Travel to Hokuriku 8: going around marketes


      .  morning market of Wajima< 1. morning market of Wajima >

  

Today, I introduce to you an indispensable pleasure of trip that is a morning market and roadside stations.

These are roadside stations in Komatu or Noto, and the morning market of Wajima. 

In April of spring, the best seafood in season is some kinds of shrimp, a seaweed, and firefly squid.

 

今日は、無くてはならない旅の楽しみ、朝市と道の駅を紹介します。

道の駅のこまつ木場潟と能登食祭市場、輪島の朝市です。

春4月、能登と富山の海の旬は、甘えび、白えび、もずく、ホタルイカです。

 

 

Roadside station “Komatu Kibagata”

こまつ木場潟

 

It contacts to Komatu Bypass road, and is faced with Kibagata of a big lake.

ここは小松バイパスに接し、大きな木場潟にも面しています。

 

Local vegetables are lined up 

< 2. Local vegetables are lined up >

shelves of various souvenirs 

< 3. shelves of various souvenirs >

Pickled vegetables and souvenirs of Kutani chinaware were lined up.

Somewhere else, bowls and chopsticks of Yamanaka lacquer were also lined up.

 

九谷焼の土産品と漬け物が並んでいる。

他に山中塗りのお椀や箸も置いてあった。

 

 

Roadside station “Noto Syokusai market”

能登食祭市場

 

It is faced with Nanao bay near Wakura Onsen, and we can enjoy the view of the bay.

There is a number of restaurants, souvenir shops of Noto and fresh fish stores in here.

I recommend this market to a lover of seafood.

 

ここは和倉温泉近くの七尾湾に面して、湾の眺望を楽しめる。

ここにはレストランから能登の土産物店、鮮魚店が多数入っています。

魚介類好きには外せない所でしょう。

 

dried fish shop

< 4. dried fish shop > 

 .  fresh fish shop 

< 5. fresh fish shop >

 

morning market of Wajima 

輪島の朝市

 

This morning market is one of three biggest morning markets of Japan, and is in street of around 400m near Wajima harbor.

Seafood of the Sea of Japan is displayed close together in the street.

Spry big mama deals with us cheerily.

 

この朝市は日本三大朝市の一つで、輪島港に近く400m程の商店街で行われる。

露天には日本海の魚介類が所狭しと並んでいる。

元気なおばあさん達が、陽気に相手してくれる。

dried fishes 

< 6. dried fishes >

These were all thing that I wanted to eat.

There are many things of reasonable price, and many tourists buy it.

 

私にはどれも食べたくなる物ばかりでした。

手頃な値段のものが多く、多くの観光客が買っていく。

 

There is from the seafood to the produce of the fields

< 7. There is from the seafood to the produce of the fields >

  8朝市4

< 8. chopsticks of Wajima lacquer >

Wajima is a famous production center of lacquering, and a lot of shops of the wooden bowl and the chopsticks are in this street.

 

輪島は漆塗りの有名な産地で、お椀や箸の店も多く並んでいる。

日本の古い漆塗りはここ能登半島で、7000年前の櫛が見つかっている。

ここ輪島に石川県輪島漆芸美術館があり、歴史や現代美術の作品がわかる。

 

 

Categories: <english language, <japanese language, travel+photo, uncategorized | Tags: , , , | 1 Comment

Travel to Hokuriku 7: going around seashores


.  Sosogi seashore

< 1. on the way to terraced rice paddies from Wajima > 

 

Today, I go around the seashores of Noto peninsula from Toyama bay.

I introduce to you Toyama bay, Nanao bay, terraced rice paddies, and Sosogi seashore. 

 

今日は、富山湾から能登半島の海岸を巡ります。

富山湾、氷見海岸、七尾湾、千枚田、曽々木海岸を紹介します。

 

 a view of Tateyama mountain range and Toyama bay from Shinnminato bridge that we were driving through. 

< 2. a view of Tateyama mountain range and Toyama bay from Shinnminato bridge that we were driving through. >

seashores in the neighborhood of Himi

< 3.   seashores in the neighborhood of Himi >

This sea is Toyama bay.

Above: Toyama harbor and Tateyama mountain range will be visible in the back.

Below: A tip of Noto peninsula is in the back.

この海は富山湾です。

上の写真: この奥に富山港と立山連峰が見えるはずです。

下の写真: 奥が能登半島の先端です。

 

looking down at Nanao bay from Betusyodake Sky Deck 

< 4. looking down at Nanao bay from Betusyodake Sky Deck >

I recommend visiting in here because it is a superb view.

Two photos are left hand of the scenery and right hand of it.

Wakura Onsen is located at the right end of lower photograph.

ここは絶景ですので立ち寄られることをお薦めします。

上と下の写真は、左と右を撮り別けたものです。

下の写真の右端に和倉温泉があります。

 

a view of Wajima harbor in the distance

< 5. a view of Wajima harbor in the distance >

The sea in photos below this is the Sea of Japan all.

以下の写真の海は日本海です。

 

terraced rice paddies

< 6. terraced rice paddies >

Although I had desired to visit in this terraced rice paddies, I was surprised when I visited.

Roadside station “ Senmaida Pocket park” had been made here.

A parking lot, a restaurant, and a prospect deck were made, and it became convenient.

I felt that there were many lost things.

 

千枚田に訪れるのが楽しみだったのですが、着いたら驚きました。

道の駅「千枚田ポケットパーク」が出来ていました。

駐車場、レストラン、展望デッキが出来て便利になっているのですが、失われたものも多いような気がします。

salt farm

< 7. salt farm >

Here, people dry seawater in the sun and seem to make salt.

It is different from roadside station ” Suzu village of salt farm”.

 海水を日干しにして塩を造っているらしい。

ここは道の駅「すず塩田村」とは異なる。

 

.  Sosogi seashore

< 8. Sosogi seashore >

Azure sea and sky, white wave, long sandy beach, mountain, sunlight and wind were comfortable all.

I was satisfied about this trip and finished it at this land at last.

紺碧の海と空、白い波、長い砂浜、迫る山、陽差しも風も心地よく、この地を最後に満足して旅行を終えました。

 

.  Sosogi seashore

< 9. Sosogi seashore  >

This photo was taken from the reverse side of restaurant “Imashin” that we had a lunch.

The seafood’s bowl that I ate while watching this scenery was very good.

 この写真は、昼食をとった食堂「今新」の裏から撮ったものです。

この景色を見ながら食べた「能登海鮮丼」は良かったです。

 

 

 

 

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Travel to Hokuriku 6: Hokuriku’s atmosphere


a view of Hakusan Mountain from Tedori Ravine

< 1. a view of Hakusan Mountain from Tedori Ravine >

 

Today, I introduce to you nature of Hokuriku and the scenery of villages.

A livelihood that has been supported by the rich blessing and has born with rigor of winter is breathing there.

 

今日は、北陸の自然と里の風景を紹介します。

冬の厳しさと豊かな恵みに支えられた暮らしがそこに息づいています。

 

A village at the foot of Hakusan Mountain       

白山山麓の里

 

 a view in direction of Hakusan Mountain from near Mengataki waterfall 

< 2. a view in direction of Hakusan Mountain from near Mengataki waterfall >

 

Two ridges of right and left sandwiches Tedori Ravine, and the flat land becomes rice paddy.

Tedori Ravine is under the group of high- tree on the left.

 

左右二つの尾根が手取峡谷を挟み、平坦部は稲田になっている。

左の高木群の下が手取峡谷です。

 

a view of the valley from Torigoe castle ruins 

< 3. a view of the valley from Torigoe castle ruins >

These two photos photographed opposite directions from same summit of the mountain.

Above photo shows areas along Tedori ravine, and the left hand shows the direction of Kanazawa.

The continued evergreens in the fields show Tedori River.

Below photo shows a village along Dainichi River.

If becoming winter, this ground will be covered with deep snow.

 

この2枚の写真は同じ山頂から逆方向を撮ったものです。

上の写真は手取川沿いで、左側が下流の金沢方面です。

田畑の中の常緑樹の連なりが手取川です。

下の写真は大日川沿いの村です。

この地は冬になると深い雪に覆われます。

 

 

A village of the foot of a mountain in the suburbs of Komatsu city

小松市近郊の山麓の村

 

 a guardian deity(Shinto shrine) of the village 

< 4. a guardian deity(Shinto shrine) of the village >

 

A big shrine on the top of these stairs watches for this village.

 この階段の上には村を見守る大きな神社がある。

 

The village of above-mentioned guardian deity

< 5. The village of above-mentioned guardian deity >

The cherry tree at the right side of upper photo shows the cherry tree of stairs of the guardian deity.

Lower photo shows the house that fitted the snowy district near the guardian deity.

