and dislikes.

A scholar says, “the reason that human beings have feeling special to red originates in having asked for fruits ripe of red color on tree.” 

The period from birth of the primates is 60 million years.





What is art?

The primitive man came to use the red color selectively, probably, because it had satisfied their comfortable feelings.

The revolutionary change occurred in that time, because the ability of associating some imagery and expressing the imagery was being born in their brain.

They had associated some imagery with the law of causality that they thought. Then they expressed it. It will give them a pleasant sensation and a sense of relief, and might had induced art.

At that time, if there was dense group society, the art was born at a breath, and the culture grew.

 It produced the necklace, the Venus, the statues of lion man, flutes, and many rock arts of game animal.


Next time, I look at other mysteries hidden in primitive fine arts.
















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Birth of primitive art 15 : What did precede the primitive art ? part1

 1 ブロンボス洞窟

< Blombos Cave in South Africa. A cave entrance is right-hand mountain side.  modern human beings lived 100,000 years ago. >

Till last time, we looked at the primitive fine arts since 35000 years ago in the world.

Didn’t human beings make fine arts during 5 million?

This time, I will approach this mystery.






The oldest figure

< The oldest figure >

Fig. A, the figure was found in Israel, was made of a red stone between 700000 and 230000 years ago, and was 4 cm in height.

 Fig. B, the figure was found in Morocco, was made of a quartz between 500000 and 300000 years ago, and was 6 cm in height. 

Red ocher had adhered to the surface.

Both are considered that primitive man made.


Ages ago, primitive man on the way of evolution was performing fine arts creation.





The oldest painting in Africa

< The oldest painting in Africa >

This painting found at the Apollo 11 cave in Namibia is estimated to date from approximately 25,000–27,000 years ago. It is an animal figure drawn on the slate.


At the south end of Africa, the creation was performed nearly in parallel to the Europe glacial epoch fine arts.




something like fine arts  

< something like fine arts  >

Fig. A are the oldest bead made of many shells between 140000 and 100000 years ago, and were found in the cave in Israel.

Fig. B is an ocher found at Blombos Cave in South Africa. On its surface was the straight line pattern engraved, and it was made 75000 years ago.

In the cave where modern human beings were living, 8000 pieces and 12 sharpened crayons of ocher were found.

There were also brown and yellow colors of ocher, but the red was the most.

Ocher with the oldest used marks was found in Zambia in Africa, and was thing of 250,000 years ago.

Fig. C is a plate was found at Neanderthal ruins in Hungary, it was made of ivory at 250000 years ago. Red ocher had adhered to the surface.

It is considered that people was using at the ceremony over a long period of time.

What does the appearance of the bead, the plate, and the ocher mean?

This is concerned with “what is fine art?” deeply


The answer will be concerned with the relation of red color of ocher and human beings.











Burial and red color 

< Burial and red color >

Fig.A is two small children’s burial at 27000 years ago in Austria. Many red ochers was scattered there.   

In burial of Cro-Magnon after 37000 years ago, accessories attached to the dead and ocher was scattered on it.

Although Neanderthal was burying after 70,000 years ago, the dead that was painted with red pigments is seen in various area of Europe.

Ocher was used also with many pictures in every area of the earth.

Fig.B is the inner room of an ancient tomb in Japan at 5th century, and it is also painted in red.

This red was made from mercury and sulfur.

     Since time began, the red color had an important meaning in every corner of the earth.


Next time, I want to explain this meaning.










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Birth of primitive art 14 : People who made first fine arts 3

 Rock-Art、Four hunters and a leader、south-eastern Spain、8000 years ago

< Rock-Art、Four hunters and a leader、south-eastern Spain、8000 years ago >

 This time, the change that occurred in Cro-Magnons heart is evident from the burial and the fine arts.

I examine the thing that the change brought, and also the cause.


Last time, although we looked at the influence of their settlement, it is more important that rich contacts increased into the family or the group.

Influence good for child rearing must have come out first.

When they gathered together, they probably enjoyed a long talk like present-day hunter-gatherers.

This probably grew their intelligence, language, and their culture.

