The society and the information 57: News media has fought 14


1日露戦争

< 1. Russo-Japanese War, 1904-1905 >

< 1. 日露戦争、1904~1905年 >

 

We again look at the background why newspaper changed in.

What did the progress of the war regime bring?

 

前回に続いて新聞が転向した背景を見ます。

戦時体制の進行は何をもたらしたのか?

 

Preface

Usually, to find out about the path to a war, person will check out politics, armed forces, international relations, economy, subsequently public opinion, and media.

However, I adversely question the background that media went into wrong path.

The reason is the media can be compared to nervous system in a human body.

Because, if it exactly functions, we can stop and cure a cancer progresses.

But unfortunately, when a brain is influenced by feelings (fear and uneasiness, hatred), the person makes a wrong judgment.

Similarly, it occurs in media.

It is important that we know how the media come to don’t function.

 

 

はじめに

通常、戦争に至る道を知るには政治や軍隊、国際関係、経済、次いで世論や報道を調べます。

しかし、私は逆に報道が間違った道に進んだ背景を問題にしています。

それは報道が人間で言えば神経系であり、正しく機能していれば例え癌が進行していても治療することが可能だからです。

だが残念なことに脳が感情(恐怖や不安、憎しみ)に支配され誤断するように報道にも同様なことが起こります。

報道がどのようにして機能しなくなるかを知ることは重要です。

 

How did the background change?

The background was divided into three main branches.

A: The social background by the progress of the war regime. It had deepened in the long term.

B: The economic background. It became more conspicuous in the 1920s.

C: The political background. It became more conspicuous mainly since the middle of 1920s.

The above three backgrounds relate to culture and thought that have an effect on public opinion, and then international relations.

 

その背景はどのように変わったのでしょうか

その背景を大きく三つに分けてみます。

A:戦時体制の進行による社会的背景。長期的に深まっていった。

B:経済的背景。主に1920年代に強まった。

C:政治的背景。主に1920年代半ばから強まった。

国際関係と、世論に関わる文化や思想は上記と関連して説明します。

 

2 1933年海軍観閲式

< 2. The inspection parade of the Imperial Japanese Navy in 1933 >

< 2. 1933年、日本帝国海軍の観閲式 >

 

A: The progress of the war regime.

Overseas dispatch of Japanese troops started in Taiwan from 1874, next, Sino-Japanese War of 1894, and continued to Russo-Japanese War of 1904.

Since that day, the progress of the war regime of Japan became more conspicuous, and

Japan continued to walk a path of a war of expansion.

 

Shall we grasp the dimensions of the progress of the war regime?

The number of soldiers of the Japanese Army and Navy was first tens of thousands, but always needed 300,000 from 1912 to 1931.

And Japanese men entered the military unless no passing the check of military conscription at least once.

In Japanese military, the number of death tolls and injured persons were 100,000 and 160,000 in Sino-Japanese War and Russo-Japanese War only.

Japanese military expenditure ratio in the national finances was an average of 40% during the 1890s and the 1929s, 27% at the minimum, and the maximum was 82% for two years of Russo-Japanese War.

 

A:戦時体制の進行。

日本の海外派兵は1874年の台湾出兵からで、1894年の日清戦争、次いで1904年の日露戦争から戦時体制が強化され、拡大の道を歩んだ。

 

少し規模感を掴んでみましょう。

陸海軍の兵員は当初数万だったが、1912年から1931年まで常時30万を要し、徴兵制度により検査合格の男性はほとんどが一度は入隊した。

日清・日露戦争役の軍人死者は10万、負傷者は16万であった。

国家財政に占める軍事費比率は、1890年代から1929年代までの平均は40%で、最小27%、最大は日露戦争の2年間の82%であった。

 

3 軍事費

< 3. Military expenditure and Government spending from Meiji era till the Great War period >

< 3. 明治から大戦期までの軍事費と全財政支出の推移、「日本経済復活の会」から >

 

Explanatory notes:   The unit of vertical axis is 1 million yen, and a logarithmic display.

A brown line: Government spending of Japan.

A blue line: Military expenditure. When the military expenditure is prominent, a blue line approaches the brown line.

Commentary: The military expenditure increased day by day, but the national economy grew up equally until the 1920s.

However, after that, while the military expenditure rapidly increased, the national economy conversely declined for several years.

 

凡例: 立軸の単位は百万円で対数表示。

茶色線: 日本の財政支出。

青色線: 軍事支出。軍事費が突出すると青色線が茶色線に近づく。

解説: 軍事費は日増しに増大したが、その間の経済も1920年代まで同様に成長した。

しかしそれ以降の経済の落ち込みと軍事費増大のギャップは国債増発と大量の紙幣増発で賄われた。

 

For 60 years until Manchurian Incident in 1931, the arms buildup and the dispatch of troops were important theme in the politics, and the military demand and the colonial economy made an important contribution to economic development.

People became closely acquainted with Wars and military gradually, and top success in life of boys was military man.

On the other hand, Japanese built animosity toward people of the continents that Japan invaded due to occurrence of casualties of own citizens and soldiers.

 

 

1931年の満州事変までの60年間に、政治では軍備増強と派兵が重要で、経済では軍需と殖民地産業が繁栄に繋がった。

戦争と軍隊は徐々に国民にとって身近なものとなり、男の子の出世は軍人が一番だった。

一方、進出した大陸での自国民や兵士の殺傷は、異国への敵意を高めていくことになった。

 

4 中村震太郎事件

< 4. At three months before Manchurian Incident, three Japanese soldiers were shot to death by a local armed faction >

< 4. 中村大尉事件:満州事変の3ヶ月前に軍用調査の3人が満州軍閥に銃殺され死体は遺棄された >

 

While anti-Japan sentiment had raged, even if the casualties of several people occurred with the invasion of our military, Japanese national was enraged and appealed for the revenge.

Every belligerent country feels strong anger with being slaughtered even more than the number of the casualties, and a chain of revenge starts, and the war expands.

Thus, people strongly attend to the safety of own relatives and the victory or defeat of battlefronts, and come to pay attention to the news.

It may be said that this situation is universal human principles, and this already had occurred for several decades in Japan.

 

This continues next time.

 

大陸で反日が燃えさかり、軍の侵攻に伴って数人の被害が発生しても、国民は激昂し復讐を訴えるようになる。

どこの交戦国も、死者の数もさることながら虐殺されたことに強い憤りを感じ復讐の連鎖が始まり、戦争は拡大する。

こうして国民は戦地の身内の安否、戦闘の勝敗が一大関心事となり、報道に注目することうなる。

この高まりは人類普遍と言えます、まして日本は既に長い年月が経っていた。

 

次回、この戦時下による社会的な変化を二つに分けて補足説明します。

 

 

 

 

 

 

Categories: culture+society, history+evolution, <english language, <japanese language, politics, Series: The society and the information | Tags: , , , , , , , | 2 Comments

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2 thoughts on “The society and the information 57: News media has fought 14

  1. I just pray for Peace across the world. I also wish we had not dropped atom bombs on innocent citizens but Pearl Harbor is what set the situation. Other times, I just wish we minded our own business and took care of our hungry children and disabled citizens. Take care, Robin

    • Thank you for commenting. I think so, too. I am writing this articles along with wishing that Japan will not begin to war again. Take care, aquacompass.

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