 

上の写真の右側に見える桜が鎮守様の階段の桜です。

下の写真は鎮守様近くの雪国に適応した家屋です。

 

A distant view of Hakusan Mountain

白山を遠望

.  a view of Hakusan Mountain from a front of Yamanaka Onsen

< 6. a view of Hakusan Mountain from a front of Yamanaka Onsen >

 

A distant view from Toyama Bay

富山湾からの遠望

Unfortunately Tateyama Mountain Range covered with snow was indistinct by spring haze.

 雪を被った立山連峰は残念ながら春霞で不明瞭でした。

 

a view of Tateyama Mountain and cityscape from a observation tower in Toyama Bay 

< 7. a view of Tateyama Mountain and cityscape from a observation tower in Toyama Bay >

This area had prospered as a base of marine transportation from long ago.

The old cityscape has remained even now.

 

この地は古くから海運の拠点として栄えて来ました。

その古い街並みが今に遺っています。

 

A fishing village in Noto Peninsula

能登半島の漁村

 

 the fishing village in Sosogi Seashore 

< 8.the fishing village in Sosogi Seashore >

Because of facing the Sea of Japan, in winter, this area has been exposed to the severest wind and snow in Noto Peninsula.

 ここは日本海に面しており、能登半島でも、冬、最も厳しい風雪にさらされる地域です。

 

 

 

 

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Travel to Hokuriku 5: Hot spring areas and landscape positions


.  Kurodani Bridge, Yamanaka Onsen

< 1. Kurodani Bridge, Yamanaka Onsen >

 

I introduce to you hot spring areas and photo locations that I had visited.

今回宿泊した温泉地と撮影スポットを紹介します。

 

 This map shows the path of my trip 

< 2. This map shows the path of my trip >       

Hakusan Mountain is in the lower center of the map, and Tateyama Mountain is in the right side of the map.

Red-colored number shows main photo locations.

1: Yamanaka Onsen. 2: Teodri Ravine.

3: Toyama Bay.       4: Himi Seacoast.

5: Wakura Onsen.     6: SkyDeck.

7: Wajima, and morning bazaar. 8: terracedsteps, and Sosogi Seacoast.

Black lines show photo locations during car travel.

 

白山が地図の中央下部、立山が地図の右端にあります(濃い茶色)。

赤字の番号が主な撮影スポットです。

1:山中温泉。2:手取峡谷、鳥越城趾。1と2の間に道の駅・こまつ木場潟。

3:富山湾、北前船廻船問屋街(岩瀬の町)。4:氷見海岸

5:和倉温泉、能登食彩市場。 6:別所岳スカイデッキ。

7:輪島、朝市。 8:千枚田、曽々木海岸。

黒線はドライブ中の撮影スポットです。

 

Yamanaka Onsen

山中温泉

.  a river flows through the center of the hot spring area 

< 3. a river flows through the center of the hot spring area >

In the famous hot spring in Ishikawa Prefecture, Yamanaka Onsen will be the hot spring that is in nearly the ravine.

Here is the historical hot spring that Matsuo Basho loved.

 

石川県の有名な温泉の中で、最も山峡の温泉と言えます。

芭蕉が愛した歴史ある温泉でもあります。

 

 main street in Yamanaka Onsen

< 4. main street in Yamanaka Onsen, I took photo in the afternoon >

 

.  the source of a hot spring

< 5. the source of a hot spring, I took photo in the afternoon >

Above: Traditional arts are played in right building, and left building is the bathhouse for woman.

Below: It is the bathhouse for man.

 

上: 右が、伝統芸能が演じられている山中座、左が菊の湯(女湯)。

下: 総湯菊の湯(男湯)。

 

Wakura Onsen

和倉温泉

In the famous hot spring in Ishikawa Prefecture, Wakura Onsen will be the hot spring that is near the seashore most.

Here is suitable for a hub of sightseeing of Noto Peninsula.

 

石川県の有名な温泉の中で、最も海岸に面した温泉と言えます。

ここは能登半島の観光拠点に適しています。

 

the view from Wakura Onsen

< 6.   overlooking Nanao Bay from Wakura Onsen >

 

 the view from Wakura Onsen

< 7. the view from Wakura Onsen, I took photo in the early morning  >

 

 .  the view from the foot bath,

< 8. the view from the foot bath, I took photo in the early morning >]

If you want stroll of a ravine and a forest, Yamanaka Onsen is recommended.

If you want seashore and delicious seafood, Wakura Onsen is recommended.

 

渓谷と森林の散策をお望みなら山中温泉がお薦めです。

海岸と旨い魚介類がお望みなら和倉温泉でしょうか。

 

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Travel to Hokuriku 4 : Refreshing flower and green


.  horsetail and Hakusan Mountain from Torigoe castle ruins 

 < 1. horsetail and Hakusan Mountain from Torigoe castle ruins >

 

I introduce to you fresh green leaves and flowers blooming in mountains and ravine today.

When I walked mountains and ravine, I saw pretty flowers blooming obscurely.

 

今日は、山や渓谷に咲く花や新緑を紹介します。

山や渓谷を歩いていると可憐な花々がひっそりと咲いているのを見かけました。

 

dogtooth violet in Torigoe castle ruins 

< 2.   dogtooth violet in Torigoe castle ruins >

The dogtooth violet had grown in small colonies in a hollow of neighborhood of the hill summit.

As far as I could see, there were only dogtooth violets and some cherry trees in the mountain that broad-leaved trees had fallen in.

Early spring of 400 years ago, last peasant riot of Kaga country (old name for Ishikawa prefecture) holed up in this hill and then they died a heroic death.

When I thought it, this flower of brilliant purplish red looked lovelier.

 

小高い山の頂上付近の窪地にカタクリが少し群生していました。

見渡す限り、山は広葉樹の葉が落ち、花は数本の桜とこのカタクリだけでした。

400年前の早春、加賀最後の一揆衆がこの山に立て籠もり、壮烈な死を遂げた。

それを想うと、この鮮やかな赤紫の花がなおさら愛おしく見えて来る。

 

Magnolia kobus in Tedori River 

< 3.   Magnolia kobus in Tedori River >

Magnolia kobus in the neighborhood of Waterfall Watagataki were in full bloom.

綿が滝の降り口の上で数本のこぶしが満開で迎えてくれていました。

 

.  flowers bloom on the cliff of Tedori Ravine 

< 4. flowers bloom on the cliff of Tedori Ravine >

It bloomed so that it stuck on the cliff of the ravine that stood perpendicularly.

Although there was a shadow, some sprout came out bravely from among the rocks that the splash of a waterfall flew upon.

垂直に立つ渓谷の崖に張り付くように咲いていました。

日陰だが滝のしぶきがかかる岩の間からけなげに新芽を出していた。

 

flowers bloom in Tedori Ravine or Ravine Kakusenkei 

< 5. flowers bloom in Tedori Ravine or Ravine Kakusenkei >

Small flowers bloomed on the wet slope along the ravines.

渓谷沿いの湿潤な斜面に小さな花が咲いていました。

 

Lichenes in Ravine Kakusenkei, Yamanaka Onsen 

< 6. Lichenes in Ravine Kakusenkei, Yamanaka Onsen >

This ground contained water enough.

Occasionally I heard a high-pitched and small cry from this grass area.

Although I didn’t know whether it was the voice of singing frog, it was a sound that I had not heard until now.

 

この地面はたっぷりと水を含んでいた。

時折、この草むらあたりから小さいが甲高い鳴き声が聞こえた。

それが河鹿蛙の声かどうかは不明だが、今まで聞いたことのない音でした。

 

bright green leaf

< 7. bright green leaf >

Although neither the mountain nor the field was in fresh green still more, I was able to see bright green in some places.

 

山や野原はまだまだ新緑とは言えないが、所々に鮮やかな緑を見ることが出来た。

 

 

 

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Travel to Hokuriku 3: I was intoxicated with the sunrise


 sunrise

< 1. sunrise >

 

Today, I introduce to you the sunrise that I saw from Wakura Onsen.

今日は、和倉温泉から見た朝陽を紹介します。      

 

 10 minutes before the sunrise

< 2. 10 minutes before the sunrise  >

Here is Wakura Onsen in the inner part of Nanao Bay in Noto Peninsula.

I took photos of the sunrise that rose in Notojima Bridge from the park of footbath of the seashore.

ここは能登半島の七尾湾の奥にある和倉温泉です。

海岸にある「湯っ足りパーク」から能登島大橋に昇る朝陽を撮影しました。

 

sunrise

< 3. sunrise >

At this season, the distant view became dim on many days because of spring haze, and it was so this day also.

For three days, although it was blessed with fine weather and there was also no wind, only this was regrettable.

The cloud has begun to appear thinly today, too.