Probably, this is one of the reasons in which Neanderthal who used fire and had language functions (cerebral language field and throat structure) lost battles with Cro-Magnon.





reconstruction of a burial, a ruins in Russia, 28000~20000 years ago

< reconstruction of a burial, a ruins in Russia, 28000~20000 years ago, by Don’s Maps >

What happened to Cro-Magnons family?

A 13-year-old boy lies on the left of the figure, and an 8-year-old girl lies on the right.

They dressed with protections against the cold from head to tip of foot entirely.

Splendid spears made of ivory and the necklace of beads, etc. were added in large quantities.


This burial clarifies the difference between Neanderthal and Cro-Magnon.

 Although Neanderthal also buried one person, they didn’t bury small child or more than one person.

Cro-Magnon performed a burial of mother and child for the first time in the cave in Israel at 90,000 years ago.

After that, the burial examples such as two small children and three adults increased in Eurasia from 40,000 years ago.

They began to be strongly conscious of the bonds of mother and child, a family, and a group.

Probably, respecting for maternity added on prayer of fertility, and it led to Venus statue and next mother goddess worship.





Originally, because hunter-gatherers have several problems in life with a lot of people, they dispersed easily. Similarly, they are hesitant to settle down.

Something that controls this minus feeling and advances must have happened in their heart.

Although advanced technology and intelligence were indispensable to adaptation to arctic cold, unless the bonds of family or group arose strongly, the epoch would not have happen.


But, gradually woman and magician are expressed carefully, and group behavior such as the hunting that was shown a prefatory picture came to be drawn in the last stage.

Furthermore, mother and child and the women who danced were also drawn.

On the other hand, drawing carefully game animals decreased.




Brain of modern humans, a red maker is group of neurons A10(VTA)

< Brain of modern humans, a red mark  is group of neurons A10(VTA)、by CMAJ >

What happened to Cro-Magnons brain?

Neurotransmitter dopamine is widely secreted from A10 for a long time in large quantities, especially to the frontal lobe.

Although neurotransmitters are tens of kinds, a dopamine is called a pleasure substance, and have a role to maintain a feeling of happiness and romantic feeling strongly.

A10 is like the big faucet that only human beings have.


The frontal lobe takes the central role on planning, conforming to a social norm, controlling feelings, and the consciousness is in it.

When dopamine is secreted into it, people continue to have strong motivation.

In this way, the epoch happened, didn’t it?

The background in which primitive fine arts arose in Europe was the interaction of global environment and human-beings evolution, and the interaction of their intelligence and the settlement in a group.

Furthermore the brain and the gene were deeply concerned with it.

Next time, we will look at some mystery of primitive fine arts.  






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Birth of primitive art 13 : People who made first fine arts 2

left side is modern human, right side is Neanderthal

< left side is modern human, right side is Neanderthal、by Wikipedia >

 Last time, we looked at the situation in which human beings had gone into Europe.

 Why did the Cro-Magnon begin first fine arts?

 The reason is explored together with readers.






Tools of Neanderthal and Cro-Magnon in Europe is compared

<  Tools of Neanderthal and Cro-Magnon in Europe is compared. >

 Fig. A shows the stone tool that Neanderthal made from 70000 to 50000 years ago. Figs. B and C show what the Cro-Magnon man made.

The stone tools were made from 20000 to 12000, and a harpoon was made of bone from 17000 to 11000 years ago.

The bone or horn implement rapidly developed since Cro-Magnon has appeared.

 Stone tools of Cro-Magnon became sharp edged tool. These and spear thrower enabled them to do efficient hunting. Moreover, they made the extreme clothes that matched their body with sharp cutlery and thin needle. These enabled the lives of extreme cold.





On the other hand, the reindeer and horse of the large animal traveled in large herds in this cold. They were waiting for them in a ravine etc. and they hunted them in a group.  Furthermore, extreme cold enabled preservation of a lot of meat. In this way, they became to settle down on ideal place one season in a group.


Which route does group of animals pass through?  Can a few mammoths be discovered?  

This was their big anxiety. Probably, when they were not able to predict, they wanted to depend on the prayer or the curse like indigenous people.


In this way, they worshipped the skull of game animal, and the mural painting of the animal.

A statue of lion man and several figure of magician suggest later idol worship.


一方、この寒さの中、大型のトナカイや馬が大群で移動していた。彼らは渓谷などでそれらを待ち伏せ, 集団で狩りをした。さらに極寒は大量の肉の保存を可能にした。こうして彼らは好適地に、集団で1シーズン定住を行うようになった。







Comparison of the dwelling 

< Comparison of the dwelling >

 Neanderthal made Fig. A, and Cro-Magnon made Figs. B and C.

 Fig. A is an imaginary picture of a shelter at a ruin in France, is about 15 m in length, and was made about 400,000 years ago.

It was built standing trees to holes and fixing these with stones.

Although it is the first construction dwelling in Europe, the oldest dwelling at 1.8 million years ago is found in Africa, and was very small.


Fig. B shows the restoration of a dwelling at the ruins in Ukraine, is about 6 m in diameter, and about 18,000 years ago.

It was built assembling trees, covering with furs, using bones of the mammoth as a weight for these.


Fig. C is an imaginary picture of dwelling at Gonnersdorf ruin in Germany, is about 6 m in diameter, and was made about 15,000 years ago.

It was built assembling trees, and stretching furs of horse on its frame.

In it, there were a cooking device that made with bones of the mammoth, and a cooking hole.

They lived on several dwellings like this during winter months in a group.

Probably, except this period, they went in quest of game animal, and lived life on the move.










Although the existence of a furnace was common in them, Figs. B and C were firm and adapted to extreme cold.

Originally, since hunter-gatherers move frequently, they carry neither a tool nor materials.

Therefore, a shelter becomes very simple as shown in Fig. A.


People that drew cave mural paintings lived in the entrance of cave and on rock shadow.

There, wind was interrupted, low tree have grown, and the water place was near.




洞窟壁画を描いた人々は深い河谷にある洞窟の入口や岩陰  で暮らした。そこは風が遮られ、低木も茂り、水場も近かった。


This settlement of a glacial epoch brought about fundamental changes to people.

They were able to been having Venus statues that were sculptured and made of clay near themselves.

The settlement by large group also became to enable the allocation of tasks, and entrust mural painting to skillful person.

These led to development of fine arts and technology.

 Since they repeatedly have grouped together and have broken up, it promoted the exchange of knowledge and goods.

 The acquisition range of stone tool spread from a few kilometers to a few hundred kilometers.

 In this way, Cro-Magnon created the primitive fine arts in the extreme cold.


Next time, we will look at the important impact that the settlement caused further.











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a bison looking back

< a bison looking back: Madeleine, 20000 years ago >

We have seen until now the glacial epoch fine arts that happened in Europe.

This time, we consider the meaning of the glacial arts.




 transition of Venus statue

< transition of Venus statue: left side, Czech, about30000 years ago. right side, Germany, 15000 years ago. >

The feature of glacial epoch fine arts

1.       What was drawn and sculpted

Although horse, bison and deer were drawn plenty, fish and reindeer that could be caught easily were not drawn little. A natural scene also was not drawn. The mammoth that could be caught rarely, the pregnant female, and the animal of one pair of male and female animals are conspicuous in there. Although the scene where peoples hunted animals were not drawn, an animal in which bow and spear were stuck, and something like trap or cage were drawn.

Male design was simple thing of two points by the circle and another was symbolization of genitals. As for female design, shape of a body was emphasized, and relief in cave and sculpture was only female images. Other sculptures of whole body were half beast and half man or personalized thing.

Else, There are hand paintings that lacked any fingers and simple and various figures. It seems that the numbers were recorded by the condition of lacked finger in hand paintings, and engraved lines recorded the calendar too. Some simple figures were broadly common.



 1.       描かれ造形されたもの





transition of cave pictures

<  transition of cave pictures: lift side, hyena, France,32000 years ago. right side, bison, Spain,14500 years ago >

2.Technique of drawing and sculpting

The pictorial expression began from the monochromatic outline of a line, and progressed to the line drawing with inflection.

Subsequently, the details like hair were drawn additionally, the contrasting density was expressed in connection with widely painting, and then it progressed to polychromatic drawing from 2-color drawing.

Although most animal images were drawn by the side view, only the hoof was drawn by the front view. This will be because the hoof that shows health condition was thought as important. This brings my mind back to the mural painting of ancient Egypt.