 

 

この時期、春霞で遠景がぼやけて見えることが多く、この日もそうでした。

3日間、晴天に恵まれ風も無かったのですが、これだけが残念でした。

今日は薄く雲もかかり始めた。

 

6 minutes after the sunrise  

< 4. 6 minutes after the sunrise  >

 

 from an avenue of pines 

< 5. from an avenue of pines >

 

from the footbath 

< 6 from the footbath >

 

 1 hour after the sunrise 

< 7. 1 hour after the sunrise >

I had gone in hot spring in the morning at 4:30 and I was running out in order to take a snap of sunrise.

Although it was refreshing in the daytime, it was still cold in the morning of Hokuriku.

When I had finished taking a photograph, my body was cold.

When returning, I was able to warm my cold hands by steam of hot spring going up from a drainage conduit.

Fortunately my desired snap of a sunrise from an island was able to take today.

 

朝4時半に温泉に入り、飛び出し、日の出を撮る為に走った。

日中は爽やかだったのですが北陸の朝はまだ寒かった。

写真を撮り終えた時には、体が冷え切っていました。

帰る時、排水路から立ち上る温泉の湯気で冷たい手を暖めることが出来た。

今日は、望んでいた島影からの日の出が撮れて幸いでした。

 

 

 

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Travel to Hokuriku 2: Tour around ravines


Tedori Ravine 

< 1. Tedori Ravine >

 

This time, I introduce Tedori Ravine and Ravine Kakusenkei in Yamanaka Onsen.  

今回は、手取峡谷と山中温泉の鶴仙渓を紹介します。

 

Tedori Ravine

Here is Hakusan City in Ishikawa Prefecture.

This ravine was caused by Tedori River flowing from Mount Hakusan of 2700 m in altitude.

The precipice of 20-30 in height continues for 8 km of the upper river.

 

手取峡谷

ここは石川県白山市にあり、標高2700mの白山から流れ出す手取川によって出来た峡谷です。

上流の8kmにわたって高さ20~30mの絶壁が続いている。

 

Tedori Ravine: The back is a direction of Mount Hakusan, and a waterfall is in the center 

< 2.  Tedori Ravine: The back is a direction of Mount Hakusan, and a waterfall is in the center >

 

 Waterfall Watagataki of 32 m in height 

< 3. Waterfall Watagataki of 32 m in height >

手取峡谷を代表する滝です。

 

around Waterfall Watagataki 

< 4. around Waterfall Watagataki >

There are waterfalls everywhere.       

到る所に滝が落ちている。

 

Ravine Kakusenkei

Here is a mountain torrent flowing through Yamanaka Onsen in Ishikawa Prefecture.

Although many hot-spring hotels are lined along one side of this torrent, the other side becomes a promenade that has left nature.

 

鶴仙渓

ここは石川県の山中温泉の中央を流れる渓流です。

この渓流の片側に温泉宿が並んでいるが、反対側は自然を残した遊歩道になっている。

 

Ravine Kakusenkei 

< 5. Ravine Kakusenkei >

 

 Ravine Kakusenkei, the promenade is right side

< 6. Ravine Kakusenkei, the promenade is right side >

People can look down this ravine from outdoor bathtubs of those riverside hotels.

Taking a bath in the morning of this day, cherry petals were softly fluttering down in the bathtub, and birds had been singing.

A time of supreme happiness passed.

 

この川沿いの宿の露天風呂からは、この渓流を見下ろすことが出来る。

この日の朝風呂は、桜の花びらが舞い込み、鳥のさえずりを聞きながら湯船に浸かり、至福の時が流れた。

 

Ravine Kakusenkei

< 7. Ravine Kakusenkei >

Matsuo Basho wrote the poem “ by balefire, Kajika(frogs) under wave sing”

In this ravine, there are the frog that sings beautifully and the river fish.

Two creatures are called the Kajika of same pronunciation.

This mountain torrent is truly a fresh stream.

 

「かがり火に河鹿や波の下むせび」と芭蕉が詠んだ。

この川には川魚の鰍(かじか)と泣き声のきれいな河鹿(かじかがえる)が居り、如何にも清流らしい。

 

Ravine Kakusenkei

< 8. Ravine Kakusenkei >

Two mountain torrents were really splendid.

At the time of fresh green and colored leaves, it will be splendid again.

 

二つの渓流は実にすばらしかった。

新緑や紅葉の時期も、またすばらしいだろう。

 

 

 

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Travel to Hokuriku 1: indulgence of cherry tree


Ioji Temple, Yamanaka Onsen( hot spring resort) 

< 1. Ioji Temple, Yamanaka Onsen( hot spring resort) >

From April 11, 2014 to 13, I traveled in Hokuriku.

I went round Tedori Ravine, Yamanaka Onsen, Wakura Onsen, Wajima, Noto mainly in Ishikawa Prefecture.

I thoroughly enjoyed ravines and hot springs, seacoasts, cherry trees and flowers.

I introduce the wonderful those with photo several times.

 

I introduce splendid cherry tree of each place

While driving, I watched cherry tree in full bloom as I went from Shiga Prefecture to Toyama Prefecture.

Especially in Fukui Prefecture, Ishikawa Prefecture and Toyama Prefecture, cherry trees were planted everywhere.

 

2014年4月11日から13日まで、北陸を旅行しました。

主に石川県の手取峡谷と山中温泉、和倉温泉、輪島、能登を巡りました。

渓谷と温泉、海岸、桜や花々を堪能しました。

その素晴らしさを数回に別けて写真で紹介します。

 

各地の素晴らしい桜を紹介します

ドライブしていると、滋賀県から富山県に進むにしたがって満開の桜に出会いました。

特に福井県から石川県と富山県は到る所に桜が植えられていました。

 

Tedori Ravine, Hakusan City 

< 2. Tedori Ravine, Hakusan City >

Cherry trees bloomed on top of the cliff of Tedori River that snowmelt from Hakusan Mountain flowed rapidly in.

白山の雪解け水がとうとうと流れ、岩肌を削ぎ取る手取川に桜が咲いていた。

 

Torigoe castle ruins, Hakusan City

< 3. Torigoe castle ruins, Hakusan City  >

One cherry tree bloomed on the castle ruins of the hill that looked down at Tedori River.

 手取川を見下ろす高台の城跡に一本の桜が咲いていた。

 

.  a village in Komatu city

< 4. a village in Komatu city >

Cherry trees have been planted in every place of small villages of the foot of mountains.

The people of Hokuriku have taken good care of cherry trees very much.

 山麓の小さな村の到る所に桜が植えられている。

北陸の人々は桜を非常に大切にしている。

 

in Yamanaka Onsen 

< 5. in Yamanaka Onsen >

The moon rose up a cherry tree.

一本の桜に月がかかっていた。

 

Hakusan shrine, Yamanaka Onsen

< 6. Hakusan shrine, Yamanaka Onsen >

There is Hakusan in the other side of the shrine gate from this approach of the shrine,but Hakusan was not visible today.

この参道から鳥居の向こうに白山があるが、白山は見えていない。

 

in Yamanaka Onsen 

< 7.   in Yamanaka Onsen >

 Cherry trees have been planted on every Buddhist temples, Shinto shrines, the bank of rivers and ponds, parks and mountains.

Blooming of cherry tree announces coming of spring, and the people seemed to be together glad of the liberation from winter of severe wind and snow.

 

あらゆる寺社仏閣、川や池の堤、公園や山肌に桜が植えられている。

桜が春の到来を告げ、人々は厳しい風雪の冬からの解放を共に喜んでいるようでした。

Categories: <english language, <japanese language, travel+photo | Tags: , , , | 12 Comments

History of sickness and medical art 25: India 5


Yoga

< 1. Yoga >

 

This time, I introduce Yoga and summarize the medical art of ancient India, end it.

今回、ヨーガを説明し、まとめを行い、古代インドの医術を終わります。

 

Yoga

Yoga is known as a thing increasing health enhancement now.

On the other hand, deity statue performing Zen (meditation) around the world will be only Buddha statue.

Long history is concerned with this.

 

ヨーガ

現在、ヨーガは健康増進を図るものとして知られています。

一方、世界の神像で座禅(瞑想)しているものは仏像だけでしょう。

これには長い歴史が関わっています。

 

a seal of Indus civilization: a Yoga ascetic sits while wearing a crown of horn 

< 2. a seal of Indus civilization: a Yoga ascetic sits while wearing a crown of horn >

 

The oldest image that is sitting is in the seal of Indus civilization.

The oldest description about Yoga was in an Upanishad of about the fourth century B.C.

Following sentence teaches an ascetic training of Yoga.

“Recognize Atman of an absolute hiding in depth of our existence by introspectiveness”

In India, it was idealized that people had been absorbed quietly in meditation under forest tree from time immemorial (ashrama).