Paints were devised very much and obtained the multiple colors that mixes various minerals with oil and fats, and is liquid. In Altamira, the charcoal that obtains black was selected carefully by the wooden kind. In Lascaux, the bone of the animal was burned at 400 degrees, and calcite was mixed with it, and also it became hot at 1000 times, and used it.


2.     描画や造形の手法





 3.     Others

There is many cave painting in the inner part of the caves that not get any sunlight. There is it in the entrance used as the place of the life. Moreover, the mural painting is drawn also on the cave in which it does not live. The animal of the cave paintings was almost painted-over picture, and probably, the peoples in those days didn’t put importance on good-looking picture.

In 20,000 years, although cave painting came to have a rich expression, Venus statue of end-stage half became a simple design. Although this Venus statue image had a commonality by the side view, it reflected the diversity of the region.


 3.     その他




hand painting in cave、Flute

< hand painting in cave: France ,32000 years ago. Flute: made of bone, German, about 35000 years ago. >

What changed?

  1. have magical thinking : They expressed things that they wished and accept a value through paintings and statue, and people present their wishes to it.
  2. manipulated number and technology :  They began to record a notation or a calendar by combining. Technology was developed similarly.
  3. created and place importance on formality : Although fine arts change with the times and  reflect the diversity of the region, have a commonality.
  4. cherished these with groups : They taught pictures technique, left cave painting to the specific person, and occasionally performed the festival.
  5. moved broadly and trafficked with the long distance : We can guess from a stone tool, the similarity of design with fine arts, and stone tool material.


1.   呪術思考 : 希望するものや価値あるものを表現し、それに願いを託した。

2. 数字や技術を操った : 組合せることにより数や暦などの記録を始めた。

3.   創作し、かつ形式を尊んだ : 描画は発展し対象もやや変化し、共通性を保ちながら地域性も有した。

4.     集団でこれらを育んだ : 絵画技法を伝授し、特定者に壁画を任せ、時には祭儀を行った。

 5.    広範囲に移動し、さらに遠くとも交易した : 石器やデザインの共通性、石器材料から推測出来る。


People lived by rock shadow at 30,000 years ago 

< People lived by rock shadow at 30,000 years ago >

What happened to human beings?

 Cro-Magnon man began half-settled life with the group more than a family in arctic cold, in and around cave.

 Two reasons made it possible was that they had to hunt much reindeer that do seasonal migration by group, and coldness enabled preservation of a lot of meat.

 If it is hot, meat will rot. If it is cold, a reindeer will disappear and their heavy winter clothing becomes useless.

 They were able to make the dress that matches their body by the needle made from a bone.

 The intercommunion with a family, a group, and other groups influenced each other, and greatly developed language, child-rearing, and technology. Furthermore, culture and a sense of values (religion, art) were produced.


Next time, we will look at decline period of glacial epoch fine arts.















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Birth of primitive art 5 : the last Brightness of cave art


< fig.1、Trios Freres cave、shaman >

This time, we look at the wonderful arts in the last of glacial epoch Europe.

These were in the fate that disappears suddenly soon.


At first, it is the Altamira cave (about 14500 years ago) in Spain.

It is close to a sea and is on a gently sloping karsts hill (altitude 160 m.).






< fig.2, the big roof >



< fig.3, a bison >


The mural paintings were concentrated in the big roof fig.2 (entering the entrance of fig.4, immediately left-hand side).There were pictures of 25 animals drew with red, black and brown.

The pictures were many bisons, deer, wild boar, horse and a person like shaman.

The stereoscopic effect and reality of bison fig.3 are increasing by many colors, gradation and shadow processing.

This is the highest level of Old-Stone-Age pictures.

It is presumed that one author drew the all pictures of the big roof, and the cave had been managed together.

Probably, the bison that emerge in abysmal darkness by a swinging torch may seem to be alive completely.






< fig.4,Altamira Cave、The lower left is an entrance. full length 270 m, Spain >


The first Peoples came to the cave about 19000 years ago.

The People did not live inside the cave (fig.4), but dug the hole in the cave entrance, and were making it the dumping ground.

Because of the thrown-away bone, it turned out that rich woods and many hunting animals were in the circumference of the cave.

The drawing animals accord with the hunting animals.

It seems that the peoples repeatedly used the cave as a meeting place during the long period.

Various small groups came and went the vast domain between France and Spain.







< fig.5、reindeer and fish >

< fig.6、Two bisons、full length 61cm in right-hand side>


We look at other distinctive arts from an old thing.

Fig. 5 is a developed figure of commanding sticks was made of hartshorn. This was found in Lortet cave of 17000 years ago in France.

There are a reindeer of right edge looks back, and the legs of two reindeers before it.

And the four salmons seem to poke the deer from the bottom under the legs.

Probably, this drew the spectacle in which a group of reindeer just has been going across a river to which the salmons have been ascending.

They caught the moment that they excited most. The vigorous figure was expressed by simple line engraving.


Fig. 6 shows the relief that was made of clay on the floor in Tuc d’audoubert cave of 15000 years ago in France.

One pair of bison at last minute copulation was expressed.

Fig.1 was a copy of mural painting in Trois Freres cave of 15000 years ago in France. This cave connected with the above-mentioned cave.

It is visible to shaman who imitated the figure of a deer, or the personified person.










< fig.7、 line drawing carved into the rock in Addaura cave >


Fig. 7 shows the line drawing carved into the rock of about 10000 years ago in Addaura cave of Italy.

Eight persons become a round ring and dance around two lying persons in the picture.

Strangely、the dancers are wearing the mask to which a beak attached. Two persons of middle are bind a head and a leg with a rope, and their penis is rising up.

This is associated with the scene of a sacrifice.

In those days, did the ceremony that wore mask already start?

I will tell the perspective of cave arts next time.












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Birth of primitive art 4: Development of the cave paintings


 ゲナスドルフ,女性線刻画,Female line-engraving drawing , Gonnersdorf ruin, Germany  

< Female line-engraving drawing in Gonnersdorf ruin, Germany  >

Last time, we looked at the movable statues in the last stage of the glacial epoch.

From this time, we look at the brilliant cave paintings of a glacial epoch.

The Fine arts suddenly bloomed on the ground of arctic cold.


First, I do the last supplementary explanation. Last time, there was an opinion that the Venus image of Nebra is visible to a penis. The above figure is the line-engraving drawing of the clay stone in Gonnersdorf ruin that were making the same Venus statues as Nebra. Two women that have an arm were drawn on this stone. Thus, it is guessed that the Venus statue is the thing developed from the female image. Thank you for the precious opinion.







シャーベット洞窟,馬,horse、Chauvet cave

< horse 、 Chauvet cave >

Cave paintings appeared a little later than movable statues for a while. There is no painting outside a cave until the last stage comes. The oldest thing is in Chauvet cave in south France, 31000 years ago. This limestone cave amounts to 400 m in length. In the inner wall, there were the colored pictures of 300 over, the line-engraving drawing of 300 over, many signs, and many handprints.

A horse, the extinct cow, a bison, a bear, a mammoth, a reindeer, the owl, the lion, the hyena were painted on the surface of the wall. The main paints the black of charcoal and the red of Ocher. There is also a room unified in each color. The animal that is running in groups is drawn, and two fighting rhinoceroses that were drawn by the forcible outline look vividly.






戦う犀、fighting rhinoceroses,Chauvet cave

< fighting rhinoceroses 、 Chauvet cave >

Secondly, the cave painting is in the Cosquer cave facing the Mediterranean in France. It is divided into many handprints drawn 27000 years ago and the animal group drawn 19000 years ago. Although many handprints are seen in other caves, the paint included in the mouth is sprayed on the hand put on the wall, and a picture is made. A penguin and a seal are rare, although the painting animal is a lot of horses in common with other caves.

The famous Lascaux cave painting appears in France 17000 years ago. The Lascaux cave is one of the 30 caves of the gorges in the limestone region. The stone tool and a bone implement of 100,000 points are found from this whole region. Although there is a trace of a life, there is a cave without paintings, and the caves like this is about half. The Lascaux cave consists of three rooms, is about 70 m in full length, and the largest places“The hole of a bull”are a hole of 9m wide, and Fig. 1.