Caraka sanhita that became medical knowledge of Buddha makes reference to yoga a lot.

 

座禅をしている最古の図はインダス文明の印章にあります。

ヨーガの最古の記述は紀元前4世紀頃のウパニシャドにあります。

「我々の存在の奥底にひそむ絶対者アートマンを内観によって認識せよ!」

とヨーガの修行を教えています。

インドでは、古くから森林樹下において静座瞑想に耽ることは理想とされてきた(四住期)。

釈迦の医学知識になったチャラカ・サンヒター(医学書)もヨーガについて多く触れています。

 

 Bhagavad Gita is part of the Hindu epic Mahabharata, and a sacred text of the Hindus. 

< 3. Bhagavad Gita is part of the Hindu epic Mahabharata, and a sacred text of the Hindus. >

 

Yoga developed in the first millennium B.C. as the religious self-training method (enlightenment or nirvana) or moral culture, and Buddhism took in it.

The system of the Yoga was completed at about the fourth century, and at about the twelfth century, mystical yoga was born and adopted physical movement.

This spreads now all over the world.

 

ヨーガは、紀元前一千年紀に宗教的な修行法(悟り、解脱)や精神修養として発展し、仏教にも取り入れられた。

紀元4世紀頃に、ヨーガの体系が完成し、12世紀頃、神秘主義的なヨーガが誕生し、身体的な動きを取り入れた。

これが現在世界中に普及している。

 

Alexander the Great : a scene of the movie  

< 4. Alexander the Great : a scene of the movie  >

    

Ancient medical system of India advanced

Emperor Ashoka built hospital for people in the third century B.C.

In Europe, similar thing is built in the fourth century.

When a Greek doctor was not able to cure a soldier who was bitten by a snake, Alexander the Great commanded Indian doctor to cure him.

The medical treatment was successful, and Alexander the Great who was impressed with it employed Indian doctors in his army.

 

Summary

The characteristic of the medical art in India seemed to attach importance to more the cure for a patient than the etiology.

New doctors escaped from religious bondage, and participated actively in the cure.

As seen in Yoga, there was an Indian culture that attached importance to the cultivation of mind, and this affected religion, medical art, and health care.

 

From next time, I introduce ancient medical art of China.

 

古代インドの医療体制や医術は進んでいた

紀元前3世紀のアショーカ王は人々の為に病院を建設していた。

同様のものはヨーロッパにおいて4世紀以降になる。

アレキサンダー大王は、蛇に咬まれた兵士をギリシャ人医師が治療出来なかったとき、インド人医師に見てもらえと、命じた。

その治療は成功し、感銘を受けた王はインド人医師らを軍隊に雇い入れ従軍させた。

 

まとめ

インド医術の特徴は、病因論よりも患者を治すことに重き置いたように思える。

新興の医師達が宗教のしがらみから抜け出し活躍していた。

ヨーガで見たように精神統御を重視する文化があり、これが宗教や医術、健康管理に影響を与えた。

 

次回から、古代中国の医術を見ます。

 

 

 

 

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Travel to Turkey 4: Pamukkale


Flower blooms on a lime terrace 

< 1. Flower blooms on a lime terrace >

 

I introduce Pamukkale that is a great white lime terrace. 

We encounter an impressive superb view, a homely village of Islam, a hot spring of hotel, and ruins of Roman times.

 

壮大な白亜の石灰段丘パムッカレを紹介します。

感動の絶景、素朴なイスラムの村、リゾートホテルの温泉、ローマ遺跡が出迎えてくれます。

 

approximately whole view of the lime terrace

< 2. approximately whole view of the lime terrace >

The width (the horizontal direction of above photograph) of this terrace is about 1 km, and the length of the slope is more than 500 m.

We see a pastoral scene, a village, and hotels below our eyes.

Hierapolis that is ruins of Roman times is on the upper part of this lime terrace.

 

この段丘の巾(上記写真の左右方向)は約1km、斜面の長さは500m以上あります。

眼下に、田園地帯と村、ホテル群が見えます。

この石灰段丘の上部にはローマ時代の遺跡ヒエラポリスがあります。

 

.  Scenes between Ephesus and Pamukkale 

< 3. Scenes between Ephesus and Pamukkale >

 Farming villages were scattered in dry mountain valley.

乾燥した山間の田園地帯に農村が点在している。

 

the village of Pamukkale: the minaret shows a mosque 

 < 4. the village of Pamukkale: the minaret shows a mosque >

 

When our bus had deviated from the main road, we saw farmhouses that were scattered.

I took a stroll through nearby village after supper.        

There were souvenir shops in a line along a main street, and there were as many as two mosques between 500 m in length.

When I just heard Koran, many people had gathered inside and outside the mosque and begun to give prayer.

Dusk approached before long, and a moon came up the mosque.

I watched simple life without changing from old days on the land.

 

 

幹線道路から外れると古びた農家が点在していた。

私は夕食後、近くの村を散策した。

一本の大通りには土産物屋が並んでおり、長さ500mぐらいの間にモスクが二つもあった。

ちょうどコーランが聞こえて来て、モスクの内外に多くの人が集まり、祈りを捧げ始めた。

やがて夕闇が迫り、モスクの上に月が昇った。

昔から変わることのない大地に純朴な暮らしを見た。

 

a hot spring of the hotel

< 5. a hot spring of the hotel >

I entered the hot spring of the photograph with swimsuit and it became my pleasant memory.

 

写真奥の温泉に水着で入り、楽しい思い出になりました。

 

.  the lime terrace and a footbath

.  the lime terrace and a footbath  .  the lime terrace and a footbath  .  the lime terrace and a footbath

< 6.7.8.9. the lime terrace and a footbath >

The hot spring that has made this lime terrace is slightly running dry.

The hot spring was flowing in only restricted area, and we could enjoy the footbaths.

 

この石灰段丘を造った温泉が枯渇気味で、水量が不足している。

それでも一部に限り温泉を流していて、足湯を楽しむことが出来る。

 

a hot spring pool 

< 10. a hot spring pool >

Marble pillars of Roman times have sunken in bottom of this hot spring pool.

There was the scene that was created by an azure sky mixing with red flowers, ancient white pillars, and transparent hot spring.

 

この温泉プールの底には、ローマ時代の大理石の柱が横たわっていた。

青空と赤い花、古代の白い柱、透明な温泉が織りなす光景が、そこにはありました。

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Go around the world of Buddha statues 15: the birth of Buddha statues2


1仏伝

< 1. a biography of Buddha “ first meeting with the Brahman, 2nd century, Gandhara, stone relief >

This is a scene that Buddha who has become a priest asks a famous hermit, and asks an instruction.

 

これは出家した釈迦が高名な仙人を尋ね、教えを請う場面です。

 

I investigate why Buddha statue was born in Gandhara.

 

なぜガンダーラで仏像が誕生したのかを探ります。

 

.  Butkara ruins, Gandhara, Swat valley, Pakistan 

< 2.   Butkara ruins, Gandhara, Swat valley, Pakistan >

Above: many pedestals of stupas were built after the 3rd century B.C.

Below: sculptures remain at lateral sides of the pedestals.

 

上: 紀元前3世紀から建設されたストゥーパの基壇が並んでいる。

下: 人物像が基壇側面に残っている。多くが剥がされた。

 

.  a stupa 

< 3. a stupa >

 

What was happening in India?

Buddha died in the 5th century B.C.

In the 3rd century B .C., Emperor Ashoka of Mauryan Empire that ruled whole India protected Buddhism.

Across the country, he built many stupas (huge circle mound) that ashes of Buddha were rested in.

Before long, people who worshiped Buddha increased around those stupas.

Then it became necessary to explain the biography of Buddha to the people who visited to the stupas.

Believers donated relief engravings of the biography of Buddha around the stupas.

 

Priests who were following the teaching and religious precepts of Buddha were not concerned with those stupas and lived in monastic building.

Hinayana Buddhism was born from this group after that.

The group that had led the believers gathering in the stupas produced Mahayana Buddhism after that.

Just about, such a thing had been happening in whole India at about first century B.C.

 

 

インドに何が起きていたのか

釈迦は紀元前5世紀に死んだ。

紀元前3世紀、インドを支配したマウリア帝国のアショーカ王は仏教を篤く保護した。

彼は国内に釈迦の遺骨を納めた多くのストゥーパ(巨大な円形塚)を作りました。

やがて、このストゥーパを中心に釈迦を崇拝する民衆が増えて行きました。

するとストゥーパに拝観に来た人々に、釈迦の生涯を説明する必要が生じました。

信者達はストゥーパの周囲に釈迦の仏伝(釈迦の生涯)のレリーフを寄贈した。

 

釈迦の教えと戒律を守り続ける僧侶達は、ストゥーパには関わらず、僧院で暮らしていました。

このグループから後に小乗仏教が生まれます。

ストゥーパに集まる信者を導くグループは後に大乗仏教を生みだします。

概略、このようなことが紀元前1世紀頃のインド全域で起きていました。

 

a map of power relationships, red circle shows Gandhara 

< 4. a map of power relationships, red circle shows Gandhara >

Above: Mauryan Empire, the 4th ~2nd century B.C.

Below: Indo-Parthian Kingdom, 1st century B.C.

 

上:マウリア朝(紀元前4~2世紀)。

下:インド・パルティア王国(紀元1世紀)。

 

 

What was happening in Gandhara?

Gandhara was located in the valley of upper portion of Indus, and was a key place of transportation that connected with India, Central Asia and Iranian plateau.

Therefore this area was invaded by Persia, subsequently, Alexander the Great, and additional the many nomadic tribe of Central Asia.

On the other hand, this rooted here the culture of Persia and Greece, and the fusion with Indian culture progressed.

Just the 1st century, Iranian nomad (Indo-Parthian Kingdom) ruled this area, and the fine arts of the West were established.

Therefore Greece and Iranian fine arts were incorporated into the relief engravings of the stupas.

 

 

ガンダーラでは何が起きていたのか

ガンダーラはインダス川上流の谷間にあり、インドが中央アジアとイラン高原に繋がる交通の要所でした。

このことにより、ペルシャ、次いでアレクサンダー大王、さらに度重なる中央アジアの遊牧民族の侵入を受けることになった。

一方、このことがこの地にペルシャやギリシャの文化を根付かせ、インド文化との融合が進んだのです。

ちょうど紀元1世紀は、イラン系の遊牧民(インド・パルティア王国)がこの地を支配し、西方の美術が定着した。

こうしてストゥーパの仏伝の造形にギリシャとイラン美術が取り込まれた。

 

a biography of Buddha” Brahma and Indra entreat Buddha to preach, about 1st century, Gandhara 

< 5. a biography of Buddha” Brahma and Indra entreat Buddha to preach, about 1st century, Gandhara >

 

What appeared first?

No. 5 is an oldest expression of Buddha in Gandhara.

This scene is that important Hindu Gods (Brahma etc.) are entreating seated Buddha to preach.

 

最初に何が出現したのか

No.5はガンダーラの最古層の仏像表現です。

これは重要なヒンドゥー神、梵天(ブラフマン)などが座禅をしている釈迦に教えを請う場面です。

 

Buddha triad, the 3rd~4th century, Gandhara 

< 6. Buddha triad, the 3rd~4th century, Gandhara >

Two Bodhisattvas stand on both sides of Buddha.

 

Also in Mathura of India, Buddha statues were born approximately at the same time.

 

釈迦の両側に二人の菩薩が立っている。

 

インドのマトゥラーでもほぼ同時に仏像が誕生していました。

 

 

 

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The society and the information 28: information crosses the border


Right: Leymah Roberta Gbowee, Left: Liberia President 

< 1. Right: Leymah Roberta Gbowee, Left: Liberia President >

 

I introduce a conclusion of civil war of African West Coast.

Women rose up and have built peace in war-torn Liberia.

An African first woman President by election, and two Nobel laureate for peace prize were born from it.

 

アフリカ西海岸の内戦終結を紹介します。

女性らが立ち上がり、戦乱のリベリアに平和を築きました。

そこからノーベル平和賞受賞、選挙によるアフリカ最初の女性大統領が誕生した。

 

 Leymah Roberta Gbowee and the peace movement

Leymah Roberta Gbowee and the peace movement

< 2. Leymah Roberta Gbowee and the peace movement >

 

the peace movement started 

In 2002, in order to obtain peace, Leymah rose up to appeal it and sing sacred song.

Although it began from Christian’s women at first, Muslim also participated before long.

They refused the sexual intercourse to husbands who had been fighting.

When the presidential motorcade passed, they continued to appeal the cease-fire with placard along with singing and dancing.

 

 

女性の運動が始まる

2002年、リーマ・ボウイーは、平和を手に入れるために、聖歌を歌い訴えようと立ち上がりました。

最初、キリスト教徒の女性から始まったが、やがてイスラム教徒も参加するようになった。

彼女たちは、戦う夫への性交拒否、大統領の行列に歌と踊り、プラカードで停戦を訴え続けました。

 

Liberian Civil War

 3. Liberian Civil War >

 

Liberian Civil War 

From the 1980s, fighting among rival tribes continued and slaughter, rape, destruction, poverty, and child soldier were spreading.

250,000 victims and 1 million refugees were born in this civil war.

In about 2002, armed opposition groups approached the capital, and the president who had installed a dictatorship was in a fix.

 

On the other hand, 15 nations of neighborhoods including Liberia had formed the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS).

This organization has Peacekeeping Force and those heads also desired the cease-fire of Liberia.

 

 

リベリア内戦

1980年代から、部族間の抗争が続き、殺戮、レイプ、破壊、貧困、少年兵が蔓延していました。

この内戦で25万人の犠牲者、100万人の難民が生まれた。

2002年頃には、反政府武装グループが首都に迫り、独裁体制を続ける大統領は窮地に追い込まれていた。

 

一方、リベリアを含む近隣15ヵ国は西アフリカ諸国経済共同体を結成していた。

この組織は平和維持軍を有し、その首脳達もリベリアの停戦を望んでいた。

 

Sit-in of the Ghana conference 

< 4.  Sit-in of the Ghana conference >

 

Deployment of the movement

Their appeal was introduced into the country, African countries, and the West through media.

The Liberian President agreed to a peace negotiation before long.

Each armed group of Liberia and the Government participated in the Ghana peace conference that the Economic Community of West African States mediates.

However, the negotiation did not progress at all.

Therefore their delegation sat down in the Ghanaian conference room and pressed them for negotiations establishment.

When a forced expulsion began, Leymah has begun to take off her clothes.

In Africa, when person watches nudity of mother, there is a legend of becoming a misfortune.

The men took action at last.

 

運動の展開

彼女と彼女達の訴えはメデイアを通じて国内とアフリカ諸国、欧米に伝わりました。

やがてリベリア大統領は和平交渉に同意します。

西アフリカ諸国経済共同体が仲介するガーナ和平会議に、リベリアの各武装勢力が参加した。

しかし、交渉はいっこうに進展しなかった。

そこで彼女達の代表団は、ガーナの会議場に座り込み、交渉成立を迫った。

強制排除が始まると、リーマ・ボウイーは服を脱ぎはじめた。

アフリカでは、自分の母親の全裸を見ると不幸になるという言い伝えがある。

男達は、ようやく重い腰を上げた。

 

After that

In 2003, The United States that had enforced economic sanctions till then and the United Nations sent a peacekeeper to Liberia.

In 2006, the African first woman President by the election was born in Liberia.

In 2011, she and Leymah became Nobel laureate for peace prize.

The peace continues until now.

 

その後

2003年、それまで経済制裁を行っていた米国と国連は平和維持軍をリベリアに送った。

2006年、リベリアで、選挙によるアフリカ初の女性大統領が生まれた。

2011年、この女性とリーマ・ボウイーがノーベル平和賞を受賞した。

現在、平和は続いている。

 

 Point

Their action contributed most peacefully, but the support of domestic and international public opinion, and especially psychological and material support from abroad was indispensable also.

It may be said that, as a result, she led public opinion.

 

ポイント

彼女らの行動が平和に最も貢献したが、国内外の批判的な世論、特に国外からの物心両面の支援は不可欠だった。

彼女は結果的に世論を導いたと言える。

 

 

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Cherry tree of Asano Park


Cherry tree of Asano Park

I went to Asano Park in Awaji Island yesterday on April 2.

People were enjoying cherry trees in full bloom and sunlight of spring.

 

4月2日、昨日、淡路島の淺野公園に行きました。

人々は満開の桜と春の陽を楽しんでいました。

 

Cherry tree of Asano Park

 Cherry tree of Asano Park

 In just the past week, it became warm suddenly, and then many cherry trees bloomed at a stretch.

I was half in doubt and went to watch cherry trees, but it had become in full blossom.

A blue sky, warm sunlight, and fresh wind had wrapped the park of a mountain.

Many people and we enjoyed lunch.

We enjoyed our time.

 

ここ一週間ほど、急に温くなり、桜が一気に開花しました。

半信半疑で、桜を見に行ったのですが、満開になっていました。

青空と暖かい日射し、爽やかな風が山の公園を包んでいました。

皆さんは昼食を楽しんでおられました。

気持ちの良い一時を過ごしました。

 

Cherry tree of Asano Park

Cherry tree of Asano Park

waterfall of Asano Park

If we went down from the park, there was a waterfall that was called as “ Hudou no Taki” at the back of the park.