ラスコー,牡牛のホール,The hole of a bull、Lascaux cave 

< fig.1 The hole of a bull 、Lascaux cave >

The side and the ceiling side of a cave mainly have many hundreds of horses, cows, deer, and bisons, and there is a picture of a maximum of 5.5m cow in them.Moreover, there are the colored picture and line-engraving drawings that describe a goat, a sheep, an antelope, a human being, and a geometrical pattern. These numbers are 2000 points. There are 500 handprints that man sprayed paints. Red clay and charcoal were melted and mixed with animal fat, blood, and sap, and black, red, yellow and tea, and brown paints were made. It is thought that the painting brush uses the moss, the hair of an animal, and a wooden branch or one’s own finger.




牛と馬,A bull and a horse、Lascaux cave

< fig.2 A bull and a horse  、Lascaux cave >

Fig. 2 in the hole of a bull is painted over picture. Fig. 2 in the hole of a bull was painted over  some pictures repeatedly. The first pictures that was painted was a horse group of gray with running fast, on lower side. Subsequently, it was one horse that has a black mane in the center of the left, and the red body. Subsequently, it was a bull realistically was drawn by the black outline. Finally, a deer was painted in the pictures by only red on lower right.



牡牛のホールにある図2は重ね描きされている。最初に描かれたのが下部の灰色の疾駆する馬群. 次いで左中央の黒いたてがみと赤い胴体を有する一頭の馬、次いで黒の輪郭線で写実的に描かれた牛、最後に右下の赤一色の鹿が書き加えらえた。


バイソンと人,A bison and a person、Lascaux cave 

< fig.3 A bison and a person、Lascaux cave >

Fig. 3 shows the only scene in which a person appears. It is rare that a person appears in the fine arts of the Old Stone Age, and even if drawn, it is childish. In this picture, there is a bison that a spear is stuck in and from which an internal organ fall out, and the person fall down before that.On the lower side, there is a spear and a stick (probably an atlatl) that was attached a bird decoration.The person’s head is like a bird with a beak, it is seen that 4 fingers and the erect sexual organs.It seems to have some kind of message in this picture. The interpretation is a hunting scene, a transformer state of a shaman, a ceremony, etc.


Next time, I look at the last of cave fine arts and the shining time.










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Birth of primitive art 3: Development of statue

 A Venus statue 、 reindeer horn, in Nebra, Germany 、ビーナス像

< A Venus statue made from a reindeer horn, in Nebra, Germany >

 Last time, we looked at the female statue and the Venus statue that were made from 35000 years ago to 15000 years ago.

 We looked at the first situation that human beings hold an image in their mind and manufactures it as a statue that can be taken in hand.

 This time, we look at a diversification of the female statue and some statues except a female type.


The upper Venus statue is introduced last time. A Gonnersdorf ruins are located 300 km away from the ruins that this Venus statue was found in the same Germany.

 Here, one group was living in some tent on the flat ground along the Rhine only wintertime at about 15000 years ago.

In this ruins, the researcher unearthed many clay stone into which the woman image is carved by drawing line. It just resembled the touch of the Addaura Cave painting, “Birth of primitive art 2 “.

 The picture was the side view that abbreviated the head and a leg. and it expressed the hand, the breast and the buttock by two outlines.

 The Venus statues discovered here was completely the same as the upper Venus statue.









ゲナスドルフ、ビーナス像、Venus 、upper Paleolithic 、 Eurasian、18000~13000 years ago

< The Venus image on the latter half of Upper Paleolithic in Eurasian Continent (about 18000~13000 years ago)、by「縄文時代のはじまり」小林 謙一 >

These are the Venus statues at last stage of the glacial epoch. These Venus statues of side view type were distributed among about 2400 km from west France to the east Ukraine. 

Although it is a simple form altogether, there is individuality, respectively. A diversity of Aesthetic sense and symbolization has already arisen here. It is a culture.

The clay figure of fig.7 (Siberia) in upper figure resembles the oldest clay figure of Japan.





花輪台、土偶、Clay figure, Ibaraki Prefecture, 8000 years ago

< Clay figure, Ibaraki Prefecture, 8000 years ago,  5 cm in height >

動産美術、movable statues 

< Typical movable statues >


Much movable statues expect the Venus statues were also made at the glacial epoch.