There was a line of waterfall in depths of the shade surrounded by trees of high cedar.

Many stone Buddha statues “ Hudou-Son” were enshrined on the right side of the waterfall.

 

公園の奥、階段を降りた所に不動の滝があります。

高い杉の木に囲まれた日陰の奥に、一筋の滝があります。

滝の右側には幾つもの不動尊の石仏が安置されていました。

 

 

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A sunset of Awaji Islamd


sunset

I introduce a sunset sinking into Seto Inland Sea that I watched from “Nishiura” of Awaji Island.

I photographed it on March 24, 2014.

It was fine on that day, but, unfortunately, the sky was veiled.

Although there was no sharpness, colored pattern full of variety was seen.

Five photographs between19minutes are placed in order of time.

 

 

淡路島の西浦から見た、瀬戸内海に沈む夕陽を紹介します。

 

2014年3月24日に撮影しました。

この日は晴れていたのですが、あいにく空は霞んでいました。

鮮明さはありませんが、変化に富んだ色模様が見られました。

5枚の写真は19分間の変化を順に並べたものです。

 

sunset

sunset

sunset

sunset

I want to introduce wonderful sunset later.

また後日、すばらしい夕陽を紹介したいと思います。

 

 

 

 

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History of sickness and medical art 24: India 4


Buddha

< 1. Buddha >

 

How did Buddha who participated actively around the 6th century B.C. face the illness?

We will see new breath in it.

 

紀元前6世紀頃に活躍した釈迦は病とどのように向きあったのか?

そこには新しい息吹が見える。

 

About Buddha of the day

Brahmanism that was mainstream of the day was mainly role to provide offering and ceremony for God.

Buddha who wanted new path to the salvation preached the teachings along with doing communal living with many pupils and traveling over villages.

This priest group involved the participation of all classes, man andwoman.

They didn’t work, accepted charity, didn’t have goods, and lived equal and simple life.

Acceding to the rule that Buddha decided was a single condition that the members can belong to the group.

During several hundred years, the pupils had carried on the tradition of these rules, and then these became the Scripture being calling Vinaya-Pitaka.

 

 

当時の釈迦について

当時、主流であったバラモン教は神への帰依-供物と儀式―が中心であった。

新しい救い求めた釈迦は、多くの弟子と共に集団生活をしながら村々を巡り、教えを説いた。

この出家者集団は、あらゆる階層、男女が参加し、働かず、乞食(こつじき)し、財を持たない質素で平等の生活を行った。

釈迦が決めた規則を守ることが、集団に帰属出来る唯一の条件だった。

この規則が、弟子達に数百年の間、口頭伝承され、教典となったのが律蔵です。

 

Turmeric: medicines and curry powder 

< 2.  Turmeric: medicines and curry powder >

 

From Vinaya-Pitaka, below are an extract and a summary.

 

“A priest suffered from a sickness. Everybody nursed him, but he didn’t recover. He went to a slaughterhouse of pig, and ate the uncooked meat and drank the blood. His disease thereby recovered. Buddha said, “ I forgive the sick person for eating uncooked the meat and drinking the blood.””

 

“ I allow use of roots-root of turmeric, ginger, and iris, etc.- as medicines. Although these are appetizing and add a flavor, healthy person must not eat it. You will commit a crime, if you eat them though these are not necessary.”

 

“ Ananda, because I am out of condition, I want to drink a purgative. Ananda consulted Jivaka. The doctor ordered Ananda that he must paint fats the body of Buddha for a few days, and then the doctor gave him a light purgative. The doctor said to Buddha that you should refrain from liquid meal until you completely recovered. And Buddha recovered.”

 

Buddha knew the medical art of the time, and applied it actively.

He hadn’t the idea of the sickness that was caused by the violation of taboo or the punishment by God.

In addition, he was a friend with skilled physician Jivaka.

 

 

律蔵から当時の様子が覗える。抜粋・要約です。

 

「ある出家者は非人病を患った。色々、皆が彼を看病したけれども直らなかった。彼は豚の屠殺場に往き、生肉を食べ、血を飲んだ。それによって彼の病気は和らいだ。釈迦は言った、『私は、非人の病気には、生肉やその血の食用を許す』」

 

「私は医薬として根類(ウコン、生姜、菖蒲の根等)の使用を許す。これらは食欲をそそり風味を添えるが、それを健康な者が食べてはならない。もし必要もないのに食べるなら罪を犯すことになる。」

 

「アーナンダーよ、私は不調なので下剤を飲みたい。アーナンダーは、ジーヴァカに相談した。その医者は釈迦の体に数日間脂肪を塗りなさいと指示し、軽い下剤を与えた。医者は釈迦に、完全に回復するまで、流動食を控えた方が良いと言った。そして回復した。」

 

釈迦は、当時の進んだ医術を知っており、積極的に取り入れた。

彼には、病はタブー違反や神罰によると言う観念はなかった。

また名医ジーヴァカと親交があったことがわかる。

 

Turmeric: medicines and curry powder 

<  3.  Map >

 

 Taxila ruins, after the 6th century B.C.

< 4.  Taxila ruins, after the 6th century B.C. >

    

About legendary doctor Jivaka.

He was a skilled physician that participated actively in the capital of Magadha country, cured the king and was also Buddha’s court physician.

Although he was of low birth, he become a pupil of a doctor in Taxila, learned the medical art of Caraka samhita, and then he went back.

Why did he go to the far-off Gandharan capital?

At the time, Gandhara in the northwest was under the influence of the Persia civilization.

On the other hand, he probably thought that learning of new medical art was difficult in Magadha country where Brahmanism’s ideology had permeated in.  

 

 

伝説の医者ジーヴァカについて

彼はマガタ国の首都で活躍した名医で、王の治療にもあたり、釈迦の侍医でもあった。

彼の出自は低かったが、タキシラの医師に弟子入りし、チャラカ・サンヒター医学を学んで帰国した。

彼はなぜ遠いガンダーラの首都に行ったのか。

当時、西北にあるガンダーラはペルシャ文明の影響下にあった。

一方、バラモンのイデオロギーが浸透しているマガタ国では、新しい医術の修得は困難だと彼は考えたのだろう。

 

 

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Travel to Turkey 3: Ephesus 2


Great Theater

< 1.  M:  Great Theater >

 

I introduce remaining half of ancient city Ephesus.

 

The seating capacity of this theater is 25,000 people.

A fight against wild beast by gladiator was also performed here.

 

古代都市エフェソスの後半を紹介します。

 

この劇場の収容人員は25000人です。

ここで剣闘士と野獣の闘いも行われていた。

 

a reproduced image of Ephesus 

< 2. a reproduced image of Ephesus >

An order of Tour of inspection begins from the right side of above map.

The alphabet on the map shows the position of following photo.

 

見学の順序は上記地図の右端から始まり、左に突き当たると、上に真っ直ぐ抜けて行きます。

地図上のアルファベットが写真の位置を示します。

 

Hadrian’s Temple, the 2nd century 

< 3.  I:  Hadrian’s Temple, the 2nd century >

This Hadrian’s Temple is small, but remains as splendid temple.

A goddess is carved in the center of the front arch, and Monster Medusa is carved in the back semicircle.

 

このハドリアヌス神殿は小さいが最も華麗な神殿として残っている。

手前のアーチの中央には女神ティケ、奥の半円には怪物メドゥサが彫られている。

 

Celsus Libraly, the 2nd century

< 4.  K: Celsus Libraly, the 2nd century  >

A thing to attract eyes most in this Ephesus is the front entrance of this library.

It was decorated with splendid sculptures and women statues, and they shined in sunlight.

There were 12,000 books in those days.

The arched gate of the right hand is an entrance to Commercial Agora.

 

このエフェソスで最も目を惹くのはこの図書館の正面玄関です。

素晴らしい彫刻や女性像で飾られており、陽の光に輝いていた。

当時、12000巻の書物があった。

右手のアーチ型の門は商業アゴラへの入口です。

 

Commercial Agora

< 5.  L: Commercial Agora >

This Agora was in corridor having roof that surrounds a courtyard, and the pillars of the day remain in the back.

The center back is the library, and the left back is main path of sightseeing that we have walked through.

 

アゴラは中庭を囲む屋根付きの回廊で、奥に当時の柱が残っている。

奥が図書館で、左手の奥が通ってきた見学路です。

 

Harbor Street

< 6.  N:  Harbor Street >

This street extends straight to a harbor from a front of the Great Theater.

The Agora is located immediately on the left.

 

大劇場の前から港湾に真っ直ぐ伸びる通り。

アゴラは直ぐ左にある。

various sculptures  

< 7.  various sculptures  >

A:   the Monster Medusa of Hadrian’s Temple.

B:   a statue.

C:   a cross was carved in upper of the gate.

D:   a female image in the entrance of the library.

 

A: ハドリアヌス神殿の怪物メドゥサ。

B: 像。

C: 門に彫られた十字架。

D: 図書館の女性像。

 

Ephesus is an important place for Christian.

From ancient times, here was a strategic place of Christianity propagation, and Paulo of 12 apostles engaged in it.

Moreover, it is communicated that mother Mary of Jesus spent an afterlife with John, and there is the oldest Virgin Mary church.

Furthermore, important Christian councils were held several times here.

 

このエフェソスの地は、キリスト教徒にとっては重要な地です。

古来、キリスト教布教の要所であり、12使徒のパウロが関わった。

またイエスの母マリアがヨハネと共に余生を送ったと伝えられ、最古の聖母マリア教会がある。

さらにこの地で、重要なキリスト教の公会議が幾たびか行われた。

 

Artemis temple site, the 8th century BC 

< 8.  Artemis temple site, the 8th century BC >

This temple was located once on the place in which only one pillar stands on the vacant lot.

It is communicated that the building that was considered as being seven wonders in the world was 20m in height and width 55mx115m.

On the back hill, a castle built in the 5th century is seen, and St. John church is the right side.

 

かつて神殿は空き地に一本の柱だけが立っている所にあった。

世界の7不思議とされた建物は高さ20m、広さ55mx115mあったとされる。

奥の丘の上に5世紀築城の要塞、その右横に4世紀建設の聖ヨハネ教会が見える。

 

a reproduced image of Artemis temple and an Artemis goddess statue 

< 9.  a reproduced image of Artemis temple and an Artemis goddess statue >

The Artemis goddess statue has large number of breasts symbolizing fertile fecundity.         

 アルテミス女神は豊穣多産を象徴する多数の乳房を持っている。

 

souvenir shops 

< 10.  souvenir shops >

In souvenir shops, we will purchase some accessories of colorful handicraft – especially cloth products and earthenware.

土産物屋で、私達はカラフルな手工芸品、特に布製品と陶器の小物を幾つか購入することになります。

 

 

 

 

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The society and the information 27: information crosses the border


 Golden Misabiko was arrested  

< 1.  Golden Misabiko was arrested  >

 

From this issue, we look at how information crossing the border helps people.

First, I take up incidents that happened in current Africa as a theme.

 

An incident happened in Congo

In 2009, a man was arrested by the national secret intelligence agency.

He was sentenced to a suspended prison term of one year on the charge of “publication of the disinformation” and “threat to national security”.

It all started with his announcement that military men and the government official mined uranium illegally from a mine that had closed for a safety and it had been causing the serious environmental disruption.

Furthermore, he exposed that mining rights had been granted to atomic energy company AREVA by a secret agreement of the Congo government and France.

He is Golden Misabiko, President of the Association Africaine de défense des Droits de l’Homme in Katanga province. 

He and the civil-rights activists of cooperator fitted a kidnapping, violence and intimidation.

 

 

今回から、国家を越える情報がどのような働きをするかを見ます。

最初に、現在のアフリカで起きた事件を取り上げます。

 

コンゴで起きた事件

2009年、一人の男性が国家の諜報機関によって逮捕・拘留された。

彼は「国家の安全を脅かした」「偽情報の公表」の罪で懲役1年を宣告された。

この事件の発端は、軍人や役人が安全上閉鎖されていた鉱山から違法にウランを採掘し、深刻な環境破壊を起こしていると、彼が発表したことによる。

さらに、コンゴ政府とフランスとの密約により原子力会社AREVA社に採掘権が与えられたことも告発した。

彼、ゴールデン・ミサビコ氏は、アフリカ人権擁護協会(ASADHO)カタンガの代表です。

彼と協力者の人権活動家は誘拐や暴力、脅迫に合っていた。

 

. A: Congo. B: President Kabila of Congo. C: the problematic mine, engraving by hand. D: Former Secretary of State Hillary.

< 2. A: Congo. B: President Kabila of Congo. C: the problematic mine, engraving by hand. D: Former Secretary of State Hillary. >

 

Congo

The civil war that neighboring countries intervenes in a dispute has continued, and this country became impoverished.

This economy accounts for 45% of GDP only by the mineral resources export of diamonds.

Uranium of the problematic mine was used for atom bomb dropped on Japan.

This country has a parliamentary democracy, but the press freedom is extremely low.

According to “press freedom index 2013” by Reporters Without Borders, Congo was the 142nd within 179 countries in the world.

 

コンゴ

この国は隣国も介入する内戦が続き疲弊している。

経済は、ダイヤモンド等の鉱物資源輸出だけでGDPの45%を占める。

問題の鉱山のウランは日本に投下された原爆に使われた。

議会制民主政体であるが、報道の自由度は極めて低い。

国境なき記者団が発表するコンゴの報道自由度は2013年度で世界の179ヵ国中142番でした。

 

Amnesty international 

< 3.  HP of Amnesty international >

 

Subsequent deployment

It was foreign countries to have saved him.

Media of Europe and America reported this incident and appealed for the issue of environment, human rights and an unjust doubt.

Amnesty International that is a non-governmental organization focused on human rights appealed this incident all over the world, sent the request document to the President of Congo, and conferred with the United Nations.

 

Former American Secretary of State Hillary Clinton met the President of Congo during her Africa tour in 2009, and requested his release.

His safety was secured, because the world supervised this incident.

In 2013, he stayed in South Africa, and continued the activity.

I seem that the secret agreement in which French president was also involved became unraveling by his exposure.

 

 

その後の展開

彼を救ったのは、海外だった。

欧米メデイアはこの事件を報道し、環境・人権問題と不正疑惑を訴えた。

国際人権救援機構NGOのアムネスティ・インターナショナルは、世界中に事件を訴え、コンゴの大統領に要請書を送り、国連と協議した。

米国のヒラリー・クリントン元国務長官は2009年、アフリカ歴訪時にコンゴの大統領に会い、彼の解放を要請した。

世界がこの事件を監視することにより、彼の身柄の安全は確保された。

彼は2013年の時点で、南アフリカに滞在し活動を継続している。

フランス大統領も絡んだ密約は、彼の告発を機に、白紙に戻ったようだ。

 

 

However

In Africa, the dig of rare minerals such as uranium, diamond and etc. still produces much darkness – environmental disruption, work accident, conflict, and corruption.

 

Point

If cooperating with foreign country, it becomes possible to correct the injustice though the country has had little press freedom.

 

 

しかし・・・・

アフリカのウラン、ダイヤモンド等の希少鉱物の採掘は、未だ多くの闇―環境破壊、労働災害、紛争、汚職、を生みだしている。

 

 

ポイント

国外との連携・支援があってこそ、報道の自由が無い国家の不正を正すことが可能になる。

 

 

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Go around the world of Buddha statues 14: the birth of Buddha statues


Maitreya Bodhisattva “弥勒菩薩立像”, the 2nd-3rd century, h.1.5m, stone 

< 1.  Maitreya Bodhisattva “弥勒菩薩立像”, the 2nd-3rd century, h.1.5m, stone >

 

I have introduced various statues of Asia, and those were created in ancient India.

The birthplace was two places of Gandhara in Pakistan and Mathura in India.

This time, I introduce the statues that were created in Gandhara.

 

I watched “ the Art of Gandhara, Pakistan, and Mathura, India” in 2003.

When I watched a Buddha statue, I was moved to tears involuntarily.

The life-sized statue was made by black schist, and was lustrous from the shoulder to the chest.

The face was a fine young nobleman style, and there was a meditation world of ancient India and a romance of a mixed civilization in it.

It was felt so that the passion that ancient people had was still confined within the stone statue.

 

 

今まで、アジアの様々な仏像を見てきましたが、それは古代インドで誕生した。

誕生地はパキスタンのガンダーラとインドのマトゥラーの2箇所でした。

今回は、ガンダーラでの仏像誕生を紹介します。

 

私は2003年に「ガンダーラとマトゥラーの彫刻展」を見ました。

私は仏像を見て、思わず目頭が熱くなりました。

その仏像は、等身大の黒色片岩製で、肩から胸にかけて光沢がありました。

顔は爽やかな貴公子風で、凜としており、そこからは古代インドの瞑想世界と文明混淆のロマンが漂っていました。

その石像には今でも古代の人々が抱いていた熱情が込められているように感じられた。

 

Buddha statue, the 1st- 2nd century, stone 

< 2.  Buddha statue, the 1st- 2nd century, stone >

The Buddha stautue in the round is one of statues that were created for the first time in Gandhara.

The wavelike hair and thick clothes differ from the Buddha statue of East Asia that we know well.

However, how to tie the hair, the point of the forehead, and the downcast-like face have been already expressed.

It shows Buddha is a transcendent existence and philosophizing.