Those many were the horses and bisons of hunting animals. Others were the mammoth, the lion, the bird, and the goat. 

In an old thing, in a cave of southwest Germany, a horse statue was made from ivory at 35000 years ago. Fig.1 (6 cm in length) 

As a unique thing, in a cave of south Germany, a lion man statue was made from ivory at 32000 years ago. Fig.2 (30 cm in height) This is the personified oldest thing and we associates it with the sphinx of Egypt. The people soon will make a god statue that fulfills their dreams. 

At 20000 years ago in France, an atlatl was made of a reindeer bone. Fig.3 (25 cm in length)

The atlatl is a tool that doubled the driving distance of the spear.

Probably, a simple expressive will and a desire of prayer arise first. The esthetic pattern was established soon. Subsequently, it became a status symbol. I can guess from the sketch of the clay stone discovered at the Gonnersdorf ruins.

 投槍器、how to use of an atlatl 

< how to use of an atlatl >


From next time, we will look at the cave painting of glacial epoch in Europe.









Categories: culture+society, history+evolution, <english language, <japanese language | Tags: , , , , | 2 Comments

Birth of primitive art 2: Opening of glacial epoch fine arts

 ビーナス,A female head, France, Venus of Brassempouy

< A female head, France, 25000 years before, ivory, 4 cm height >

Movable property fine arts appeared suddenly in frigid Europe.

 We see about the typical Venus statue.




< A valley of the Chauvet Cave >

氷河期地図,The ruins map, glacial epoch, Europe, 10,000 ~40,000 years ago   

< The ruins map of glacial epoch Europe, 10,000 ~40,000 years ago >

 Many of the cave paintings were painted inside of the limestone cave that sunlight doesn’t reach.

 Many of the caves were in the ravine.

 They were near by the way that the reindeer carries out seasonal migration.

 Many animals drank water at the nearby place.

 People hunted these animals, fished or collected, and lived on the entrance of a cave and a rock shadow.

 From 3 million years ago, the glacial epoch began and it was most cool from 120000 years ago to 40000 years ago.

 Northern Europe and the Alps were covered with the glacier at this time.

 Since a sea surface lowered, there was no sea between England and Scandinavian Peninsula.

 The areas other than the prairie zone in the Mediterranean and the glacier were covered with ice and snow (step, tundra), and the mammoth was walking there in winter.










ビ-ナス,Venus, Dolní Věstonice 、Willendorf、nebra

< Venus statue >

Fig.1: Czechoslovakia, 29000 years ago, a calcination clay, 11 cm height

Fig.2: Germany, 25000 years ago, a limestone, 11 cm height  

Fig.3: Germany, 15000 years ago, a horn, 6~10 cm height  


First, Movable property fine arts appeared first and a group of the Venus statue of them is impressive.

 The statues of about 60 were excavated in the large area from France in the west to eastern Russia in the east.

 The oldest thing is the female statue group made from ivory about 35000 years ago.

 It has the common feature with a big breast and abdomen, and its height is from 6 to 15 cm.

 Fig. 1, the Venus statue has a special meaning. From these ruins, many calcination clay images some animal and ball is also found.

 A remarkable point is that they are the products made from clay calcinated at low temperature, therefore it hints at the forerunner of making earthenware.

 This probably shows that the life changed from continuation of movement to seasonal stay.

 Fig. 2, the Venus statue emphasizes a buttock, an abdomen, and a breast with a typical spindle type, and although the face is omitted, it displays the private parts.

 This is associated with a hand ax of stone tool and the symmetrical design is beauty.

They emphasized the generative functions. This reason probably was that they associated the childbirth with the fertility.

 This became a forerunner of many symbols on the world.

 The female head image made from ivory was found in a cave about 25000 years ago (the first Fig.).

 Although the mouth is omitted, its eyes and the nose are clarity, and it is covered with the hair or a hood.