 

この丸彫りの仏陀像はガンダーラで最初に誕生した頃のものです。

波状の頭髪、厚い着衣は、私達がよく知る東アジアの仏像とは異なります。

しかし、頭髪の結い方(にくけい)、額の点(びゃくごう)、伏し目が既に表現されています。

これらは超越者であり思惟する仏陀を示しています。

 

.  Buddha Bodhisattva seated statue, the 2nd- 3rd century, h.0.7m, stone

< 3.  Buddha Bodhisattva seated statue, the 2nd- 3rd century, h.0.7m, stone >

This was a Bodhisattva statue of Buddha, and Maitreya Bodhisattva or Kannon Bodhisattva was made in those days, too.

The Bodhisattva that was meaning disciplinant was expressed with a figure of an imperial family who was decorated with a crown and accessories.

The relief engraving of the pedestal expresses a story of the prince era of Buddha.

It shows that the prince philosophizes about “suffering” while he sat under a tree covering over his head.

This statue and this relief of the pedestal became one set and showed the story of Buddha.

 

これは釈迦の菩薩像ですが、当時、観音や弥勒の菩薩像も作られていました。

修行中の人を指す菩薩は、冠飾や装身具で飾った王族の姿で表されている。

台座の浮き彫りは、釈迦の王子時代の物語(仏伝)を表している。

これは頭上を覆う木陰で王子が座して「苦」について思惟することを伝えている。

この像と台座の浮き彫りが一組となって、一つの仏伝を物語っている。

 

Buddha statue practicing asceticism, the 2nd- 3rd century, stone

< 4.  Buddha statue practicing asceticism, the 2nd- 3rd century, stone  >

This statue expresses Buddha that was practicing asceticism of fasting.

After this practicing, he negated the ascetic practices.

Therefore this expression is rare.

 

この像は断食苦行を行っていた釈迦の表現している。

この後、釈迦は苦行を否定したので、この表現は仏像において珍しい。

 

Buddha statues in those days

< 5.  Buddha statues in those days >

Left:  Buddha statue, the 1st- 2nd century, h.1.7m, stone.

Right: Bodhisattva statue, the 3rd century, h.1.3m, stone.

 

左: 仏立像、1~2世紀、片岩、高さ1.7m。

右: 菩薩立像、3世紀、片岩、高さ1.3m。

heads of statues 

< 6.  heads of statues >

The face and the hairstyle of those heads seem to be associated with west Asia style and Greek style.

 

Next time, I introduce how Buddha statues were created in Gandhara.

 

 

この頭部の顔や髪型は西アジアやギリシャの様式を思わせる。

 

次回は、ガンダーラでどのように仏像が出現したかを見ます。

 

 

 

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Spring comes around Awaji Island


     Plum blossoms

I introduce a sign of spring that I have seen on a walking trail.

Many trees have dropped leaves and are still an appearance of winter.

However, by some trees, grass green leaves are increasing day by day.

Cold has faded away day by day, and sunlight is getting warm.

Weather being suitable for a walk increased and field flowers that delight my eyes increased.

 

散歩道で見かけた春の息吹を紹介します。

まだ多くの木々は葉を落とし、冬のたたずまいです。

しかし、樹によれば萌黄色の葉が増えて来ています。

日増しに寒さが遠のいて行き、日射しは暖かくなって来ました。

散歩に適した日和が増え、目を楽しませる野の花が多くなりました。

 

an appearance of winter

 

narcissus

field mustard

horsetail

 

 

Plum blossoms, narcissus, field mustard, and horsetail are blooming beautifully in fields or footpaths.

Spring seems to come around there now.

畑や畦道に梅、水仙、菜の花、つくしが咲き誇り、春が今そこに来ると告げているようです。

 

 

 

 

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The society and the information 26: Wonder of brain and nerves 4


1褒められたFMRI   brain when parson was praised, a image of fMRI 

< 1.  brain when parson was praised, a image of fMRI >

 I look at a brain function that makes our action and thought most human. 

We do not notice that usually.

 私達の行動や思考を、最も人間らしくしている脳の働きを見ます。

そのことに普段、私達は気づきません。

Please imagine a little

Emotion-feelings:  your heart beat intensely as soon as you watched a cobra in front. However, if you noticed a glass being in between you and it, the heartbeat would quiet down immediately.

 

Memory:  Can you remember the pattern of your dinner bowl using every day?  On the other hand, you will be able to remember like that of yesterday about the memory of early childhood.

 

Motivation:  You have to restrict delicious between-meal eating, in order to wear favorite swimming suit. Every day, controlling your appetite involves appreciable pain.

 

少し想像して下さい

情動(感情): あなたは目の前のコブラを見たとたん、心臓が激しく鼓動します。しかし、前面にガラスがあることが分かれば、心臓の鼓動はすぐ収まるでしょう。

記憶: あなたは毎日使っているお茶碗の絵柄を思い出せますか。一方、幼い頃の思い出を昨日のように思い出すことがあるはずです。

動機付け: あなたは好きな水着を着る為に、美味しい間食を制限しなければならない。日々、食欲を抑えることはかなりの苦痛が伴います。

 

3英文脳 Secretion of the neurotransmitter

< 2.  Secretion of the neurotransmitter >

Emotion affects these all

The basic information processing of brain of the human is performing in huge network where 100 billion nerves convey information one by one.

However, if the emotion rouses up once, a wide area of the brain becomes active situation or inhibited situation for a certain period of time, and then it affect the usual information processing.

It is because neurotransmitter was secreted from the cerebral inside – limbic system- as shown above figure.

The main substance is Dopamine, Serotonin and Noradrenalin, etc.

These produce emotions, such as fear, sadness, joy, anger, and dislike.

The function resembles that the fighting spirit and muscularity of a sport player becomes enlarged, because he continues injecting male hormone.

 

これらすべてに情動が関わっています

人の脳の基本的な情報処理は、1千億個の神経が、一つずつ情報を伝える巨大なネットワークで行われています。

しかし情動が発現されると、脳の広い範囲が一定期間、活性・抑制され、通常の情報処理に影響を与えます。

それは図のように大脳の内側(大脳辺縁系)から神経伝達物質が分泌されたからです。

その主要物質はドーパミン、セロトニン、ノルアドレナリンなどです。

これらは恐怖、悲しみ、喜び、怒り、嫌悪などの情動を生みだします。

その作用はスポーツ選手が男性ホルモンを注射し続けて、闘志に燃え、筋骨隆々になるのと似ています。

 

2英文脳内ホルモン Neurotransmitter is mixed and complicated emotions are born

< 3.  Neurotransmitter is mixed and complicated emotions are born >

 

Summary

  1. There is a part that strongly reacts to fearful things – snake etc. – in brain, and this immediately produces the feeling expression and the body reaction.
  2. In memory or cautions, the emotion – danger, comfortableness etc.- determines the necessity of a lot of those.
  3.  The emotion – avoiding fear or uneasiness, demanding for pleasure etc.- affects the action and the judgment. It means intuition.

 

まとめます

1.脳には恐いもの(蛇など)に強く反応する部位があり、これが即座に感情表現や身体反応を生じます。かつ上位の脳機能がそれを確認している。不安、嫌悪、喜び、共感なども同様です。

2.記憶や注意の多くは、情動(危険、心地よいなど)によってその必要性が決められている。

3.行動や判断には、情動(恐怖・不安を避け、快楽を求める要求など)が関わっています(直感)。

 

What I want you to know.

  1. Do you feel loathsomeness about the sexual act of the homosexual?
  2. Will you be glad if you hear that a rich person suffered heavy losses?
  3. When the player of opponent country fails in an international match, are you pleased?

The emotion affects all these reactions  

The emotion is influenced by not only heredity but also growth environment and social environment.

The problem means that human is hardly able to recognize the real identity of the emotion by oneself.

Human have experienced adolescence, and then they come to be able to control their emotion so that there is no trouble in their life.

However, the understanding and sympathy to others, other groups, and different things are quite difficult.

I treat another theme from next time.

知って欲しいこと

1.             あなたは同性愛者のセックスに嫌悪感を抱きますか。

2.             あなたはある金持ちが大損したと聞いたら嬉しいですか。

3.             あなたは国際試合で、対戦相手国が失敗すると喜びますか。

これらの反応はすべて情動が関わっています。

この情動は遺伝だけでなく、生育環境や社会環境にも影響されています。

問題は、この情動の正体を、自分自身でほとんど認識出来ないことです。

人は思春期を経験して、生活に支障が無い程度に情動を制御出来るようになります。

しかし、他者や他集団、異なるものへの理解・共感はかなり困難なのです。

 

次回から、別のテーマを扱います。

 

Categories: <english language, <japanese language, science | Tags: , | Leave a comment

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