図1: チェコ、29000年前、焼成粘土、高さ11cm。

図2: ドイツ、25000年前、石灰岩、高さ11cm。

図3: ドイツ、15000年前、角、高さ6~10cm。














ビーナスの浮き彫り,Venus, Laussel, France, Relief

< Relief of Venus, France,25000 years ago, a limestone wall, 44 cm height >

 The same time as this, the relief of Venus was discovered in a rock shadow of the valley near famous Lascaux Cave.

 It had a horn of a bison in one hand.

 The red ground (Ocher) is applied to that surface.

 There are 13 ruled lines in the horn, and I think that it is a calendar or some days.

 Fig. 3, a female statue made from the reindeer horn at 15000 years ago in northeast Germany.

 This statue became last female image and they weren’t made again.

 This emphasizes a buttock and is a simple design with the cylindrical upper half of the body.

 I seems that this was the pendant or putting in the bag.

 In this way the female statues of origin fine arts came into the world。

 Through the time of 20,000 years, it became simple carrying arts from the precious thing that emphasizes fertility.


Probably, they had the value as accessories or fetish.















Categories: culture+society, history+evolution, <english language, <japanese language, opinion, Series: Birth of primitive art | Tags: , , , | Leave a comment

Birth of primitive art 1: What does it mean?

ビーナス像 Venus statue,  About 25000 years before  primitive art
< Venus statue,  About 25000 years before >


It was explained by “the origin of mind” how the humankind’s mind was born from space birth to the present age.

Two epoch-making in the evolution of humankind’s mind are the erect posture and family birth。

It is explained by description from 12 to 14 in the series.

A primitive art of the glacial epoch that continues after that is important similarly.

Subsequent to it, the farming revolution, city revolution, and mental revolution are generated.

This series explains the primitive art that humankind first started at about 30,000 years ago in Europe.








 シューヴェ洞窟壁画 Chauvet Cave painting,  32000 years ago primitive art

< Chauvet Cave painting,  About 32000 years ago >

Why is this primitive art important? These features are enumerated.


1.        This design was the first thing on the earth.

2.        These art activities started suddenly. And 15,000 years continue and there is much the quantity.

3.        There are development progress and local culture in the pictures and statue.

4.        We can feel the symbolism, the narrative, and the realism in the art objects.

5.        The humankind (Cro-Magnon man) that already was born made them.

6.        It was performed in Europe of the arctic cold of a glacial epoch.

なぜこの原始美術が重要なのか? この特徴を列挙します。

1.        このデザインは地球上最初のものであった。

2.        突如として芸術活動が始まり、1万5000年間も続き、その量は多い。

3.        その絵画や彫像には発展経過と地域的な文化性がある。

4.        その造形物から象徴性、物語性、写実性を感じることが出来る。

5.        既に誕生していた現世人類(クロマニヨン)がその担い手であった。

6.        それは氷河期の極寒のヨーロッパで行われた。

振り返るバイソン,a bison looks over one's shoulder,  15000 years ago,primitive art

< a bison looks over one’s shoulder,  About 15000 years ago  >


In this period, there were very important on the history of humankind’s mind.


1.  Unlike a tool and dwelling till now, the art objects did not satisfied his physiological demand. 

2.  It shows that new intelligence (art, religion, natural history, technical intelligence and those integrated capability) was born.

3.  It did not happen in other areas. And it happened just during the glacial epoch.

The social behavior of the altruistic behavior and the family love that were obtained by evolution differed from the new intelligence greatly.



1.        それまでの道具や住居とは異なり、何ら生理欲を満足させない物が作られた。

2.        それは新しい知能(芸術、宗教、博物学、技術的知能とそれらの統合能力)が誕生したことを示している。

3.        他の地域では起こらず、また氷河期だけに呼応することとなった。



addaura洞窟壁画,Addaura Cave painting, 10000 years ago,primitive art

< Addaura Cave painting, About 10000 years ago >


The art objects show that the intelligence became highly efficient much more.

On the other hand, considering that a period for the mutation was very short and the place was restricted, we can think the society would make the intelligence.

These art activities were the beginning of the history of mind by the first society and culture.

If we understand it well, we can very know that humankind’s mind was influenced by the society.

Furthermore, we can understand what is the important element of the society


Continued to the next.









Categories: culture+society, history+evolution, <english language, <japanese language, opinion, Series: Birth of primitive art | Tags: , , , , , | Leave a comment

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